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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack Aug 2018

Voices For Food: Methodologies For Implementing A Multi-State Community-Based Intervention In Rural, High Poverty Communities., Suzanne Stluka, Lindsay Moore, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Becky Henne, Donna Mehrle, Daniel Remley, Lacey Mccormack

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Rural communities experience unique barriers to food access when compared to urban areas and food security is a public health issue in rural, high poverty communities. A multi-leveled socio-ecological intervention to develop food policy councils (FPCs), and improve food security in rural communities was created. Methods to carry out such an intervention were developed and are described.
METHODS: A longitudinal, matched treatment and comparison study was conducted in 24 rural, high poverty counties in South Dakota, Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska and Ohio. Counties were assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or comparison (n = 12) group. Intervention activities focus on ...


Incidence Of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients Treated With Piperacillin-Tazobactam Or Meropenem In Combination With Vancomycin, Wilbur Cliff Rutter, David S. Burgess Jul 2018

Incidence Of Acute Kidney Injury Among Patients Treated With Piperacillin-Tazobactam Or Meropenem In Combination With Vancomycin, Wilbur Cliff Rutter, David S. Burgess

Pharmacy Practice and Science Faculty Publications

Acute kidney injury (AKI) increases during empirical antimicrobial therapy with the combination of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) and vancomycin (VAN) compared to the number of incidences with monotherapy or the combination of cefepime and VAN. Limited data regarding the impact of meropenem (MEM) combined with VAN exist. This study examined the AKI incidence among patients treated with MEM plus VAN (MEM+VAN) or TZP+VAN. Data were collected from the University of Kentucky Center for Clinical and Translational Science Enterprise Data Trust from September 2007 through October 2015. Adults without previous renal disease who received MEM+VAN or TZP+VAN for at ...


Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo Jun 2018

Direct Cell-To-Cell Transmission Of Respiratory Viruses: The Fast Lanes, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Roberto Cattaneo

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Virus particles protect genomes from hostile environments within and outside the host, eventually delivering these genomes to target tissues to initiate infection. Complex processes requiring significant energy and time are necessary to assemble these virus particles, but only a small portion of released virus will successfully infect new target cells (Fig 1A). While the science of virology has developed based on the isolation and purification of viral particles, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cell-to-cell transmission of viruses and/or viral components is also highly relevant [1,2].

Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages. The first is ...


Age Adjusted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index Predicts Survival In A T-Cell Depleted Cohort, Hayder Saeed, Swati Yalamanchi, Meng Liu, Emily Van Meter, Zartash Gul, Gregory Monohan, Dianna Howard, Gerhard C. Hildebrandt, Roger Herzig Jun 2018

Age Adjusted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Comorbidity Index Predicts Survival In A T-Cell Depleted Cohort, Hayder Saeed, Swati Yalamanchi, Meng Liu, Emily Van Meter, Zartash Gul, Gregory Monohan, Dianna Howard, Gerhard C. Hildebrandt, Roger Herzig

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Objectives: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) continues to evolve with the treatment in higher risk patient population. This practice mandates stringent update and validation of risk stratification prior to undergoing such a complex and potentially fatal procedure. We examined the adoption of the new comorbidity index (HCT-CI/Age) proposed by the Seattle group after the addition of age variable and compared it to the pre-transplant assessment of mortality (PAM) that already incorporates age as part of its evaluation criteria.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of adult patients who underwent HCT at our institution from January 2010 through August 2014 was ...


In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian May 2018

In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define ...


Analysis Of The Immunological Biomarker Profile During Acute Zika Virus Infection Reveals The Overexpression Of Cxcl10, A Chemokine Linked To Neuronal Damage., Felipe Gomes Naveca, Gemilson Soares Pontes, Aileen Yu-Hen Chang, George Allan Villarouco Da Silva, Valdinete Alves Do Nascimento, Dana Cristina Da Silva Monteiro, +Several Additional Authors May 2018

Analysis Of The Immunological Biomarker Profile During Acute Zika Virus Infection Reveals The Overexpression Of Cxcl10, A Chemokine Linked To Neuronal Damage., Felipe Gomes Naveca, Gemilson Soares Pontes, Aileen Yu-Hen Chang, George Allan Villarouco Da Silva, Valdinete Alves Do Nascimento, Dana Cristina Da Silva Monteiro, +Several Additional Authors

Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) manifests in a broad spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe neurological complications and little is known about Zika immunopathogenesis.

OBJECTIVES: To define the immunologic biomarkers that correlate with acute ZIKV infection.

METHODS: We characterized the levels of circulating cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in 54 infected patients of both genders at five different time points after symptom onset using microbeads multiplex immunoassay; comparison to 100 age-matched controls was performed for statistical analysis and data mining.

FINDINGS: ZIKV-infected patients present a striking systemic inflammatory response with high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Despite ...


Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis Of Circulating Odd-Numbered Chain Saturated Fatty Acids: Results From The Charge Consortium, Marcia C. De Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Qi Sun, Irena B. King, Jason H. Y. Wu, Ani Manichaikul, Stephen S. Rich, Michael Y. Tsai, Y. D. Chen, Myriam Fornage, Guan Weihua, Stella Aslibekyan, Marguerite R. Irvin, Edmond K. Kabagambe, Donna K. Arnett, Majken K. Jensen, Barbara Mcknight, Bruce M. Psaty, Lyn M. Steffen, Caren E. Smith, Ulf Risérus, Lars Lind, Frank B. Hu, Eric B. Rimm, David S. Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian May 2018

Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis Of Circulating Odd-Numbered Chain Saturated Fatty Acids: Results From The Charge Consortium, Marcia C. De Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Qi Sun, Irena B. King, Jason H. Y. Wu, Ani Manichaikul, Stephen S. Rich, Michael Y. Tsai, Y. D. Chen, Myriam Fornage, Guan Weihua, Stella Aslibekyan, Marguerite R. Irvin, Edmond K. Kabagambe, Donna K. Arnett, Majken K. Jensen, Barbara Mcknight, Bruce M. Psaty, Lyn M. Steffen, Caren E. Smith, Ulf Risérus, Lars Lind, Frank B. Hu, Eric B. Rimm, David S. Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background

Odd-numbered chain saturated fatty acids (OCSFA) have been associated with potential health benefits. Although some OCSFA (e.g., C15:0 and C17:0) are found in meats and dairy products, sources and metabolism of C19:0 and C23:0 are relatively unknown, and the influence of non-dietary determinants, including genetic factors, on circulating levels of OCSFA is not established.

Objective

To elucidate the biological processes that influence circulating levels of OCSFA by investigating associations between genetic variation and OCSFA.

Design

We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of C15:0, C17:0 ...


Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu May 2018

Tat Controls Transcriptional Persistence Of Unintegrated Hiv Genome In Primary Human Macrophages., Beatrix Meltzer, Deemah Dabbagh, Jia Guo, Fatah Kashanchi, Mudit Tyagi, Yuntao Wu

Medicine Faculty Publications

In HIV infected macrophages, a large population of viral genomes persists as the unintegrated form (uDNA) that is transcriptionally active. However, how this transcriptional activity is controlled remains unclear. In this report, we investigated whether Tat, the viral transactivator of transcription, is involved in uDNA transcription. We demonstrate that de novo Tat activity is generated from uDNA, and this uDNA-derived Tat (uTat) transactivates the uDNA LTR. In addition, uTat is required for the transcriptional persistence of uDNA that is assembled into repressive episomal minichromatin. In the absence of uTat, uDNA minichromatin is gradually silenced, but remains highly inducible by HDAC ...


Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu Apr 2018

Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Cancer patients experience a four-fold increase in thrombosis risk, indicating that cancer development and progression are associated with platelet activation. Xenograft experiments and transgenic mouse models further demonstrate that platelet activation and platelet-cancer cell interaction are crucial for cancer metastasis. Direct or indirect interaction of platelets induces cancer cell plasticity and enhances survival and extravasation of circulating cancer cells during dissemination. In vivo and in vitro experiments also demonstrate that cancer cells induce platelet aggregation, suggesting that platelet-cancer interaction is bidirectional. Therefore, understanding how platelets crosstalk with cancer cells may identify potential strategies to inhibit cancer metastasis and to reduce ...


Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


A Systematic Review Of Consumer Preference For E-Cigarette Attributes: Flavor, Nicotine Strength, And Type, Samane Zare, Mehdi Nemati, Yuqing Zheng Mar 2018

A Systematic Review Of Consumer Preference For E-Cigarette Attributes: Flavor, Nicotine Strength, And Type, Samane Zare, Mehdi Nemati, Yuqing Zheng

Agricultural Economics Faculty Publications

Objective

Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type.

Method

A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type.

Results

66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors ...


Morphogenetic Defects Underlie Superior Coloboma, A Newly Identified Closure Disorder Of The Dorsal Eye, Jennifer C. Hocking, Jakub K. Famulski, Kevin H. Yoon, Sonya A. Widen, Cassidy S. Bernstein, Sophie Koch, Omri Weiss, Forge Canada Consortium, Canada, Seema Agarwala, Adi Inbal, Ordan J. Lehmann, Andrew J. Waskiewicz Mar 2018

Morphogenetic Defects Underlie Superior Coloboma, A Newly Identified Closure Disorder Of The Dorsal Eye, Jennifer C. Hocking, Jakub K. Famulski, Kevin H. Yoon, Sonya A. Widen, Cassidy S. Bernstein, Sophie Koch, Omri Weiss, Forge Canada Consortium, Canada, Seema Agarwala, Adi Inbal, Ordan J. Lehmann, Andrew J. Waskiewicz

Biology Faculty Publications

The eye primordium arises as a lateral outgrowth of the forebrain, with a transient fissure on the inferior side of the optic cup providing an entry point for developing blood vessels. Incomplete closure of the inferior ocular fissure results in coloboma, a disease characterized by gaps in the inferior eye and recognized as a significant cause of pediatric blindness. Here, we identify eight patients with defects in tissues of the superior eye, a congenital disorder that we term superior coloboma. The embryonic origin of superior coloboma could not be explained by conventional models of eye development, leading us to reanalyze ...


Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu Jan 2018

Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc-finger-containing protein that plays a critical role in diverse cellular physiology. While most of these functions attribute to its role as a transcription factor, it is postulated that Klf4 may play a role other than transcriptional regulation. Here we demonstrate that Klf4 loss in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to increased neurogenesis and reduced self-renewal in mice. In addition, Klf4 interacts with RNA-binding protein Staufen1 (Stau1) and RNA helicase Ddx5/17. They function together as a complex to maintain NPC self-renewal. We report that Klf4 promotes Stau1 recruitment to the 3′-untranslated region of ...


Interpretation Of Hemes: A Human Metabolomic Serum Biomarker Of Insufficient Sleep, Paul Bisesi Jan 2018

Interpretation Of Hemes: A Human Metabolomic Serum Biomarker Of Insufficient Sleep, Paul Bisesi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Advances in computational power and molecular detection techniques allow investigators unparalleled insight into the metabolome, the collection of small-molecule metabolism products, called metabolites, found in organisms. Metabolomics, the study of such molecules, attempts to discern how various biological conditions such as disease or stress alters metabolite concentration in the body. Investigators can also leverage metabolomics to create biomarkers, tools used to monitor and diagnose biological conditions. Metabolomic biomarkers are often created using metabolites found in accessible biofluids, like blood or urine, and are usually developed to diagnose a disease. Insufficient sleep impacts over a third of Americans, and results in ...


Only The Human Brain Has The Cognitive Capacity For Jealousy, Donatella Marazziti Jan 2018

Only The Human Brain Has The Cognitive Capacity For Jealousy, Donatella Marazziti

Animal Sentience

Jealousy is exclusively a human phenomenon because nonhuman animals lack the brain structures regulating the higher processes underlying jealousy.


Type 1 Diabetes Alters Lipid Handling And Metabolism In Human Fibroblasts And Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Albert R. Jones Iv, Emily L. Coleman, Nicholas R. Husni, Jude T. Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Barbara E. Corkey Dec 2017

Type 1 Diabetes Alters Lipid Handling And Metabolism In Human Fibroblasts And Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Albert R. Jones Iv, Emily L. Coleman, Nicholas R. Husni, Jude T. Deeney, Forum Raval, Devin Steenkamp, Hans Dooms, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Barbara E. Corkey

Center for Clinical and Translational Science Faculty Publications

Triggers of the autoimmune response that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain poorly understood. A possibility is that parallel changes in both T cells and target cells provoke autoimmune attack. We previously documented greater Ca2+ transients in fibroblasts from T1D subjects than non-T1D after exposure to fatty acids (FA) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). These data indicate that metabolic and signal transduction defects present in T1D can be elicited ex vivo in isolated cells. Changes that precede T1D, including inflammation, may activate atypical responses in people that are genetically predisposed to T1D. To identify such cellular differences ...


Human Metapneumovirus Induces Formation Of Inclusion Bodies For Efficient Genome Replication And Transcription, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jean Branttie, Kerri Beth Slaughter, Rebecca Ellis Dutch Dec 2017

Human Metapneumovirus Induces Formation Of Inclusion Bodies For Efficient Genome Replication And Transcription, Nicolás P. Cifuentes-Muñoz, Jean Branttie, Kerri Beth Slaughter, Rebecca Ellis Dutch

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes significant upper and lower respiratory disease in all age groups worldwide. The virus possesses a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 13.3 kb encapsidated by multiple copies of the nucleoprotein (N), giving rise to helical nucleocapsids. In addition, copies of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large RNA polymerase (L) decorate the viral nucleocapsids. After viral attachment, endocytosis, and fusion mediated by the viral glycoproteins, HMPV nucleocapsids are released into the cell cytoplasm. To visualize the subsequent steps of genome transcription and replication, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was established to detect different viral ...


The Toxicity Of Nanoparticles Depends On Multiple Molecular And Physicochemical Mechanisms, Yue-Wern Huang, Melissa Cambre, Han-Jung Lee Dec 2017

The Toxicity Of Nanoparticles Depends On Multiple Molecular And Physicochemical Mechanisms, Yue-Wern Huang, Melissa Cambre, Han-Jung Lee

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic biological principles. In this review, we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and ...


A Customized Quantitative Pcr Microrna Panel Provides A Technically Robust Context For Studying Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarkers And Indicates A High Correlation Between Cerebrospinal Fluid And Choroid Plexus Microrna Expression, Wang-Xia Wang, David W. Fardo, Gregory A. Jicha, Peter T. Nelson Dec 2017

A Customized Quantitative Pcr Microrna Panel Provides A Technically Robust Context For Studying Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarkers And Indicates A High Correlation Between Cerebrospinal Fluid And Choroid Plexus Microrna Expression, Wang-Xia Wang, David W. Fardo, Gregory A. Jicha, Peter T. Nelson

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

MicroRNA (miRNA) expression varies in association with different tissue types and in diseases. Having been found in body fluids including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), miRNAs constitute potential biomarkers. CSF miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is a lack of consensus about the best candidate miRNA biomarkers and there has been variability in results from different research centers, perhaps due to technical factors. Here, we sought to optimize technical parameters for CSF miRNA studies. We examined different RNA isolation methods and performed miRNA expression profiling with TaqMan® miRNA Arrays. More specifically, we developed a customized ...


Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields Dec 2017

Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Development of approaches to genetically manipulate Chlamydia is fostering important advances in understanding pathogenesis. Fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) now enables the complete deletion of specific genes in C. trachomatis L2. We have leveraged this technology to delete the coding sequences for a known type III effector. The evidence provided here indicates that CT694/CTL0063 is a virulence protein involved in chlamydial invasion. Based on our findings, we designate the gene product corresponding to ct694-ctl0063 translocated membrane-associated effector A (TmeA). Deletion of tmeA did not impact development of intracellular chlamydiae. However, the absence of TmeA manifested as a decrease in ...


Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe Nov 2017

Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

BACKGROUND: While age and the APOE ε4 allele are major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a small percentage of individuals with these risk factors exhibit AD resilience by living well beyond 75 years of age without any clinical symptoms of cognitive decline.

METHODS: We used over 200 "AD resilient" individuals and an innovative, pedigree-based approach to identify genetic variants that segregate with AD resilience. First, we performed linkage analyses in pedigrees with resilient individuals and a statistical excess of AD deaths. Second, we used whole genome sequences to identify candidate SNPs in significant linkage regions. Third, we replicated ...


Cardiovascular Health Is Associated With Physical Function Among Older Community Dwelling Men And Women., Yichen Jin, Toshiko Tanaka, Yan Ma, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Sameera A Talegawkar Nov 2017

Cardiovascular Health Is Associated With Physical Function Among Older Community Dwelling Men And Women., Yichen Jin, Toshiko Tanaka, Yan Ma, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Sameera A Talegawkar

Exercise and Nutrition Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Age related decline in physical function is a significant concern affecting the quality of life of older individuals.

Methods

We examined the associations between baseline overall cardiovascular health (CVH), its components, and physical function in 906 men and women from the InCHIANTI cohort. Physical function was assessed using the Short Performance Physical Battery and poor physical function was defined as an Short Performance Physical Battery score less than 10. Overall CVH score, ranging from 0 to 12 in the cohort, was operationalized using adherence to ideal levels for health behaviors including smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, and ...


Precision Newborn Screening For Lysosomal Disorders, Melissa M. Minter Baerg, Stephanie D. Stoway, Jeremy Hart, Lea Mott, Dawn S. Peck, Stephanie L. Nett, Jason S. Eckerman, Jean M. Lacey, Coleman T. Turgeon, Dimitar Gavrilov, Devin Oglesbee, Kimiyo Raymond, Silvia Tortorelli, Dietrich Matern, Lars Mørkrid, Piero Rinaldo Nov 2017

Precision Newborn Screening For Lysosomal Disorders, Melissa M. Minter Baerg, Stephanie D. Stoway, Jeremy Hart, Lea Mott, Dawn S. Peck, Stephanie L. Nett, Jason S. Eckerman, Jean M. Lacey, Coleman T. Turgeon, Dimitar Gavrilov, Devin Oglesbee, Kimiyo Raymond, Silvia Tortorelli, Dietrich Matern, Lars Mørkrid, Piero Rinaldo

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Purpose: The implementation of newborn screening for lysosomal disorders has uncovered overall poor specificity, psychosocial harm experienced by caregivers, and costly follow-up testing of false-positive cases. We report an informatics solution proven to minimize these issues.

Methods: The Kentucky Department for Public Health outsourced testing for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) and Pompe disease, conditions recently added to the recommended uniform screening panel, plus Krabbe disease, which was added by legislative mandate. A total of 55,161 specimens were collected from infants born over 1 year starting from February 2016. Testing by tandem mass spectrometry was integrated with multivariate pattern ...


Moonlighting Newborn Screening Markers: The Incidental Discovery Of A Second-Tier Test For Pompe Disease, Silvia Tortorelli, Jason S. Eckerman, Joseph J. Orsini, Colleen Stevens, Jeremy Hart, Patricia L. Hall, John J. Alexander, Dimitar Gavrilov, Devin Oglesbee, Kimiyo Raymond, Dietrich Matern, Piero Rinaldo Nov 2017

Moonlighting Newborn Screening Markers: The Incidental Discovery Of A Second-Tier Test For Pompe Disease, Silvia Tortorelli, Jason S. Eckerman, Joseph J. Orsini, Colleen Stevens, Jeremy Hart, Patricia L. Hall, John J. Alexander, Dimitar Gavrilov, Devin Oglesbee, Kimiyo Raymond, Dietrich Matern, Piero Rinaldo

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Purpose: To describe a novel biochemical marker in dried blood spots suitable to improve the specificity of newborn screening for Pompe disease.

Methods: The new marker is a ratio calculated between the creatine/creatinine (Cre/Crn) ratio as the numerator and the activity of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) as the denominator. Using Collaborative Laboratory Integrated Reports (CLIR), the new marker was incorporated in a dual scatter plot that can achieve almost complete segregation between Pompe disease and false-positive cases.

Results: The (Cre/Crn)/GAA ratio was measured in residual dried blood spots of five Pompe cases and was found to be ...


Intrinsic And Innate Defenses Of Neurons: Détente With The Herpesviruses, Lynn Enquist, David A. Leib Oct 2017

Intrinsic And Innate Defenses Of Neurons: Détente With The Herpesviruses, Lynn Enquist, David A. Leib

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Neuroinvasive herpesviruses have evolved to efficiently infect and establish latency in neurons. The nervous system has limited capability to regenerate, so immune responses therein are carefully regulated to be nondestructive, with dependence on atypical intrinsic and innate defenses. In this article we review studies of some of these noncanonical defense pathways and how herpesvirus gene products counter them, highlighting the contributions that primary neuronal in vitro models have made to our understanding of this field.


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds Oct 2017

Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has shown significant anticancer activity. Sulindac sulfide amide (1) possessing greatly reduced COX-related inhibition relative to sulindac displayed in vivoantitumor activity that was comparable to sulindac in a human colon tumorxenograft model. Inspired by these observations, a panel of diverse sulindac amide derivatives have been synthesized and their activity probed against three cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and breast). A neutral analog, compound 79 was identified with comparable potency relative to lead 1 and activity against a panel of lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Several new series also show good activity relative ...


A Meta-Analysis To Determine The Impact Of Restaurant Menu Labeling On Calories And Nutrients (Ordered Or Consumed) In U.S. Adults, Thaisa M Cantu-Jungles, Lacey A. Mccormack, James E Slaven, Maribeth Slebodnik, Heather A Eicher-Miller Sep 2017

A Meta-Analysis To Determine The Impact Of Restaurant Menu Labeling On Calories And Nutrients (Ordered Or Consumed) In U.S. Adults, Thaisa M Cantu-Jungles, Lacey A. Mccormack, James E Slaven, Maribeth Slebodnik, Heather A Eicher-Miller

Health and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling. Stratified ...


A Cationic Amphiphilic Random Copolymer With Ph-Responsive Activity Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus., Sungyoup Hong, Haruko Takahashi, Enrico T Nadres, Hamid Mortazavian, Gregory A. Caputo, John G Younger, Kenichi Kuroda Sep 2017

A Cationic Amphiphilic Random Copolymer With Ph-Responsive Activity Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus., Sungyoup Hong, Haruko Takahashi, Enrico T Nadres, Hamid Mortazavian, Gregory A. Caputo, John G Younger, Kenichi Kuroda

Gregory Caputo

In this report, we demonstrate the pH-dependent, in vitro antimicrobial activity of a cationic, amphiphilic random copolymer against clinical isolates of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The polymer was developed toward a long-term goal of potential utility in the treatment of skin infections. The proposed mechanism of action of the polymer is through selectively binding to bacterial membranes and subsequent disruption of the membrane structure/integrity, ultimately resulting in bacterial cell death. The polymer showed bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus. The polymer was effective in killing S. aureus at neutral pH, but inactive under acidic conditions ...


Mutsβ Abundance And Msh3 Atp Hydrolysis Activity Are Important Drivers Of Ctg•Cag Repeat Expansions, Norma Keogh, Kara Y. Chan, Guo-Min Li, Robert S. Lahue Sep 2017

Mutsβ Abundance And Msh3 Atp Hydrolysis Activity Are Important Drivers Of Ctg•Cag Repeat Expansions, Norma Keogh, Kara Y. Chan, Guo-Min Li, Robert S. Lahue

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

CTG•CAG repeat expansions cause at least twelve inherited neurological diseases. Expansions require the presence, not the absence, of the mismatch repair protein MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3 heterodimer). To evaluate properties of MutSβ that drive expansions, previous studies have tested under-expression, ATPase function or polymorphic variants of Msh2 and Msh3, but in disparate experimental systems. Additionally, some variants destabilize MutSβ, potentially masking the effects of biochemical alterations of the variations. Here, human Msh3 was mutated to selectively inactivate MutSβ. Msh3−/− cells are severely defective for CTG•CAG repeat expansions but show full activity on contractions. Msh3−/− cells provide a single, isogenic system ...