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Articles 1 - 30 of 1194

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Neoadjuvant Anti-Ox40 (Medi6469) Therapy In Patients With Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Activates And Expands Antigen-Specific Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells., Rebekka Duhen, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Alexandra K Frye, Eric Tran, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, Shu-Ching Chang, Yoshinobu Koguchi, Carlo Bifulco, Brady Bernard, Rom Leidner, Brendan Curti, Bernard A Fox, Walter Urba, Richard Bryan Bell, Andrew D Weinberg Feb 2021

Neoadjuvant Anti-Ox40 (Medi6469) Therapy In Patients With Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Activates And Expands Antigen-Specific Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells., Rebekka Duhen, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Alexandra K Frye, Eric Tran, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, Shu-Ching Chang, Yoshinobu Koguchi, Carlo Bifulco, Brady Bernard, Rom Leidner, Brendan Curti, Bernard A Fox, Walter Urba, Richard Bryan Bell, Andrew D Weinberg

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Despite the success of checkpoint blockade in some cancer patients, there is an unmet need to improve outcomes. Targeting alternative pathways, such as costimulatory molecules (e.g. OX40, GITR, and 4-1BB), can enhance T cell immunity in tumor-bearing hosts. Here we describe the results from a phase Ib clinical trial (NCT02274155) in which 17 patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) received a murine anti-human OX40 agonist antibody (MEDI6469) prior to definitive surgical resection. The primary endpoint was to determine safety and feasibility of the anti-OX40 neoadjuvant treatment. The secondary objective was to assess the effect ...


Disparities In Sars-Cov-2 Positivity Rates: Associations With Race And Ethnicity, Harvey W Kaufman, Justin K Niles, David B. Nash Feb 2021

Disparities In Sars-Cov-2 Positivity Rates: Associations With Race And Ethnicity, Harvey W Kaufman, Justin K Niles, David B. Nash

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

Numerous reports indicate that African Americans and Latinos are being affected disproportionately by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Positivity rates have not been analyzed on scale because only 4 states report race/ethnicity as part of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. Previous studies also have had little ability to control for many known risk factors to better identify the effects of COVID-19 on racial and ethnic communities. Using test results from a large national reference laboratory database that included patients from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, this study compared positivity rates for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid ...


Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco Jan 2021

Unique Structural Solution From A Vh3-30 Antibody Targeting The Hemagglutinin Stem Of Influenza A Viruses, Wayne D. Harshbarger, Derrick Deming, Gordon J. Lockbaum, Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Maliwan Kamkaew, Shurong Hou, Mohan Somasundaran, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Quan Karen Zhu, Celia A. Schiffer, Wayne A Marasco

Schiffer Lab Publications

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting conserved influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes can provide valuable information for accelerating universal vaccine designs. Here, we report structural details for heterosubtypic recognition of HA from circulating and emerging IAVs by the human antibody 3I14. Somatic hypermutations play a critical role in shaping the HCDR3, which alone and uniquely among VH3-30 derived antibodies, forms contacts with five sub-pockets within the HA-stem hydrophobic groove. 3I14 light-chain interactions are also key for binding HA and contribute a large buried surface area spanning two HA protomers. Comparison of 3I14 to bnAbs from several defined ...


The Circadian Cryptochrome, Cry1, Is A Pro-Tumorigenic Factor That Rhythmically Modulates Dna Repair., Ayesha A Shafi, Chris M Mcnair, Jennifer J Mccann, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Anton Shostak, Tesa M Severson, Yanyun Zhu, Andre Bergman, Nicolas Gordon, Amy C Mandigo, Saswati N Chand, Peter Gallagher, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Talya S Laufer, Irina A Vasilevskaya, Matthew J Schiewer, Michael Brunner, Felix Y Feng, Wilbert Zwart, Karen E Knudsen Jan 2021

The Circadian Cryptochrome, Cry1, Is A Pro-Tumorigenic Factor That Rhythmically Modulates Dna Repair., Ayesha A Shafi, Chris M Mcnair, Jennifer J Mccann, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Anton Shostak, Tesa M Severson, Yanyun Zhu, Andre Bergman, Nicolas Gordon, Amy C Mandigo, Saswati N Chand, Peter Gallagher, Emanuela Dylgjeri, Talya S Laufer, Irina A Vasilevskaya, Matthew J Schiewer, Michael Brunner, Felix Y Feng, Wilbert Zwart, Karen E Knudsen

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Mechanisms regulating DNA repair processes remain incompletely defined. Here, the circadian factor CRY1, an evolutionally conserved transcriptional coregulator, is identified as a tumor specific regulator of DNA repair. Key findings demonstrate that CRY1 expression is androgen-responsive and associates with poor outcome in prostate cancer. Functional studies and first-in-field mapping of the CRY1 cistrome and transcriptome reveal that CRY1 regulates DNA repair and the G2/M transition. DNA damage stabilizes CRY1 in cancer (in vitro, in vivo, and human tumors ex vivo), which proves critical for efficient DNA repair. Further mechanistic investigation shows that stabilized CRY1 temporally regulates expression of genes ...


The Gene Ontology Resource: Enriching A Gold Mine., Gene Ontology Consortium, Judith A. Blake, Mary E. Dolan, Harold J. Drabkin, David P. Hill Jan 2021

The Gene Ontology Resource: Enriching A Gold Mine., Gene Ontology Consortium, Judith A. Blake, Mary E. Dolan, Harold J. Drabkin, David P. Hill

Faculty Research 2021

The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) provides the most comprehensive resource currently available for computable knowledge regarding the functions of genes and gene products. Here, we report the advances of the consortium over the past two years. The new GO-CAM annotation framework was notably improved, and we formalized the model with a computational schema to check and validate the rapidly increasing repository of 2838 GO-CAMs. In addition, we describe the impacts of several collaborations to refine GO and report a 10% increase in the number of GO annotations, a 25% increase in annotated gene products, and over 9,400 new scientific ...


Mouse Genome Database (Mgd): Knowledgebase For Mouse-Human Comparative Biology., Judith A. Blake, Richard M. Baldarelli, James A. Kadin, Joel E Richardson, Cynthia Smith, Carol J Bult, Mouse Genome Database Group Jan 2021

Mouse Genome Database (Mgd): Knowledgebase For Mouse-Human Comparative Biology., Judith A. Blake, Richard M. Baldarelli, James A. Kadin, Joel E Richardson, Cynthia Smith, Carol J Bult, Mouse Genome Database Group

Faculty Research 2021

The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism knowledgebase for the laboratory mouse, a widely used animal model for comparative studies of the genetic and genomic basis for human health and disease. MGD is the authoritative source for biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and mouse models of human disease. MGD is the primary source for official gene, allele, and mouse strain nomenclature based on the guidelines set by the International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice. MGD's biocuration scientists curate information from the biomedical literature and from ...


Molecular Estimation Of Neurodegeneration Pseudotime In Older Brains., Sumit Mukherjee, Laura Heath, Christoph Preuss, Suman Jayadev, Gwenn A Garden, Anna K Greenwood, Solveig K Sieberts, Philip L De Jager, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Gregory W. Carter, Lara M Mangravite, Benjamin A Logsdon Nov 2020

Molecular Estimation Of Neurodegeneration Pseudotime In Older Brains., Sumit Mukherjee, Laura Heath, Christoph Preuss, Suman Jayadev, Gwenn A Garden, Anna K Greenwood, Solveig K Sieberts, Philip L De Jager, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Gregory W. Carter, Lara M Mangravite, Benjamin A Logsdon

Faculty Research 2020

The temporal molecular changes that lead to disease onset and progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still unknown. Here we develop a temporal model for these unobserved molecular changes with a manifold learning method applied to RNA-Seq data collected from human postmortem brain samples collected within the ROS/MAP and Mayo Clinic RNA-Seq studies. We define an ordering across samples based on their similarity in gene expression and use this ordering to estimate the molecular disease stage-or disease pseudotime-for each sample. Disease pseudotime is strongly concordant with the burden of tau (Braak score, P = 1.0 × 10-5), Aβ (CERAD ...


Health And Disease Markers Correlate With Gut Microbiome Composition Across Thousands Of People., Ohad Manor, Chengzhen L Dai, Sergey A Kornilov, Brett Smith, Nathan D Price, Jennifer C Lovejoy, Sean M Gibbons, Andrew T Magis Oct 2020

Health And Disease Markers Correlate With Gut Microbiome Composition Across Thousands Of People., Ohad Manor, Chengzhen L Dai, Sergey A Kornilov, Brett Smith, Nathan D Price, Jennifer C Lovejoy, Sean M Gibbons, Andrew T Magis

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Variation in the human gut microbiome can reflect host lifestyle and behaviors and influence disease biomarker levels in the blood. Understanding the relationships between gut microbes and host phenotypes are critical for understanding wellness and disease. Here, we examine associations between the gut microbiota and ~150 host phenotypic features across ~3,400 individuals. We identify major axes of taxonomic variance in the gut and a putative diversity maximum along the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes axis. Our analyses reveal both known and unknown associations between microbiome composition and host clinical markers and lifestyle factors, including host-microbe associations that are composition-specific. These results suggest potential ...


Genetic Variant Effects On Gene Expression In Human Pancreatic Islets And Their Implications For T2d., Ana Viñuela, Arushi Varshney, Martijn Van De Bunt, Rashmi B Prasad, Olof Asplund, Amanda Bennett, Michael Boehnke, Andrew A Brown, Michael R Erdos, João Fadista, Ola Hansson, Gad Hatem, Cédric Howald, Apoorva K Iyengar, Paul Johnson, Ulrika Krus, Patrick E Macdonald, Anubha Mahajan, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Narisu Narisu, Vibe Nylander, Peter Orchard, Nikolay Oskolkov, Nikolaos I Panousis, Anthony Payne, Michael L. Stitzel, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Ryan Welch, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Anna L Gloyn, Laura J Scott, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Leif Groop, Stephen C J Parker, Mark I Mccarthy Sep 2020

Genetic Variant Effects On Gene Expression In Human Pancreatic Islets And Their Implications For T2d., Ana Viñuela, Arushi Varshney, Martijn Van De Bunt, Rashmi B Prasad, Olof Asplund, Amanda Bennett, Michael Boehnke, Andrew A Brown, Michael R Erdos, João Fadista, Ola Hansson, Gad Hatem, Cédric Howald, Apoorva K Iyengar, Paul Johnson, Ulrika Krus, Patrick E Macdonald, Anubha Mahajan, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Narisu Narisu, Vibe Nylander, Peter Orchard, Nikolay Oskolkov, Nikolaos I Panousis, Anthony Payne, Michael L. Stitzel, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Ryan Welch, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Anna L Gloyn, Laura J Scott, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Leif Groop, Stephen C J Parker, Mark I Mccarthy

Faculty Research 2020

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in ...


Raman-Guided Subcellular Pharmaco-Metabolomics For Metastatic Melanoma Cells., Jiajun Du, Yapeng Su, Chenxi Qian, Dan Yuan, Kun Miao, Dongkwan Lee, Alphonsus H C Ng, Reto S Wijker, Antoni Ribas, Raphael D Levine, James R Heath, Lu Wei Sep 2020

Raman-Guided Subcellular Pharmaco-Metabolomics For Metastatic Melanoma Cells., Jiajun Du, Yapeng Su, Chenxi Qian, Dan Yuan, Kun Miao, Dongkwan Lee, Alphonsus H C Ng, Reto S Wijker, Antoni Ribas, Raphael D Levine, James R Heath, Lu Wei

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Non-invasively probing metabolites within single live cells is highly desired but challenging. Here we utilize Raman spectro-microscopy for spatial mapping of metabolites within single cells, with the specific goal of identifying druggable metabolic susceptibilities from a series of patient-derived melanoma cell lines. Each cell line represents a different characteristic level of cancer cell de-differentiation. First, with Raman spectroscopy, followed by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy and transcriptomics analysis, we identify the fatty acid synthesis pathway as a druggable susceptibility for differentiated melanocytic cells. We then utilize hyperspectral-SRS imaging of intracellular lipid droplets to identify a previously unknown susceptibility of lipid ...


Prognostic Gene Expression Signature For High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer., J Millstein, T Budden, E L Goode, M S Anglesio, A Talhouk, M P Intermaggio, H S Leong, S Chen, W Elatre, B Gilks, T Nazeran, M Volchek, R C Bentley, C Wang, D S Chiu, S Kommoss, S C Y Leung, J Senz, A Lum, V Chow, H Sudderuddin, R Mackenzie, Joshy George, Aocs Group, S Fereday, J Hendley, N Traficante, H Steed, J M Koziak, M Köbel, I A Mcneish, T Goranova, D Ennis, G Macintyre, D Silva De Silva, T Ramón Y Cajal, J García-Donas, S Hernando Polo, G C Rodriguez, K L Cushing-Haugen, H R Harris, C S Greene, R A Zelaya, S Behrens, R T Fortner, P Sinn, E Herpel, J Lester, J Lubiński, O Oszurek, A Tołoczko, C Cybulski, J Menkiszak, C L Pearce, M C Pike, C Tseng, J Alsop, V Rhenius, H Song, M Jimenez-Linan, A M Piskorz, A Gentry-Maharaj, C Karpinskyj, M Widschwendter, N Singh, C J Kennedy, R Sharma, P R Harnett, B Gao, S E Johnatty, R Sayer, J Boros, S J Winham, G L Keeney, S H Kaufmann, M C Larson, H Luk, B Y Hernandez, P J Thompson, L R Wilkens, M E Carney, B Trabert, J Lissowska, L Brinton, M E Sherman, C Bodelon, S Hinsley, L A Lewsley, R Glasspool, S N Banerjee, E A Stronach, P Haluska, I Ray-Coquard, S Mahner, B Winterhoff, D Slamon, D A Levine, L E Kelemen, J Benitez, J Chang-Claude, J Gronwald, A H Wu, U Menon, M T Goodman, J M Schildkraut, N Wentzensen, R Brown, A Berchuck, G Chenevix-Trench, A Defazio, S A Gayther, M J García, M J Henderson, M A Rossing, A Beeghly-Fadiel, P A Fasching, S Orsulic, B Y Karlan, G E Konecny, D G Huntsman, D D Bowtell, J D Brenton, J A Doherty, P D P Pharoah, S J Ramus Sep 2020

Prognostic Gene Expression Signature For High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer., J Millstein, T Budden, E L Goode, M S Anglesio, A Talhouk, M P Intermaggio, H S Leong, S Chen, W Elatre, B Gilks, T Nazeran, M Volchek, R C Bentley, C Wang, D S Chiu, S Kommoss, S C Y Leung, J Senz, A Lum, V Chow, H Sudderuddin, R Mackenzie, Joshy George, Aocs Group, S Fereday, J Hendley, N Traficante, H Steed, J M Koziak, M Köbel, I A Mcneish, T Goranova, D Ennis, G Macintyre, D Silva De Silva, T Ramón Y Cajal, J García-Donas, S Hernando Polo, G C Rodriguez, K L Cushing-Haugen, H R Harris, C S Greene, R A Zelaya, S Behrens, R T Fortner, P Sinn, E Herpel, J Lester, J Lubiński, O Oszurek, A Tołoczko, C Cybulski, J Menkiszak, C L Pearce, M C Pike, C Tseng, J Alsop, V Rhenius, H Song, M Jimenez-Linan, A M Piskorz, A Gentry-Maharaj, C Karpinskyj, M Widschwendter, N Singh, C J Kennedy, R Sharma, P R Harnett, B Gao, S E Johnatty, R Sayer, J Boros, S J Winham, G L Keeney, S H Kaufmann, M C Larson, H Luk, B Y Hernandez, P J Thompson, L R Wilkens, M E Carney, B Trabert, J Lissowska, L Brinton, M E Sherman, C Bodelon, S Hinsley, L A Lewsley, R Glasspool, S N Banerjee, E A Stronach, P Haluska, I Ray-Coquard, S Mahner, B Winterhoff, D Slamon, D A Levine, L E Kelemen, J Benitez, J Chang-Claude, J Gronwald, A H Wu, U Menon, M T Goodman, J M Schildkraut, N Wentzensen, R Brown, A Berchuck, G Chenevix-Trench, A Defazio, S A Gayther, M J García, M J Henderson, M A Rossing, A Beeghly-Fadiel, P A Fasching, S Orsulic, B Y Karlan, G E Konecny, D G Huntsman, D D Bowtell, J D Brenton, J A Doherty, P D P Pharoah, S J Ramus

Faculty Research 2020

BACKGROUND: Median overall survival (OS) for women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is ∼4 years, yet survival varies widely between patients. There are no well-established, gene expression signatures associated with prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop a robust prognostic signature for OS in patients with HGSOC.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of 513 genes, selected from a meta-analysis of 1455 tumours and other candidates, was measured using NanoString technology from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue collected from 3769 women with HGSOC from multiple studies. Elastic net regularization for survival analysis was applied to develop a prognostic model for ...


Dual Roles Of Neutrophils In Metastatic Colonization Are Governed By The Host Nk Cell Status., Peishan Li, Mingyang Lu, Jiayuan Shi, Li Hua, Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Leonard D. Shultz, Guangwen Ren Sep 2020

Dual Roles Of Neutrophils In Metastatic Colonization Are Governed By The Host Nk Cell Status., Peishan Li, Mingyang Lu, Jiayuan Shi, Li Hua, Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Leonard D. Shultz, Guangwen Ren

Faculty Research 2020

The role of neutrophils in solid tumor metastasis remains largely controversial. In preclinical models of solid tumors, both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic effects of neutrophils have been reported. In this study, using mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the metastasis-modulating effects of neutrophils are dictated by the status of host natural killer (NK) cells. In NK cell-deficient mice, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-expanded neutrophils show an inhibitory effect on the metastatic colonization of breast tumor cells in the lung. In contrast, in NK cell-competent mice, neutrophils facilitate metastatic colonization in the same tumor models. In an ex vivo neutrophil-NK cell-tumor cell ...


Near Simultaneous Laser Scanning Confocal And Atomic Force Microscopy (Conpokal) On Live Cells, Joree N. Sandin, Surya P. Aryal, Thomas E. Wilkop, Christopher I. Richards, Martha E. Grady Aug 2020

Near Simultaneous Laser Scanning Confocal And Atomic Force Microscopy (Conpokal) On Live Cells, Joree N. Sandin, Surya P. Aryal, Thomas E. Wilkop, Christopher I. Richards, Martha E. Grady

Physiology Faculty Publications

Techniques available for micro- and nano-scale mechanical characterization have exploded in the last few decades. From further development of the scanning and transmission electron microscope, to the invention of atomic force microscopy, and advances in fluorescent imaging, there have been substantial gains in technologies that enable the study of small materials. Conpokal is a portmanteau that combines confocal microscopy with atomic force microscopy (AFM), where a probe "pokes" the surface. Although each technique is extremely effective for the qualitative and/or quantitative image collection on their own, Conpokal provides the capability to test with blended fluorescence imaging and mechanical characterization ...


Inter-Strain Epigenomic Profiling Reveals A Candidate Iap Master Copy In C3h Mice., Rita Rebollo, Mariana Galvão-Ferrarini, Liane Gagnier, Ying Zhang, Ardian Ferraj, Christine R Beck, Matthew C Lorincz, Dixie L Mager Jul 2020

Inter-Strain Epigenomic Profiling Reveals A Candidate Iap Master Copy In C3h Mice., Rita Rebollo, Mariana Galvão-Ferrarini, Liane Gagnier, Ying Zhang, Ardian Ferraj, Christine R Beck, Matthew C Lorincz, Dixie L Mager

Faculty Research 2020

Insertions of endogenous retroviruses cause a significant fraction of mutations in inbred mice but not all strains are equally susceptible. Notably, most new Intracisternal A particle (IAP) ERV mutagenic insertions have occurred in C3H mice. We show here that strain-specific insertional polymorphic IAPs accumulate faster in C3H/HeJ mice, relative to other sequenced strains, and that IAP transcript levels are higher in C3H/HeJ embryonic stem (ES) cells compared to other ES cells. To investigate the mechanism for high IAP activity in C3H mice, we identified 61 IAP copies in C3H/HeJ ES cells enriched with H3K4me3 (a mark of ...


Covid-19 Preclinical Models: Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Transgenic Mice., Cathleen Lutz, Leigh Maher, Charles Lee, Wonyoung Kang Jun 2020

Covid-19 Preclinical Models: Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Transgenic Mice., Cathleen Lutz, Leigh Maher, Charles Lee, Wonyoung Kang

Faculty Research 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared pandemic that is spreading all over the world at a dreadfully fast rate. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, infects the human body using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor identical to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic that occurred in 2002-2003. SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. Animal models that mimic the human disease are highly essential to develop therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we review transgenic mice that express human ACE2 in the airway and ...


Selective Autophagy Maintains The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Levels In Hela Cells: A Mechanism That Is Dependent On The P23 Co-Chaperone, Yujie Yang, William K. Chan May 2020

Selective Autophagy Maintains The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Levels In Hela Cells: A Mechanism That Is Dependent On The P23 Co-Chaperone, Yujie Yang, William K. Chan

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is an environmental sensing molecule which impacts diverse cellular functions such as immune responses, cell growth, respiratory function, and hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. It is widely accepted that the degradation of AHR by 26S proteasome occurs after ligand activation. Recently, we discovered that HeLa cells can modulate the AHR levels via protein degradation without exogenous treatment of a ligand, and this degradation is particularly apparent when the p23 content is down-regulated. Inhibition of autophagy by a chemical agent (such as chloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or 3-methyladenine) increases the AHR protein levels in HeLa cells whereas activation ...


Can Unconventional Immunomodulatory Agents Help Alleviate Covid-19 Symptoms And Severity?, Stephen W. Mamber, Steven Krakowka, Jeffrey L. Osborn, Lloyd Saberski, Ryan G. Rhodes, Albert E. Dahlberg, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Kara Fitzgerald, Neal Wright, Sarah Beseme, John Mcmichael May 2020

Can Unconventional Immunomodulatory Agents Help Alleviate Covid-19 Symptoms And Severity?, Stephen W. Mamber, Steven Krakowka, Jeffrey L. Osborn, Lloyd Saberski, Ryan G. Rhodes, Albert E. Dahlberg, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Kara Fitzgerald, Neal Wright, Sarah Beseme, John Mcmichael

Biology Faculty Publications

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the respiratory infection known as COVID-19. From an immunopathological standpoint, coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 induce increased levels of a variety of T-helper 1 (Th1) and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, CCL2 protein, and CXCL10 protein. In the absence of proven antiviral agents or an effective vaccine, substances with immunomodulatory activity may be able to inhibit inflammatory and Th1 cytokines and/or yield an anti-inflammatory and/or Th2 immune response to counteract COVID-19 symptoms and severity. This report briefly describes the following four ...


Multi-Omic Single-Cell Snapshots Reveal Multiple Independent Trajectories To Drug Tolerance In A Melanoma Cell Line., Yapeng Su, Melissa E Ko, Hanjun Cheng, Ronghui Zhu, Min Xue, Jessica Wang, Jihoon W Lee, Luke Frankiw, Alexander Xu, Stephanie Wong, Lidia Robert, Kaitlyn Takata, Dan Yuan, Yue Lu, Sui Huang, Antoni Ribas, Raphael Levine, Garry P Nolan, Wei Wei, Sylvia K Plevritis, Guideng Li, David Baltimore, James R Heath May 2020

Multi-Omic Single-Cell Snapshots Reveal Multiple Independent Trajectories To Drug Tolerance In A Melanoma Cell Line., Yapeng Su, Melissa E Ko, Hanjun Cheng, Ronghui Zhu, Min Xue, Jessica Wang, Jihoon W Lee, Luke Frankiw, Alexander Xu, Stephanie Wong, Lidia Robert, Kaitlyn Takata, Dan Yuan, Yue Lu, Sui Huang, Antoni Ribas, Raphael Levine, Garry P Nolan, Wei Wei, Sylvia K Plevritis, Guideng Li, David Baltimore, James R Heath

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

The determination of individual cell trajectories through a high-dimensional cell-state space is an outstanding challenge for understanding biological changes ranging from cellular differentiation to epigenetic responses of diseased cells upon drugging. We integrate experiments and theory to determine the trajectories that single BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cancer cells take between drug-naive and drug-tolerant states. Although single-cell omics tools can yield snapshots of the cell-state landscape, the determination of individual cell trajectories through that space can be confounded by stochastic cell-state switching. We assayed for a panel of signaling, phenotypic, and metabolic regulators at points across 5 days of drug treatment to ...


Ten Simple Rules For Providing Effective Bioinformatics Research Support., Judit Kumuthini, Michael Chimenti, Sven Nahnsen, Alexander Peltzer, Rebone Meraba, Ross Mcfadyen, Gordon Wells, Deanne Taylor, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Jian-Liang Li, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Radha Murthy-Karuturi, Lyndon Zass Mar 2020

Ten Simple Rules For Providing Effective Bioinformatics Research Support., Judit Kumuthini, Michael Chimenti, Sven Nahnsen, Alexander Peltzer, Rebone Meraba, Ross Mcfadyen, Gordon Wells, Deanne Taylor, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Jian-Liang Li, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Radha Murthy-Karuturi, Lyndon Zass

Faculty Research 2020

Life scientists are increasingly turning to high-throughput sequencing technologies in their research programs, owing to the enormous potential of these methods. In a parallel manner, the number of core facilities that provide bioinformatics support are also increasing. Notably, the generation of complex large datasets has necessitated the development of bioinformatics support core facilities that aid laboratory scientists with cost-effective and efficient data management, analysis, and interpretation. In this article, we address the challenges-related to communication, good laboratory practice, and data handling-that may be encountered in core support facilities when providing bioinformatics support, drawing on our own experiences working as support ...


Bone Marrow Concentrate (Bmc) Therapy In Musculoskeletal Disorders: Evidence-Based Policy Position Statement Of American Society Of Interventional Pain Physicians (Asipp), Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Christopher J. Centeno, Sairam Atluri, Sheri L. Albers, Shane Shapiro, Gerard A. Malanga, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Mairin Jerome, Joshua A. Hirsch, Alan D. Kaye, Steve M. Aydin, Douglas Beall, Don Buford, Joanne Borg-Stein, Ricardo M. Buenaventura, Joseph A. Cabaret, Aaron K. Calodney, Kenneth D. Candido, Cameron Cartier, Richard Latchaw, Sudhir Diwan, Ehren Dodson, Zachary Fausel, Michael Fredericson, Christopher G. Gharibo, Mayank Gupta, Adam M. Kaye, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Radomir Kosanovic, Matthew Lucas, Maanasa V. Manchikanti, R. Amadeus Mason, Kenneth Mautner, Samuel Murala, Annu Navani, Vidyasagar Pampati, Sarah Pastoriza, Ramarao Pasupuleti, Cyril Philip, Mahendra R Sanapati, Theodore Sand, Rinoo V Shah, Amol Soin, Ian Stemper, Bradley W Wargo, Philippe Hernigou Mar 2020

Bone Marrow Concentrate (Bmc) Therapy In Musculoskeletal Disorders: Evidence-Based Policy Position Statement Of American Society Of Interventional Pain Physicians (Asipp), Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Christopher J. Centeno, Sairam Atluri, Sheri L. Albers, Shane Shapiro, Gerard A. Malanga, Alaa Abd-Elsayed, Mairin Jerome, Joshua A. Hirsch, Alan D. Kaye, Steve M. Aydin, Douglas Beall, Don Buford, Joanne Borg-Stein, Ricardo M. Buenaventura, Joseph A. Cabaret, Aaron K. Calodney, Kenneth D. Candido, Cameron Cartier, Richard Latchaw, Sudhir Diwan, Ehren Dodson, Zachary Fausel, Michael Fredericson, Christopher G. Gharibo, Mayank Gupta, Adam M. Kaye, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Radomir Kosanovic, Matthew Lucas, Maanasa V. Manchikanti, R. Amadeus Mason, Kenneth Mautner, Samuel Murala, Annu Navani, Vidyasagar Pampati, Sarah Pastoriza, Ramarao Pasupuleti, Cyril Philip, Mahendra R Sanapati, Theodore Sand, Rinoo V Shah, Amol Soin, Ian Stemper, Bradley W Wargo, Philippe Hernigou

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

BACKGROUND: The use of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders has become increasingly popular over the last several years, as technology has improved along with the need for better solutions for these pathologies. The use of cellular tissue raises a number of issues regarding the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation in classifying these treatments as a drug versus just autologous tissue transplantation. In the case of BMC in musculoskeletal and spine care, this determination will likely hinge on whether BMC is homologous to the musculoskeletal system and spine.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review ...


Amylin As A Potential Link Between Type 2 Diabetes And Alzheimer Disease, Florin Despa, Larry B. Goldstein, Geert Jan Biessels Mar 2020

Amylin As A Potential Link Between Type 2 Diabetes And Alzheimer Disease, Florin Despa, Larry B. Goldstein, Geert Jan Biessels

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To A Lead Benzoxaborole Due To Blocked Compound Activation And Altered Ubiquitination Or Sumoylation., Kirthana M. V. Sindhe, Wesley Wu, Jenny Legac, Yong-Kang Zhang, Eric E. Easom, Roland A. Cooper, Jacob J. Plattner, Yvonne Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Palo Alto, California Freund, Joseph L. Derisi, Philip J. Rosenthal Jan 2020

Plasmodium Falciparum Resistance To A Lead Benzoxaborole Due To Blocked Compound Activation And Altered Ubiquitination Or Sumoylation., Kirthana M. V. Sindhe, Wesley Wu, Jenny Legac, Yong-Kang Zhang, Eric E. Easom, Roland A. Cooper, Jacob J. Plattner, Yvonne Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Palo Alto, California Freund, Joseph L. Derisi, Philip J. Rosenthal

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

New antimalarial drugs are needed. The benzoxaborole AN13762 showed excellent activity against cultured Plasmodium falciparum, against fresh Ugandan P. falciparum isolates, and in murine malaria models. To gain mechanistic insights, we selected in vitro for P. falciparum isolates resistant to AN13762. In all of 11 independent selections with 100 to 200 nM AN13762, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) increased from 18–118 nM to 180–890 nM, and whole-genome sequencing of resistant parasites demonstrated mutations in prodrug activation and resistance esterase (PfPARE). The introduction of PfPARE mutations led to a similar level of resistance, and recombinant PfPARE hydrolyzed AN13762 to ...


Using Probiotics To Flatten The Curve Of Coronavirus Disease Covid-2019 Pandemic., David Baud, Varvara Dimopoulou Agri, Glenn R Gibson, Gregor Reid, Eric Giannoni Jan 2020

Using Probiotics To Flatten The Curve Of Coronavirus Disease Covid-2019 Pandemic., David Baud, Varvara Dimopoulou Agri, Glenn R Gibson, Gregor Reid, Eric Giannoni

Microbiology & Immunology Publications

No abstract provided.


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck Dec 2019

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing, i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyote approached a human to necessitate hazing. Coyotes that had been hand fed by adults ...


Bone-Loading Physical Activity And Alcohol Intake But Not Bmi Affect Areal Bone Mineral Density In Young College-Aged Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study., Dong Jun Sung, Harshvardhan Singh, Seung-Bum Oh, Sojung Kim Dec 2019

Bone-Loading Physical Activity And Alcohol Intake But Not Bmi Affect Areal Bone Mineral Density In Young College-Aged Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study., Dong Jun Sung, Harshvardhan Singh, Seung-Bum Oh, Sojung Kim

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on alcohol consumption behaviors, bone-loading history as assessed by a bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ), and the body mass index (BMI). College-aged female students (N = 112) were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. The aBMD of the lumbar spine and non-dominant side of the proximal femur (total hip, TH; femoral neck, FN; femoral trochanter, FT) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by the frequency and amount of alcohol intake during the ...


Human Proteome Project Mass Spectrometry Data Interpretation Guidelines 3.0., Eric W Deutsch, Lydie Lane, Christopher M Overall, Nuno Bandeira, Mark S Baker, Charles Pineau, Robert L Moritz, Fernando Corrales, Sandra Orchard, Jennifer E Van Eyk, Young-Ki Paik, Susan T Weintraub, Yves Vandenbrouck, Gilbert S Omenn Dec 2019

Human Proteome Project Mass Spectrometry Data Interpretation Guidelines 3.0., Eric W Deutsch, Lydie Lane, Christopher M Overall, Nuno Bandeira, Mark S Baker, Charles Pineau, Robert L Moritz, Fernando Corrales, Sandra Orchard, Jennifer E Van Eyk, Young-Ki Paik, Susan T Weintraub, Yves Vandenbrouck, Gilbert S Omenn

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

The Human Proteome Organization's (HUPO) Human Proteome Project (HPP) developed Mass Spectrometry (MS) Data Interpretation Guidelines that have been applied since 2016. These guidelines have helped ensure that the emerging draft of the complete human proteome is highly accurate and with low numbers of false-positive protein identifications. Here, we describe an update to these guidelines based on consensus-reaching discussions with the wider HPP community over the past year. The revised 3.0 guidelines address several major and minor identified gaps. We have added guidelines for emerging data independent acquisition (DIA) MS workflows and for use of the new Universal ...


Chronic Muscle Weakness And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In The Absence Of Sustained Atrophy In A Preclinical Sepsis Model, Allison M. Owen, Samir P. Patel, Jeffrey D. Smith, Beverly K. Balasuriya, Stephanie F. Mori, Gregory S. Hawk, Arnold J. Stromberg, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Timothy A. Butterfield, Karyn A. Esser, Charlotte A. Peterson, Marlene E. Starr, Hiroshi Saito Dec 2019

Chronic Muscle Weakness And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In The Absence Of Sustained Atrophy In A Preclinical Sepsis Model, Allison M. Owen, Samir P. Patel, Jeffrey D. Smith, Beverly K. Balasuriya, Stephanie F. Mori, Gregory S. Hawk, Arnold J. Stromberg, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Timothy A. Butterfield, Karyn A. Esser, Charlotte A. Peterson, Marlene E. Starr, Hiroshi Saito

Physiology Faculty Publications

Chronic critical illness is a global clinical issue affecting millions of sepsis survivors annually. Survivors report chronic skeletal muscle weakness and development of new functional limitations that persist for years. To delineate mechanisms of sepsis-induced chronic weakness, we first surpassed a critical barrier by establishing a murine model of sepsis with ICU-like interventions that allows for the study of survivors. We show that sepsis survivors have profound weakness for at least 1 month, even after recovery of muscle mass. Abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure, impaired respiration and electron transport chain activities, and persistent protein oxidative damage were evident in the muscle of ...


Post-Acquisition Processing Confounds In Brain Volumetric Quantification Of White Matter Hyperintensities, Ahmed A. Bahrani, Omar M. Al-Janabi, Erin L. Abner, Shoshana H. Bardach, Richard J. Kryscio, Donna M. Wilcock, Charles D. Smith, Gregory A. Jicha Nov 2019

Post-Acquisition Processing Confounds In Brain Volumetric Quantification Of White Matter Hyperintensities, Ahmed A. Bahrani, Omar M. Al-Janabi, Erin L. Abner, Shoshana H. Bardach, Richard J. Kryscio, Donna M. Wilcock, Charles D. Smith, Gregory A. Jicha

Neurology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Disparate research sites using identical or near-identical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition techniques often produce results that demonstrate significant variability regarding volumetric quantification of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the aging population. The sources of such variability have not previously been fully explored.

NEW METHOD: 3D FLAIR sequences from a group of randomly selected aged subjects were analyzed to identify sources-of-variability in post-acquisition processing that can be problematic when comparing WMH volumetric data across disparate sites. The methods developed focused on standardizing post-acquisition protocol processing methods to develop a protocol with less than 0.5% inter-rater variance.

RESULTS: A ...


4d Electron Microscopy Of T Cell Activation., Yue Lu, Byung-Kuk Yoo, Alphonsus H C Ng, Jungwoo Kim, Sinchul Yeom, Jau Tang, Milo M Lin, Ahmed H Zewail, James R Heath Oct 2019

4d Electron Microscopy Of T Cell Activation., Yue Lu, Byung-Kuk Yoo, Alphonsus H C Ng, Jungwoo Kim, Sinchul Yeom, Jau Tang, Milo M Lin, Ahmed H Zewail, James R Heath

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

T cells can be controllably stimulated through antigen-specific or nonspecific protocols. Accompanying functional hallmarks of T cell activation can include cytoskeletal reorganization, cell size increase, and cytokine secretion. Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM) is used to image and quantify evanescent electric fields at the surface of T cells as a function of various stimulation conditions. While PINEM signal strength scales with multiple of the biophysical changes associated with T cell functional activation, it mostly strongly correlates with antigen-engagement of the T cell receptors, even under conditions that do not lead to functional T cell activation. PINEM image analysis suggests that ...


Enhancing Timeliness Of Drug Overdose Mortality Surveillance: A Machine Learning Approach, Patrick J. Ward, Peter J. Rock, Svetla Slavova, April M. Young, Terry L. Bunn, Ramakanth Kavuluru Oct 2019

Enhancing Timeliness Of Drug Overdose Mortality Surveillance: A Machine Learning Approach, Patrick J. Ward, Peter J. Rock, Svetla Slavova, April M. Young, Terry L. Bunn, Ramakanth Kavuluru

Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Timely data is key to effective public health responses to epidemics. Drug overdose deaths are identified in surveillance systems through ICD-10 codes present on death certificates. ICD-10 coding takes time, but free-text information is available on death certificates prior to ICD-10 coding. The objective of this study was to develop a machine learning method to classify free-text death certificates as drug overdoses to provide faster drug overdose mortality surveillance.

METHODS: Using 2017–2018 Kentucky death certificate data, free-text fields were tokenized and features were created from these tokens using natural language processing (NLP). Word, bigram, and trigram features were ...