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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Evolution On Laboratory Sublines Of Myxococcus Xanthus Dk1622, Mackenzie Ryan, Francesca Scribano, Kimberly Murphy Oct 2018

Effects Of Evolution On Laboratory Sublines Of Myxococcus Xanthus Dk1622, Mackenzie Ryan, Francesca Scribano, Kimberly Murphy

Celebration of Learning

Microbes have served as effective models for studying evolution because of their ability to be easily replicated, stored, and manipulated. Myxococcus xanthus is a soil bacterium that has served as a model organism in many laboratories. The unique social and motile behaviors exhibited by this bacterium make it ideal for phenotypic assays. A wild-type strain of M. xanthus, DK1622, has been distributed to laboratories across the United States and therefore we now have DK1622 sublines. The genomes of a number of these sublines have been sequenced and their social and motile phenotypes have been analyzed. When nine of these sublines ...


The Influence Of Tissue Plasminogen Activator I/D Polymorphism On The Tpa Response To Exercise, Adam M. Coughlin Sep 2018

The Influence Of Tissue Plasminogen Activator I/D Polymorphism On The Tpa Response To Exercise, Adam M. Coughlin

International Journal of Exercise Science

International Journal of Exercise Science 11(3): 1136-1144, 2018. The purpose was to determine if the Alu-insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) gene influences the tPA response to maximal exercise. Fifty male subjects (age = 23.6 ± 4.7 yrs) completed a maximal treadmill exercise test. Blood samples were drawn before and immediately after exercise for determination of plasma tPA antigen and activity. Isolated DNA was amplified via polymerase chain reaction, electrophoresed, and visually amplified to determine tPA genotype. Subjects were classified as possessing the D allele (D) (n = 28) or being homozygous for the I ...


Dobi Studies, Teaches The Marvels Of Genetics, Aldemaro Romero Jr. Sep 2018

Dobi Studies, Teaches The Marvels Of Genetics, Aldemaro Romero Jr.

Publications and Research

“When I was in third grade, a parent of one of the other students brought a number of cats to the library on a Saturday and talked about how there are all these different hereditary patterns that contribute to their coat colors and appearance, like spots, stripes, and white paws. I was just hooked because I loved cats, and I said this is what I want to do.”

That’s how Dr. Krista Dobi explains why she became a geneticist. A native of North Brunswick, New Jersey, Dobi received a bachelor of arts from Princeton University and a doctorate in ...


Random Genetic Drift And Selective Pressures Shaping The Blattabacterium Genome, Austin Alleman, Kate L. Hertweck, Srini Kambhampati Sep 2018

Random Genetic Drift And Selective Pressures Shaping The Blattabacterium Genome, Austin Alleman, Kate L. Hertweck, Srini Kambhampati

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Estimates suggest that at least half of all extant insect genera harbor obligate bacterial mutualists. Whereas an endosymbiotic relationship imparts many benefits upon host and symbiont alike, the intracellular lifestyle has profound effects on the bacterial genome. The obligate endosymbiont genome is a product of opposing forces: genes important to host survival are maintained through physiological constraint, contrasted by the fixation of deleterious mutations and genome erosion through random genetic drift. The obligate cockroach endosymbiont, Blattabacterium – providing nutritional augmentation to its host in the form of amino acid synthesis – displays radical genome alterations when compared to its most recent free-living ...


Confirming World-Wide Distribution Of An Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla Zastrowi Sillemi, Using Songs, Morphology, Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing, And Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Zoe Mandese Aug 2018

Confirming World-Wide Distribution Of An Agriculturally Important Lacewing, Chrysoperla Zastrowi Sillemi, Using Songs, Morphology, Mitochondrial Gene Sequencing, And Phylogenetic Reconstruction, Zoe Mandese

Honors Scholar Theses

The Chrysoperla carnea-group of green lacewings is a cryptic species complex. Species within the group are morphologically similar, yet isolated from one another via reproductive mating song. Chrysoperla zastrowi, a species within the carnea-group, is currently described with a distribution ranging from South Africa to the Middle East and India. However, recent collections of carnea-group lacewings from Guatemala and California were preliminarily identified as Chrysoperla zastrowi based upon similarities in their vibrational courtship songs. This analysis aims to place six specimens, collected by collaborators in Guatemala, Armenia, Iran, and California, into a pre-existing phylogeny of the Chrysoperla ...


Genome Analysis Of Multiple Mycobacteriophage, Emily Kerstiens, Kari Clase, Yi Li, Gillian Smith, Sarah Bell Aug 2018

Genome Analysis Of Multiple Mycobacteriophage, Emily Kerstiens, Kari Clase, Yi Li, Gillian Smith, Sarah Bell

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bacteriophage are viruses that infect and kill bacteria. They can be used as treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, but more knowledge is needed about phage and how they interact with bacteria in order to develop safe and effective phage therapy treatments. This study examines the genomes of eighteen mycobacteriophage that were isolated from the environment on and surrounding Purdue University. Phage genomes were annotated using several bioinformatics software, including DNA Master, GeneMark, and PECAAN. Evidence was examined to determine the correct location within the genome and the potential function. Approximately two thousand genes were annotated in this study. A ...


Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning Aug 2018

Investigation Of Bacterial Taxa As Biomarkers Of Fescue Toxicosis And Heat Stress In Grazing Beef Cows, Sarah Katherine Chewning

Theses and Dissertations

Fescue toxicosis in grazing beef cattle is caused by consumption of Ergot alkaloids associated with tall fescue (toxic fescue) and is responsible for substantial economic loss to the U.S. beef industry. Cattle consuming toxic fescue suffer adverse physiological responses, such as: hyperthermia, increased respiration rate (RR), poor reproduction and growth performance. Other adverse responses to fescue toxins include the retention of a winter hair coat and vasoconstriction in the extremities, which can lead to tissue necrosis. Identifying cattle with reduced susceptibility to fescue toxins would allow for efficient use of fescue pastures; thus, the objectives of this thesis was ...


Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter Jul 2018

Adam And Eve, Designed Diversity, And Allele Frequencies, John C. Sanford, Robert W. Carter, Wes Brewer, John Baumgardner, Bruce Potter, Jon Potter

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Theistic evolutionists present multiple genetic arguments against a literal Adam and Eve. One key argument asserts it would be impossible for a single human couple to give rise to the genetic diversity seen in the modern human population. This implicitly assumes Adam and Eve would have been created without internal genetic diversity. If this were true, all observed variations would have to arise recently via random mutations. This would require incredibly high mutation rates, logically leading to rapid extinction.

Yet, Adam and Eve could have been created massively heterozygous. We have argued for over a decade that they could have ...


Genetic Basis For Elevated Rheumatic Heart Disease Susceptibility In Samoa, John Bowen Allen Jul 2018

Genetic Basis For Elevated Rheumatic Heart Disease Susceptibility In Samoa, John Bowen Allen

All Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatic heart disease is an inflammatory heart disease that affects millions of people around the world. Especially high rates of the disease can be found in Oceania, including the island nation of Samoa. Genetic studies of immune response genes have provided insight into a possible genetic link to increased susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease, including the genes that code for the toll-like receptor (TLR) protein family. One of the functions of TLR proteins is to recognize the presence of bacteria via identification of bacterial flagella. My evaluation of a Samoan family identified a variant in the TLR-5 gene that would ...


Light-Induced Expression Of A Blue Coral Protein In An Industrial Fungus, Lindsay Tomczak Jun 2018

Light-Induced Expression Of A Blue Coral Protein In An Industrial Fungus, Lindsay Tomczak

Honors Theses

The ultimate goal of this research project is to improve the growth and structural characteristics of an Ecovative Design LLC (Green Island, NY) production strain to produce commercial biomaterials for packaging. These biomaterials are produced from renewable resources and can be easily broken down after they fulfill their purpose, unlike the commonly used materials today (such as Styrofoam). In an effort to quantify the light-reactivity of the fungus, a codon-optimized DNA sequence coding a blue chromoprotein was introduced and utilized as a visual reporter gene. Transcriptional controlling sequences were identified from orthologs to specific light-regulated genes and were combined with ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Egfr Polymorphisms In Drosophila Melanogaster, Stacie Chue, Neha Mehta, Samantha Poon, Heather Trazino May 2018

Egfr Polymorphisms In Drosophila Melanogaster, Stacie Chue, Neha Mehta, Samantha Poon, Heather Trazino

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


Genetic Testing Practices Of Genetic Counselors, Geneticists, And Pediatric Neurologists With Regard To Childhood-Onset Neurogenetic Conditions, Sara Wofford May 2018

Genetic Testing Practices Of Genetic Counselors, Geneticists, And Pediatric Neurologists With Regard To Childhood-Onset Neurogenetic Conditions, Sara Wofford

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Identifying genetic diagnoses for neurological conditions with a considerable hereditary component, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability, and epilepsy, is critical to providing proper medical management for these patients and their families. However, many patients with these conditions are not tested appropriately or receive no genetic testing at all. The current study was designed to characterize the genetic testing practices of the providers most likely to evaluate or order genetic testing for these patients: pediatric neurologists, geneticists, and genetic counselors. The study noted significant variance between the testing strategies selected by pediatric neurologists compared to those of geneticists ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Precision Health And Deafness–Optimizing Genetic Diagnosis, Christina Marie Sloan-Heggen May 2018

Precision Health And Deafness–Optimizing Genetic Diagnosis, Christina Marie Sloan-Heggen

Theses and Dissertations

Deafness is the most common sensory deficit in humans. In the United States 1-2 in a thousand babies is born with significant deafness, well over half of which is hereditary. Providing a patient and their family with a genetic diagnosis is the ultimate form of precision health and medicine; it can provide education, impact medical testing and treatment, provide peace of mind, and someday will be the key to providing gene specific therapies. Historically, providing this diagnosis was difficult, expensive, and time consuming due to the extreme clinical and genetic heterogeneity of non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

Targeted genomic enrichment and ...


The Role Of Reproductive Timing As A Driver Of Genetic Differentiation In Populations Of Pacific Herring, Eleni Petrou, Todd Sandell, Dayv Lowry, Lorenz Hauser Apr 2018

The Role Of Reproductive Timing As A Driver Of Genetic Differentiation In Populations Of Pacific Herring, Eleni Petrou, Todd Sandell, Dayv Lowry, Lorenz Hauser

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

There is growing recognition that maintaining diversity in life history traits contributes to the sustainable management of wild populations. One important life history characteristic is reproductive phenology, and it has been shown that differences in the timing of reproduction can act as a barrier to gene flow between populations. If the difference in reproductive timing determines the level of connectivity, one would expect that genetic differentiation between populations would increase as a function of difference in reproductive date. This pattern, known as “isolation by time” (IBT), has been observed in wild populations of salmonids containing early and late runs. Pacific ...


Genetic Diversity And Distinctness Of Wild Nebraska Hops And Hop Cultivars (Humulus Lupulus L.), Megan Franklin Mar 2018

Genetic Diversity And Distinctness Of Wild Nebraska Hops And Hop Cultivars (Humulus Lupulus L.), Megan Franklin

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Background Commercial hop (Humulus lupulus) cultivars that are being grown in the Midwest are not performing as successfully as when they are grown in the Pacific Northwest, the region to which they are adapted. To increase adaptation to the Midwest environment, one strategy is to draw from the genetic pool of wild native Midwest hops, which have developed genes that allow them to grow successfully in this environment. Wild hop plants that are genetically distinct from commercial cultivars are likely to have more adaptations, such as pest/disease resistance and drought tolerance, which can be bred into commercial lines. The ...


Identification Of Novel Genetic Variations For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als), Guang Xu Feb 2018

Identification Of Novel Genetic Variations For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Als), Guang Xu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

A list of genes have been identified to carry mutations causing familial ALS such as SOD1, TARDBP, C9orf72. But for sporadic ALS, which is 90% of all ALS cases, the underlying genetic variants are still largely unknown. There are multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) for sporadic ALS, but usually a large number nominated SNP can hardly be replicated in larger cohort analysis. Also majority of GWAS SNP lie within noncoding region of genome, imposing a huge challenge to study their biological role in ALS pathology. With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing technology, we are able to sequence exome and ...


Advancing Behavioural Genomics By Considering Timescale, Clare C. Rittschof, Kimberly A. Hughes Feb 2018

Advancing Behavioural Genomics By Considering Timescale, Clare C. Rittschof, Kimberly A. Hughes

Entomology Faculty Publications

Animal behavioural traits often covary with gene expression, pointing towards a genomic constraint on organismal responses to environmental cues. This pattern highlights a gap in our understanding of the time course of environmentally responsive gene expression, and moreover, how these dynamics are regulated. Advances in behavioural genomics explore how gene expression dynamics are correlated with behavioural traits that range from stable to highly labile. We consider the idea that certain genomic regulatory mechanisms may predict the timescale of an environmental effect on behaviour. This temporally minded approach could inform both organismal and evolutionary questions ranging from the remediation of early ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng Feb 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Gene-Based Association Study For Lipid Traits In Diverse Cohorts Implicates Bace1 And Sidt2 Regulation In Triglyceride Levels, Angela Andaleon, Lauren S. Mogil, Heather Wheeler Jan 2018

Gene-Based Association Study For Lipid Traits In Diverse Cohorts Implicates Bace1 And Sidt2 Regulation In Triglyceride Levels, Angela Andaleon, Lauren S. Mogil, Heather Wheeler

Bioinformatics Faculty Publications

Plasma lipid levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death worldwide. While many studies have been conducted on lipid genetics, they mainly focus on Europeans and thus their transferability to diverse populations is unclear. We performed SNP- and gene-level genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of four lipid traits in cohorts from Nigeria and the Philippines and compared them to the results of larger, predominantly European meta-analyses. Two previously implicated loci met genome-wide significance in our SNP-level GWAS in the Nigerian cohort, rs34065661 in CETP associated with HDL cholesterol (P = 9.0 × 10−10) and rs1065853 upstream of ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Jan 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Current methods for genome engineering in mycobacteria rely on relatively inefficient recombination systems that require the laborious construction of a long double-stranded DNA substrate for each desired modification. We combined two efficient recombination systems to produce a versatile method for high-throughput chromosomal engineering that obviates the need for the preparation of double-stranded DNA recombination substrates. A synthetic targeting oligonucleotide is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annelase. This oligo contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a payload plasmid that contains a cognate ...


The Genetics Of Adhd: A Review Of Polymorphisms In Neurotransmitter System Genes, Ada Spahija Jan 2018

The Genetics Of Adhd: A Review Of Polymorphisms In Neurotransmitter System Genes, Ada Spahija

Olin Prize for Undergraduate Library Research

No abstract provided.


Qatar: Diabetes, Diangelo Gonzalez Jan 2018

Qatar: Diabetes, Diangelo Gonzalez

Global Public Health

The State of Qatar is a developed nation that is located in the Middle East and borders the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia. The nation is a constitutional monarchy and is currently led by Amir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. The 2,300,000+ people of Qatar face many major challenges. Although it is one of the wealthiest nations in the Middle East, Qatar faces issues of human trafficking, migrants willing to work in poor conditions, and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The most critical issue that plagues this county is diabetes, both I and II. Diabetes is a disease ...


Variation In Maize Hybrid Germplasm Performance Following A Winter Rye Cover Crop, Mike Witt Jan 2018

Variation In Maize Hybrid Germplasm Performance Following A Winter Rye Cover Crop, Mike Witt

Creative Components

Cover crop introgression into conventional corn and soybean rotational systems is a practice employed by some farmers in today’s upper Midwest farming landscape. The most utilized cover crop species in the state of Iowa has been winter cereals, specifically winter rye (Secale cereale L.) (Miguez, 2016). However, the two main factors hindering a greater adoption of rye cover cropping systems are the reported yield reductions in corn produced following a winter rye cover crop (Acharya et al., 2017) and time constraints for spring planting of corn (Johnson, 1998). Both of these factors can add significant investments to farmers that ...


Feet And Leg Traits Are Moderately To Lowly Heritable In Red Angus Cattle, L. K. Giess, B. R. Jensen, R. L. Weaber, J. M. Bormann, W. A. Fiske Jan 2018

Feet And Leg Traits Are Moderately To Lowly Heritable In Red Angus Cattle, L. K. Giess, B. R. Jensen, R. L. Weaber, J. M. Bormann, W. A. Fiske

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: The goals of this study were to identify feet and leg indicator traits to be used in beef breed genetic evaluations and develop a scoring method that can be easily adopted by cattle producers.

Description: Data were analyzed on 1,885 Red Angus cattle, and after editing, 1,720 records were used for analysis. Feet and leg phenotypes were obtained from August 2015 through September 2017 for 14 traits shown in the following table. Trained livestock evaluators collected measurements using an electronic tablet with offline data storage capabilities. Heritability estimates for all 14 traits were calculated from two different ...


Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo Jan 2018

Effect Of Variation In An Essential Folding Element On The Cobalamin Riboswitch, Marcus Urquijo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Riboswitches are RNA-based genetic regulatory elements that control gene expression without the need for protein cofactors. These RNA motifs are found within the 5’ untranslated regions of mRNA and promote genetic regulation by altering the structure of RNA through binding small molecule effector ligands that cause conformational changes that repress or activate translation/transcription. The env8 cobalamin riboswitch binds cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to repress gene expression of the downstream mRNA. It accomplishes this through an interplay of two separate domains; an aptamer domain which binds the effector ligand and a regulatory domain which contains the genetic switch. Within the aptamer domain ...


The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations, Alan Tien Tang Jan 2018

The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations, Alan Tien Tang

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a human genetic, cerebrovascular disease that is caused by loss of function mutations in three non-homologous protein coding genes: KRIT1, CCM2, and PDCD10. These proteins form a heterotrimeric CCM adaptor complex that is required in endothelial cells to prevent disease. How loss of this complex causes disease remains unknown. Here, utilizing a neonatal mouse model of disease, we demonstrate that the CCM complex negatively regulates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 3 (MAP3K3 aka MEKK3) signaling in endothelial cells. During disease, loss of the CCM complex results in gain of MEKK3 signaling and pathologic overexpression of ...


A Role Of Early Life Stress On Subsequent Brain And Behavioral Development, Damien A. Fair, Alice M. Graham, Brian Mills Jan 2018

A Role Of Early Life Stress On Subsequent Brain And Behavioral Development, Damien A. Fair, Alice M. Graham, Brian Mills

Washington University Journal of Law & Policy

The prevalence of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders has risen dramatically during the past two decades. A study surveying the years 1997-2008 verified that one in six children have a developmental disability – a number on the rise. Along similar lines, studies show higher incidents of criminal activity, substance use disorders, and the emergence of psychopathologies in early adolescence and young adulthood, which are particularly sensitive periods of brain and behavioral maturation. While developmental trajectories that may lead to adverse outcomes in youth are the result of a mix of genetics and environmental exposure, it is becoming clearer that they do not start ...