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Articles 1 - 30 of 1141

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck Dec 2019

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing, i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyote approached a human to necessitate hazing. Coyotes that had been hand fed by adults ...


Integrated Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Mirna-Mrna Crosstalk In Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma., Yang Zhang, Yong Chen, Jinhai Yu, Guiming Liu, Zhigang Huang Sep 2019

Integrated Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Mirna-Mrna Crosstalk In Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma., Yang Zhang, Yong Chen, Jinhai Yu, Guiming Liu, Zhigang Huang

Yong Chen

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has proven to be a powerful tool in delineating myriads of molecular subtypes of cancer, as well as in revealing accumulation of genomic mutations throughout cancer progression. Whole genome microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles were obtained from patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) using deep sequencing technology, and were analyzed by utilizing integrative computational approaches. A large number of protein-coding and non-coding genes were detected to be differentially expressed, indicating a functional switch in LSCC cells. A total of 127 mutated genes were detected to be significantly associated with ectoderm and epidermis development. Eleven ...


Uncover Disease Genes By Maximizing Information Flow In The Phenome-Interactome Network., Yong Chen, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Uncover Disease Genes By Maximizing Information Flow In The Phenome-Interactome Network., Yong Chen, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

MOTIVATION: Pinpointing genes that underlie human inherited diseases among candidate genes in susceptibility genetic regions is the primary step towards the understanding of pathogenesis of diseases. Although several probabilistic models have been proposed to prioritize candidate genes using phenotype similarities and protein-protein interactions, no combinatorial approaches have been proposed in the literature.

RESULTS: We propose the first combinatorial approach for prioritizing candidate genes. We first construct a phenome-interactome network by integrating the given phenotype similarity profile, protein-protein interaction network and associations between diseases and genes. Then, we introduce a computational method called MAXIF to maximize the information flow in this ...


Integrating Human Omics Data To Prioritize Candidate Genes., Yong Chen, Xuebing Wu, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Integrating Human Omics Data To Prioritize Candidate Genes., Yong Chen, Xuebing Wu, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

BACKGROUND: The identification of genes involved in human complex diseases remains a great challenge in computational systems biology. Although methods have been developed to use disease phenotypic similarities with a protein-protein interaction network for the prioritization of candidate genes, other valuable omics data sources have been largely overlooked in these methods.

METHODS: With this understanding, we proposed a method called BRIDGE to prioritize candidate genes by integrating disease phenotypic similarities with such omics data as protein-protein interactions, gene sequence similarities, gene expression patterns, gene ontology annotations, and gene pathway memberships. BRIDGE utilizes a multiple regression model with lasso penalty to ...


Domainrbf: A Bayesian Regression Approach To The Prioritization Of Candidate Domains For Complex Diseases., Wangshu Zhang, Yong Chen, Fengzhu Sun, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Domainrbf: A Bayesian Regression Approach To The Prioritization Of Candidate Domains For Complex Diseases., Wangshu Zhang, Yong Chen, Fengzhu Sun, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

BACKGROUND: Domains are basic units of proteins, and thus exploring associations between protein domains and human inherited diseases will greatly improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of human complex diseases and further benefit the medical prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Within a given domain-domain interaction network, we make the assumption that similarities of disease phenotypes can be explained using proximities of domains associated with such diseases. Based on this assumption, we propose a Bayesian regression approach named "domainRBF" (domain Rank with Bayes Factor) to prioritize candidate domains for human complex diseases.

RESULTS: Using a compiled dataset containing 1 ...


The Proteomics Of Lipid Droplets: Structure, Dynamics, And Functions Of The Organelle Conserved From Bacteria To Humans., Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Yong Chen, Shuyan Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Yang Wang, Jinhai Yu, Peng Zhang, Huimin Na, Huina Zhang, Yanbin Ma, Pingsheng Liu Sep 2019

The Proteomics Of Lipid Droplets: Structure, Dynamics, And Functions Of The Organelle Conserved From Bacteria To Humans., Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Yong Chen, Shuyan Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Yang Wang, Jinhai Yu, Peng Zhang, Huimin Na, Huina Zhang, Yanbin Ma, Pingsheng Liu

Yong Chen

Lipid droplets are cellular organelles that consists of a neutral lipid core covered by a monolayer of phospholipids and many proteins. They are thought to function in the storage, transport, and metabolism of lipids, in signaling, and as a specialized microenvironment for metabolism in most types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms. Lipid droplets have received a lot of attention in the last 10 years as they are linked to the progression of many metabolic diseases and hold great potential for the development of neutral lipid-derived products, such as biofuels, food supplements, hormones, and medicines. Proteomic analysis of lipid ...


Prioritizing Protein Complexes Implicated In Human Diseases By Network Optimization., Yong Chen, Thibault Jacquemin, Shuyan Zhang, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Prioritizing Protein Complexes Implicated In Human Diseases By Network Optimization., Yong Chen, Thibault Jacquemin, Shuyan Zhang, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

BACKGROUND: The detection of associations between protein complexes and human inherited diseases is of great importance in understanding mechanisms of diseases. Dysfunctions of a protein complex are usually defined by its member disturbance and consequently result in certain diseases. Although individual disease proteins have been widely predicted, computational methods are still absent for systematically investigating disease-related protein complexes.

RESULTS: We propose a method, MAXCOM, for the prioritization of candidate protein complexes. MAXCOM performs a maximum information flow algorithm to optimize relationships between a query disease and candidate protein complexes through a heterogeneous network that is constructed by combining protein-protein interactions ...


Identifying Potential Cancer Driver Genes By Genomic Data Integration., Yong Chen, Jingjing Hao, Wei Jiang, Tong He, Xuegong Zhang, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang Sep 2019

Identifying Potential Cancer Driver Genes By Genomic Data Integration., Yong Chen, Jingjing Hao, Wei Jiang, Tong He, Xuegong Zhang, Tao Jiang, Rui Jiang

Yong Chen

Cancer is a genomic disease associated with a plethora of gene mutations resulting in a loss of control over vital cellular functions. Among these mutated genes, driver genes are defined as being causally linked to oncogenesis, while passenger genes are thought to be irrelevant for cancer development. With increasing numbers of large-scale genomic datasets available, integrating these genomic data to identify driver genes from aberration regions of cancer genomes becomes an important goal of cancer genome analysis and investigations into mechanisms responsible for cancer development. A computational method, MAXDRIVER, is proposed here to identify potential driver genes on the basis ...


Fishermp: Fully Parallel Algorithm For Detecting Combinatorial Motifs From Large Chip-Seq Datasets., Shaoqiang Zhang, Ying Liang, Xiangyun Wang, Zhengchang Su, Yong Chen Sep 2019

Fishermp: Fully Parallel Algorithm For Detecting Combinatorial Motifs From Large Chip-Seq Datasets., Shaoqiang Zhang, Ying Liang, Xiangyun Wang, Zhengchang Su, Yong Chen

Yong Chen

Detecting binding motifs of combinatorial transcription factors (TFs) from chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments is an important and challenging computational problem for understanding gene regulations. Although a number of motif-finding algorithms have been presented, most are either time consuming or have sub-optimal accuracy for processing large-scale datasets. In this article, we present a fully parallelized algorithm for detecting combinatorial motifs from ChIP-seq datasets by using Fisher combined method and OpenMP parallel design. Large scale validations on both synthetic data and 350 ChIP-seq datasets from the ENCODE database showed that FisherMP has not only super speeds on large datasets, but also ...


In Situ Capture Of Chromatin Interactions By Biotinylated Dcas9., Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Yong Chen, Mushan Li, Feng Zhou, Kailong Li, Hui Cao, Min Ni, Yuxuan Liu, Zhimin Gu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Shiqi Xie, Gary C Hon, Zhenyu Xuan, Michael Q Zhang, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu Sep 2019

In Situ Capture Of Chromatin Interactions By Biotinylated Dcas9., Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Yong Chen, Mushan Li, Feng Zhou, Kailong Li, Hui Cao, Min Ni, Yuxuan Liu, Zhimin Gu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Shiqi Xie, Gary C Hon, Zhenyu Xuan, Michael Q Zhang, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu

Yong Chen

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are commonly recognized by correlative chromatin features, yet the molecular composition of the vast majority of CREs in chromatin remains unknown. Here, we describe a CRISPR affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements (CAPTURE) approach to unbiasedly identify locus-specific chromatin-regulating protein complexes and long-range DNA interactions. Using an in vivo biotinylated nuclease-deficient Cas9 protein and sequence-specific guide RNAs, we show high-resolution and selective isolation of chromatin interactions at a single-copy genomic locus. Purification of human telomeres using CAPTURE identifies known and new telomeric factors. In situ capture of individual constituents of the enhancer cluster controlling human β-globin ...


Differential Activation Of Frontoparietal Attention Networks By Social And Symbolic Spatial Cues, Andrew D. Engell, Lauri Nummenmaa, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Richard N. Henson, James V. Haxby, Andrew J. Calder Sep 2019

Differential Activation Of Frontoparietal Attention Networks By Social And Symbolic Spatial Cues, Andrew D. Engell, Lauri Nummenmaa, Nikolaas N. Oosterhof, Richard N. Henson, James V. Haxby, Andrew J. Calder

Andrew D. Engell

Perception of both gaze-direction and symbolic directional cues (e.g. arrows) orient an observer’s attention toward the indicated location. It is unclear, however, whether these similar behavioral effects are examples of the same attentional phenomenon and, therefore, subserved by the same neural substrate. It has been proposed that gaze, given its evolutionary significance, constitutes a ‘special’ category of spatial cue. As such, it is predicted that the neural systems supporting spatial reorienting will be different for gaze than for non-biological symbols. We tested this prediction using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the brain’s response during target localization ...


Cancer Cell Population Growth Kinetics At Low Densities Deviate From The Exponential Growth Model And Suggest An Allee Effect., Kaitlyn E Johnson, Grant Howard, William Mo, Michael K Strasser, Ernesto A B F Lima, Sui Huang, Amy Brock Aug 2019

Cancer Cell Population Growth Kinetics At Low Densities Deviate From The Exponential Growth Model And Suggest An Allee Effect., Kaitlyn E Johnson, Grant Howard, William Mo, Michael K Strasser, Ernesto A B F Lima, Sui Huang, Amy Brock

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Most models of cancer cell population expansion assume exponential growth kinetics at low cell densities, with deviations to account for observed slowing of growth rate only at higher densities due to limited resources such as space and nutrients. However, recent preclinical and clinical observations of tumor initiation or recurrence indicate the presence of tumor growth kinetics in which growth rates scale positively with cell numbers. These observations are analogous to the cooperative behavior of species in an ecosystem described by the ecological principle of the Allee effect. In preclinical and clinical models, however, tumor growth data are limited by the ...


Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis Jun 2019

Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating ...


An Integrative Cross-Omics Analysis Of Dna Methylation Sites Of Glucose And Insulin Homeostasis, Jun Liu, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Jenny Van Dongen, Samantha Lent, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Symen Ligthart, Pei-Chien Tsai, Tiphaine C. Martin, Pooja R. Mandaviya, Rick Jansen, Marjolein J. Peters, Liesbeth Duijts, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Janine F. Felix, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J. C. De Geus, Audrey Y. Chu, Daniel Levy, Shih-Jen Hwang, Jan Bressler, Rahul Gondalia, Elias L. Salfati, Christian Herder, Bertha A. Hidalgo, Toshiko Tanaka, Ann Zenobia Moore, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Min A. Jhun, Jennifer A. Smith, Donna K. Arnett Jun 2019

An Integrative Cross-Omics Analysis Of Dna Methylation Sites Of Glucose And Insulin Homeostasis, Jun Liu, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Jenny Van Dongen, Samantha Lent, Ivana Nedeljkovic, Symen Ligthart, Pei-Chien Tsai, Tiphaine C. Martin, Pooja R. Mandaviya, Rick Jansen, Marjolein J. Peters, Liesbeth Duijts, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Janine F. Felix, Gonneke Willemsen, Eco J. C. De Geus, Audrey Y. Chu, Daniel Levy, Shih-Jen Hwang, Jan Bressler, Rahul Gondalia, Elias L. Salfati, Christian Herder, Bertha A. Hidalgo, Toshiko Tanaka, Ann Zenobia Moore, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Min A. Jhun, Jennifer A. Smith, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the ...


Fishermp: Fully Parallel Algorithm For Detecting Combinatorial Motifs From Large Chip-Seq Datasets., Shaoqiang Zhang, Ying Liang, Xiangyun Wang, Zhengchang Su, Yong Chen Jun 2019

Fishermp: Fully Parallel Algorithm For Detecting Combinatorial Motifs From Large Chip-Seq Datasets., Shaoqiang Zhang, Ying Liang, Xiangyun Wang, Zhengchang Su, Yong Chen

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Detecting binding motifs of combinatorial transcription factors (TFs) from chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments is an important and challenging computational problem for understanding gene regulations. Although a number of motif-finding algorithms have been presented, most are either time consuming or have sub-optimal accuracy for processing large-scale datasets. In this article, we present a fully parallelized algorithm for detecting combinatorial motifs from ChIP-seq datasets by using Fisher combined method and OpenMP parallel design. Large scale validations on both synthetic data and 350 ChIP-seq datasets from the ENCODE database showed that FisherMP has not only super speeds on large datasets, but also ...


Cellular Senescence In Progenitor Cells Contributes To Diminished Remyelination Potential In Progressive Multiple Sclerosis., Alexandra M Nicaise, Laura J Wagstaff, Cory M Willis, Carolyn Paisie, Harshpreet Chandok, Paul Robson, Valentina Fossati, Anna Williams, Stephen J Crocker Apr 2019

Cellular Senescence In Progenitor Cells Contributes To Diminished Remyelination Potential In Progressive Multiple Sclerosis., Alexandra M Nicaise, Laura J Wagstaff, Cory M Willis, Carolyn Paisie, Harshpreet Chandok, Paul Robson, Valentina Fossati, Anna Williams, Stephen J Crocker

Faculty Research 2019

Cellular senescence is a form of adaptive cellular physiology associated with aging. Cellular senescence causes a proinflammatory cellular phenotype that impairs tissue regeneration, has been linked to stress, and is implicated in several human neurodegenerative diseases. We had previously determined that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) failed to promote oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation, whereas NPCs from age-matched control cell lines did so efficiently. Herein, we report that expression of hallmarks of cellular senescence were identified in SOX2+ progenitor cells within white matter lesions of ...


Transcriptional Regulation Factors Of The Human Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier Gene, Isoform 2 (Slc25a13): Usf1 As Basal Factor And Foxa2 As Activator In Liver Cells, Paolo Convertini, Simona Todisco, Francesco De Santis, Ilaria Pappalardo, Dominga Iacobazzi, Maria Antonietta Castiglione Morelli, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf, Giuseppe Martelli, Ferdinando Palmieri, Vittoria Infantino Apr 2019

Transcriptional Regulation Factors Of The Human Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier Gene, Isoform 2 (Slc25a13): Usf1 As Basal Factor And Foxa2 As Activator In Liver Cells, Paolo Convertini, Simona Todisco, Francesco De Santis, Ilaria Pappalardo, Dominga Iacobazzi, Maria Antonietta Castiglione Morelli, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf, Giuseppe Martelli, Ferdinando Palmieri, Vittoria Infantino

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Mitochondrial carriers catalyse the translocation of numerous metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane, playing a key role in different cell functions. For this reason, mitochondrial carrier gene expression needs tight regulation. The human SLC25A13 gene, encoding for the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2), catalyses the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate plus a proton, thus taking part in many metabolic processes including the malate-aspartate shuttle. By the luciferase (LUC) activity of promoter deletion constructs we identified the putative promoter region, comprising the proximal promoter (−442 bp/−19 bp), as well as an enhancer region (−968 bp/−768 bp ...


Extracellular Vesicles As Biological Shuttles For Targeted Therapies., Stefania Raimondo, Gianluca Giavaresi, Aurelio Lorico, Riccardo Alessandro Apr 2019

Extracellular Vesicles As Biological Shuttles For Targeted Therapies., Stefania Raimondo, Gianluca Giavaresi, Aurelio Lorico, Riccardo Alessandro

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

The development of effective nanosystems for drug delivery represents a key challenge for the improvement of most current anticancer therapies. Recent progress in the understanding of structure and function of extracellular vesicles (EVs)-specialized membrane-bound nanocarriers for intercellular communication-suggests that they might also serve as optimal delivery systems of therapeutics. In addition to carrying proteins, lipids, DNA and different forms of RNAs, EVs can be engineered to deliver specific bioactive molecules to target cells. Exploitation of their molecular composition and physical properties, together with improvement in bio-techniques to modify their content are critical issues to target them to specific cells ...


Incorporating Pathway Information Into Feature Selection Towards Better Performed Gene Signatures, Suyan Tian, Chi Wang, Bing Wang Apr 2019

Incorporating Pathway Information Into Feature Selection Towards Better Performed Gene Signatures, Suyan Tian, Chi Wang, Bing Wang

Biostatistics Faculty Publications

To analyze gene expression data with sophisticated grouping structures and to extract hidden patterns from such data, feature selection is of critical importance. It is well known that genes do not function in isolation but rather work together within various metabolic, regulatory, and signaling pathways. If the biological knowledge contained within these pathways is taken into account, the resulting method is a pathway-based algorithm. Studies have demonstrated that a pathway-based method usually outperforms its gene-based counterpart in which no biological knowledge is considered. In this article, a pathway-based feature selection is firstly divided into three major categories, namely, pathway-level selection ...


Buparlisib In Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma Harboring Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway Activation: An Open-Label, Multicenter, Multi-Arm, Phase Ii Trial., Patrick Y Wen, Mehdi Touat, Brian M Alexander, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Shakti Ramkissoon, Christine S Mccluskey, Kristine Pelton, Sam Haidar, Sankha S Basu, Sarah C Gaffey, Loreal E Brown, Juan Emmanuel Martinez-Ledesma, Shaofang Wu, Jungwoo Kim, Wei Wei, Mi-Ae Park, Jason T Huse, John G Kuhn, Mikael L Rinne, Howard Colman, Nathalie Y R Agar, Antonio M Omuro, Lisa M Deangelis, Mark R Gilbert, John F De Groot, Timothy F Cloughesy, Andrew S Chi, Thomas M Roberts, Jean J Zhao, Eudocia Q Lee, Lakshmi Nayak, James R Heath, Laura L Horky, Tracy T Batchelor, Rameen Beroukhim, Susan M Chang, Azra H Ligon, Ian F Dunn, Dimpy Koul, Geoffrey S Young, Michael D Prados, David A Reardon, W K Alfred Yung, Keith L Ligon Mar 2019

Buparlisib In Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma Harboring Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway Activation: An Open-Label, Multicenter, Multi-Arm, Phase Ii Trial., Patrick Y Wen, Mehdi Touat, Brian M Alexander, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Shakti Ramkissoon, Christine S Mccluskey, Kristine Pelton, Sam Haidar, Sankha S Basu, Sarah C Gaffey, Loreal E Brown, Juan Emmanuel Martinez-Ledesma, Shaofang Wu, Jungwoo Kim, Wei Wei, Mi-Ae Park, Jason T Huse, John G Kuhn, Mikael L Rinne, Howard Colman, Nathalie Y R Agar, Antonio M Omuro, Lisa M Deangelis, Mark R Gilbert, John F De Groot, Timothy F Cloughesy, Andrew S Chi, Thomas M Roberts, Jean J Zhao, Eudocia Q Lee, Lakshmi Nayak, James R Heath, Laura L Horky, Tracy T Batchelor, Rameen Beroukhim, Susan M Chang, Azra H Ligon, Ian F Dunn, Dimpy Koul, Geoffrey S Young, Michael D Prados, David A Reardon, W K Alfred Yung, Keith L Ligon

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

PURPOSE: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is highly active in glioblastomas. We assessed pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of the pan-PI3K inhibitor buparlisib in patients with recurrent glioblastoma with PI3K pathway activation.

METHODS: This study was a multicenter, open-label, multi-arm, phase II trial in patients with PI3K pathway-activated glioblastoma at first or second recurrence. In cohort 1, patients scheduled for re-operation after progression received buparlisib for 7 to 13 days before surgery to evaluate brain penetration and modulation of the PI3K pathway in resected tumor tissue. In cohort 2, patients not eligible for re-operation received buparlisib until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Once ...


Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews Feb 2019

Myxobacteria Versus Sponge-Derived Alkaloids: The Bengamide Family Identified As Potent Immune Modulating Agents By Scrutiny Of Lc-Ms/Elsd Libraries., Tyler A. Johnson, Johann Sohn, Yvette M Vaske, Kimberly N White, Tanya L Cohen, Helene C Vervoort, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote, Leonard F Bjeldanes, Phillip Crews

Tyler Johnson

A nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase assay has been employed to identify the bengamides, previously known for their anti-tumor activity, as a new class of immune modulators. A unique element of this study was that the bengamide analogs were isolated from two disparate sources, Myxococcus virescens (bacterium) and Jaspis coriacea (sponge). Comparative LC-MS/ELSD and NMR analysis facilitated the isolation of M. viriscens derived samples of bengamide E (8) and two congeners, bengamide E' (13) and F' (14) each isolated as an insperable mixture of diastereomers. Additional compounds drawn from the UC, Santa Cruz repository allowed expansion of the structure activity ...


The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou Feb 2019

The Marine Sponge Metabolite Mycothiazole: A Novel Prototype Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitor., J Brian Morgan, Fakhri Mahdi, Yang Liu, Veena Coothankandaswamy, Mika B Jekabsons, Tyler A. Johnson, Koneni V Sashidhara, Phillip Crews, Dale G Nagle, Yu-Dong Zhou

Tyler Johnson

A natural product chemistry-based approach was applied to discover small-molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). A Petrosaspongia mycofijiensis marine sponge extract yielded mycothiazole (1), a solid tumor selective compound with no known mechanism for its cell line-dependent cytotoxic activity. Compound 1 inhibited hypoxic HIF-1 signaling in tumor cells (IC(50) 1nM) that correlated with the suppression of hypoxia-stimulated tumor angiogenesis in vitro. However, 1 exhibited pronounced neurotoxicity in vitro. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 selectively suppresses mitochondrial respiration at complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Unlike rotenone, MPP(+), annonaceous acetogenins, piericidin A, and other complex I inhibitors, mycothiazole is a mixed polyketide ...


Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects And Dysregulated Expression Of Key Mitotic Kinases., Cristina C Rohena, Jiangnan Peng, Tyler A. Johnson, Phillip Crews, Susan L Mooberry Feb 2019

Chemically Diverse Microtubule Stabilizing Agents Initiate Distinct Mitotic Defects And Dysregulated Expression Of Key Mitotic Kinases., Cristina C Rohena, Jiangnan Peng, Tyler A. Johnson, Phillip Crews, Susan L Mooberry

Tyler Johnson

Microtubule stabilizers are some of the most successful drugs used in the treatment of adult solid tumors and yet the molecular events responsible for their antimitotic actions are not well defined. The mitotic events initiated by three structurally and biologically diverse microtubule stabilizers; taccalonolide AJ, laulimalide/fijianolide B and paclitaxel were studied. These microtubule stabilizers cause the formation of aberrant, but structurally distinct mitotic spindles leading to the hypothesis that they differentially affect mitotic signaling. Each microtubule stabilizer initiated different patterns of expression of key mitotic signaling proteins. Taccalonolide AJ causes centrosome separation and disjunction failure to a much greater ...


Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman Feb 2019

Discovery Of Platelet-Type 12-Human Lipoxygenase Selective Inhibitors By High-Throughput Screening Of Structurally Diverse Libraries., Joshua D. Deschamps, Jeffrey T. Gautschi, Stephanie Whitman, Tyler A. Johnson, Nadine C. Gassner, Phillip Crews, Theodore R. Holman

Tyler Johnson

Human lipoxygenases (hLO) have been implicated in a variety of diseases and cancers and each hLO isozyme appears to have distinct roles in cellular biology. This fact emphasizes the need for discovering selective hLO inhibitors for both understanding the role of specific lipoxygenases in the cell and developing pharmaceutical therapeutics. To this end, we have modified a known lipoxygenase assay for high-throughput (HTP) screening of both the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the UC Santa Cruz marine extract library (UCSC-MEL) in search of platelet-type 12-hLO (12-hLO) selective inhibitors. The HTP screen led to the characterization of five novel 12-hLO inhibitors ...


Saturated Fatty Acid Activates T Cell Inflammation Through A Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase (Nnt)-Dependent Mechanism, Grace Mccambridge, Madhur Agrawal, Alanna Keady, Philip A. Kern, Hatice Hasturk, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Leena P. Bharath Feb 2019

Saturated Fatty Acid Activates T Cell Inflammation Through A Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase (Nnt)-Dependent Mechanism, Grace Mccambridge, Madhur Agrawal, Alanna Keady, Philip A. Kern, Hatice Hasturk, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Leena P. Bharath

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Circulating fatty acids (FAs) increase with obesity and can drive mitochondrial damage and inflammation. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial protein that positively regulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a key mediator of energy transduction and redox homeostasis. The role that NNT-regulated bioenergetics play in the inflammatory response of immune cells in obesity is untested. Our objective was to determine how free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate inflammation through impacts on mitochondria and redox homeostasis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from lean subjects were activated with a T cell-specific stimulus in the presence or absence of generally pro-inflammatory ...


Adgrl3 (Lphn3) Variants Predict Substance Use Disorder, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Jorge I. Vélez, Ariel F. Martinez, Marta Ribasés, Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Vanesa Richarte, Carlos Roncero, Bru Cormand, Noelia Fernández-Castillo, Miguel Casas, Francisco Lopera, David A. Pineda, Juan D. Palacio, Johan E. Acosta-López, Martha L. Cervantes-Henriquez, Manuel G. Sánchez-Rojas, Pedro J. Puentes-Rozo, Brooke S. G. Molina, Mta Cooperative Group, Margaret T. Boden, Deeann Wallis, Brett Lidbury, Saul Newman, Simon Easteal, James Swanson, Hardip Patel, Nora Volkow, Maria T. Acosta, Francisco X. Castellanos, Jose De Leon Jan 2019

Adgrl3 (Lphn3) Variants Predict Substance Use Disorder, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, Jorge I. Vélez, Ariel F. Martinez, Marta Ribasés, Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Vanesa Richarte, Carlos Roncero, Bru Cormand, Noelia Fernández-Castillo, Miguel Casas, Francisco Lopera, David A. Pineda, Juan D. Palacio, Johan E. Acosta-López, Martha L. Cervantes-Henriquez, Manuel G. Sánchez-Rojas, Pedro J. Puentes-Rozo, Brooke S. G. Molina, Mta Cooperative Group, Margaret T. Boden, Deeann Wallis, Brett Lidbury, Saul Newman, Simon Easteal, James Swanson, Hardip Patel, Nora Volkow, Maria T. Acosta, Francisco X. Castellanos, Jose De Leon

Psychiatry Faculty Publications

Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the susceptibility to develop externalizing syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder (SUD). Variants in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene predispose to ADHD and predict ADHD severity, disruptive behaviors comorbidity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. In this study, we investigated whether variants within ADGRL3 are associated with SUD, a disorder that is frequently co-morbid with ADHD. Using family-based, case-control, and longitudinal samples from disparate regions of the world (n = 2698), recruited either for clinical, genetic epidemiological or pharmacogenomic studies of ADHD, we assembled recursive-partitioning frameworks ...


Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Angiotensinogen: Insights From Animal Studies, Chia-Hua Wu, Ya Wang, Murong Ma, Adam E. Mullick, Rosanne M. Crooke, Mark J. Graham, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu Jan 2019

Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Angiotensinogen: Insights From Animal Studies, Chia-Hua Wu, Ya Wang, Murong Ma, Adam E. Mullick, Rosanne M. Crooke, Mark J. Graham, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the unique substrate of all angiotensin peptides. We review the recent preclinical research of AGT antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), a rapidly evolving therapeutic approach. The scope of the research findings not only opens doors for potentially new therapeutics of hypertension and many other diseases, but also provides insights into understanding critical physiological and pathophysiological roles mediated by AGT.


Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi Jan 2019

Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ethanol abuse promotes breast cancer development, metastasis and recurrence stimulating mammary tumorigenesis by mechanisms that remain unclear. Normally, 35% of breast cancer is Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ERBB2)-positive that predisposes to poor prognosis and relapse, while ethanol drinking leads to invasion of their ERBB2 positive cells triggering the phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase. StAR-related lipid transfer protein 10 (STARD10) is a lipid transporter of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); changes on membrane composition of PC and PE occur before the morphological tumorigenic events. Interestingly, STARD10 has been described to be highly expressed in 35–40% of ...


Antibodies In The Diagnosis, Prognosis, And Prediction Of Psychotic Disorders., Thomas A Pollak, Jonathan P Rogers, Robert G Nagele, Mark Peakman, James M Stone, Anthony S David, Philip Mcguire Jan 2019

Antibodies In The Diagnosis, Prognosis, And Prediction Of Psychotic Disorders., Thomas A Pollak, Jonathan P Rogers, Robert G Nagele, Mark Peakman, James M Stone, Anthony S David, Philip Mcguire

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Blood-based biomarker discovery for psychotic disorders has yet to impact upon routine clinical practice. In physical disorders antibodies have established roles as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive (theranostic) biomarkers, particularly in disorders thought to have a substantial autoimmune or infective aetiology. Two approaches to antibody biomarker identification are distinguished: a "top-down" approach, in which antibodies to specific antigens are sought based on the known function of the antigen and its putative role in the disorder, and emerging "bottom-up" or "omics" approaches that are agnostic as to the significance of any one antigen, using high-throughput arrays to identify distinctive components of the ...


Large-Scale Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Shared Genetic Architecture For Different Diagnosis Criteria, Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun, Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Margrit Urbanek, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Anubha Mahajan, Benjamin H. Mullin, Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey, Timothy D. Spector, Scott G. Wilson, Mark O. Goodarzi, Lea Davis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, André G. Uitterlinden, Verneri Anttila, Benjamin M. Neale, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Bart Fauser Dec 2018

Large-Scale Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Shared Genetic Architecture For Different Diagnosis Criteria, Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun, Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Margrit Urbanek, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Anubha Mahajan, Benjamin H. Mullin, Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey, Timothy D. Spector, Scott G. Wilson, Mark O. Goodarzi, Lea Davis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, André G. Uitterlinden, Verneri Anttila, Benjamin M. Neale, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Bart Fauser

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of ...