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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill May 2022

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


4r Nitrogen And Water Optimization Combinations For Intermountain West Field Crops, Tina Sullivan May 2022

4r Nitrogen And Water Optimization Combinations For Intermountain West Field Crops, Tina Sullivan

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The concept of 4R (right source, rate, placement, and timing) management needs little introduction due to the surplus of nutrient studies in the literature for most cultivated crops. However, few studies have looked at these practices in the Intermountain West with nitrogen use, and fewer looked at 4R irrigation management. A survey was conducted to explore the interactions of nitrogen and irrigation management, test sensitivity to supply and price changes of nitrogen and irrigation for Utah and Idaho growers of small grains, corn, and potatoes, and determine the current adoption of precision agriculture options and identify the opportunities to improve ...


Genetic Diversity In Helianthus Annuus: Selective Breeding And Induced Mutagenesis, Dillon Holton Apr 2022

Genetic Diversity In Helianthus Annuus: Selective Breeding And Induced Mutagenesis, Dillon Holton

Thinking Matters Symposium

H. annuus, more commonly known as the sunflower, is a single species that has many different variations. Traits have been selectively bred for hundreds of years in order to produce a beautiful flower as well as essential agricultural products. Recently interest in the sunflower as a food and fuel crop has led to selective breeding of seeds that produce high yields of sunflower oil. To further push the limits of this plant's genome, researchers have used mutagenesis to force mutations in hopes of developing novel modifications that could increase yield. With the entire genome mapped, the goal for many ...


Phenotype Characterization Of Sas-7(Or1945) C. Elegans, Chase Reinert Apr 2022

Phenotype Characterization Of Sas-7(Or1945) C. Elegans, Chase Reinert

Student Symposium

The ability to form a bipolar spindle is crucial for accurate cell division. In the nematode C. elegans several genes have been described with roles in spindle assembly including sas-7. The centriole is a key organizer of mitotic spindles. The sas-7 protein is a centriole component that regulates centriole duplication, elongation, and assembly. To date, most work on sas-7 was using a conditional non-null allele. In this study, phenotypes associated with the loss-of-function sas-7(or1945) null allele were characterized. Homozygous sas-7(or1945) hermaphrodites have reduced brood sizes with no viable embryos compared to wild-type and heterozygotes. When they do produce ...


Identification Of Dna Methylation Episignatures For Classification And Phenotype/Genotype Correlation In Mendelian Neurodevelopmental Disorders, John Reilly Apr 2022

Identification Of Dna Methylation Episignatures For Classification And Phenotype/Genotype Correlation In Mendelian Neurodevelopmental Disorders, John Reilly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ABSTRACT: Diagnosis for neurodevelopmental disorders poses numerous challenges, related to the lack of specific findings and limited understanding of clinical impact of the majority of genetic variation. Epigenomics mechanisms involve chemical modifications in DNA that involve a range of cellular mechanisms. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism involving addition and removal of methyl groups to cytosine residues. These methylation signals form episignatures; patterns of methylation that can be used as biomarkers capable of differentiating neurodevelopmental disorders. EpiSigns have enabled molecular diagnosis of a number of genetic conditions, classification of variants of unknown significance, and provided insights into the pathophysiology of ...


Development And Validation Of An Edna Protocol For Monitoring Endemic Asian Spiny Frogs In The Himalayan Region Of Pakistan, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Rais, Ayesha Akram, Maggie R. Williams, Kenneth F. Kellner, Syed A. Hashsham, Drew R. Davis Apr 2022

Development And Validation Of An Edna Protocol For Monitoring Endemic Asian Spiny Frogs In The Himalayan Region Of Pakistan, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Rais, Ayesha Akram, Maggie R. Williams, Kenneth F. Kellner, Syed A. Hashsham, Drew R. Davis

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Wildlife monitoring programs are instrumental for the assessment of species, habitat status, and for the management of factors affecting them. This is particularly important for species found in freshwater ecosystems, such as amphibians, as they have higher estimated extinction rates than terrestrial species. We developed and validated two species-specific environmental DNA (eDNA) protocols and applied them in the field to detect the Hazara Torrent Frog (Allopaa hazarensis) and Murree Hills Frog (Nanorana vicina). Additionally, we compared eDNA surveys with visual encounter surveys and estimated site occupancy. eDNA surveys resulted in higher occurrence probabilities for both A. hazarensis and N. vicina ...


The Roles Of Individual Proteins In De Novo Recruitment Of Pcg Repressive Complexes To Giant, Anni Kum Apr 2022

The Roles Of Individual Proteins In De Novo Recruitment Of Pcg Repressive Complexes To Giant, Anni Kum

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Epigenetic gene regulation is the process by which external factors regulate the genome. This research studies Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins which function as epigenetic agents that work together in complexes to maintain gene silencing for multiple cellular generations. Drosophila melanogaster PcG proteins can be organized into three canonical complexes: Pho-RC, PRC1, and PRC2. Though there are multiple proposed models for the order of recruitment, it is generally accepted that PhoRC, PRC1, and PRC2 interact with each other to stably recruit to a target gene. Since these proteins are highly conserved, this project studies PcG proteins in the model organism, Drosophila ...


Butterfly Eyespots Evolved Via Cooption Of An Ancestral Gene-Regulatory Network That Also Patterns Antennae, Legs, And Wings, Suriya Narayanan Murugesan, Heidi Connahs, Yuji Matsuoka, Mainak Das Gupta, Galen J. Tiong, Manizah Huq, Thomas Werner, Et. Al. Feb 2022

Butterfly Eyespots Evolved Via Cooption Of An Ancestral Gene-Regulatory Network That Also Patterns Antennae, Legs, And Wings, Suriya Narayanan Murugesan, Heidi Connahs, Yuji Matsuoka, Mainak Das Gupta, Galen J. Tiong, Manizah Huq, Thomas Werner, Et. Al.

Michigan Tech Publications

Butterfly eyespots are beautiful novel traits with an unknown developmental origin. Here we show that eyespots likely originated via cooption of parts of an ancestral appendage gene-regulatory network (GRN) to novel locations on the wing. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we show that eyespots cluster most closely with antennae, relative to multiple other tissues. Furthermore, three genes essential for eyespot development, (), (), and (), share similar regulatory connections as those observed in the antennal GRN. CRISPR knockout of -regulatory elements (CREs) for and led to the loss of eyespots, antennae, legs, and also wings, demonstrating that these CREs are highly pleiotropic. We conclude ...


The Low Abundance Of Cpg In The Sars-Cov-2 Genome Is Not An Evolutionarily Signature Of Zap, Ali Afrasiabi, Hamid Alinejad-Rokny, Azad Khosh, Mostafa Rahnama, Nigel Lovell, Zhenming Xu, Diako Ebrahimi Feb 2022

The Low Abundance Of Cpg In The Sars-Cov-2 Genome Is Not An Evolutionarily Signature Of Zap, Ali Afrasiabi, Hamid Alinejad-Rokny, Azad Khosh, Mostafa Rahnama, Nigel Lovell, Zhenming Xu, Diako Ebrahimi

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is known to restrict viral replication by binding to the CpG rich regions of viral RNA, and subsequently inducing viral RNA degradation. This enzyme has recently been shown to be capable of restricting SARS-CoV-2. These data have led to the hypothesis that the low abundance of CpG in the SARS-CoV-2 genome is due to an evolutionary pressure exerted by the host ZAP. To investigate this hypothesis, we performed a detailed analysis of many coronavirus sequences and ZAP RNA binding preference data. Our analyses showed neither evidence for an evolutionary pressure acting specifically on CpG ...


Apoe Genetics Influence Murine Gut Microbiome, Diana J. Zajac, Stefan J. Green, Lance A. Johnson, Steven Estus Feb 2022

Apoe Genetics Influence Murine Gut Microbiome, Diana J. Zajac, Stefan J. Green, Lance A. Johnson, Steven Estus

Physiology Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) alleles impact pathogenesis and risk for multiple human diseases, making them primary targets for disease treatment and prevention. Previously, we and others reported an association between APOE alleles and the gut microbiome. Here, we evaluated effects of APOE heterozygosity and tested whether these overall results extended to mice maintained under ideal conditions for microbiome analyses. To model human APOE alleles, this study used APOE targeted replacement (TR) mice on a C57Bl/6 background. To minimize genetic drift, homozygous APOE3 mice were crossed to homozygous APOE2 or homozygous APOE4 mice prior to the study, and the resulting heterozygous ...


Dairy Cattle Genetics By Environment Interaction Mismatch Contributes To Poor Mitigation And Adaptation Of Grazing Systems To Climate Change Actions In The Peruvian High Andes: A Review, V. M. Velez Marroquin, J. Manhire, R. Garcia Ticllacuri, J. L. Bernal Madrid, C. S. Pinares-Patino Feb 2022

Dairy Cattle Genetics By Environment Interaction Mismatch Contributes To Poor Mitigation And Adaptation Of Grazing Systems To Climate Change Actions In The Peruvian High Andes: A Review, V. M. Velez Marroquin, J. Manhire, R. Garcia Ticllacuri, J. L. Bernal Madrid, C. S. Pinares-Patino

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The high Andes of Peru includes fragile ecosystems. Nevertheless, it plays important ecosystem functions (e.g., biodiversity, water supply for the lowlands, CO2 sinks in soil, etc). More than 80% of the livestock population of Peru is farmed in this area, supporting the livelihood of approximately 1’400,000 poor families, who are vulnerable to climate change (CC). Climate change in the high Andes is occurring at accelerated rates, compared to lowlands regions. Prevalent factors in the high Andes, such as hypoxia, high UV radiation, climatic extremes, large variation between maximum and minimum temperatures, seasonality in rainfall (determining highly ...


The Genetics Of Pain: An Exploration Of Gene-By-Environment Interactions And Their Effects On Pain, Mohamad F. Fakhereddin Jan 2022

The Genetics Of Pain: An Exploration Of Gene-By-Environment Interactions And Their Effects On Pain, Mohamad F. Fakhereddin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The findings presented in this dissertation are part of the bigger SYMBIOME project which aims to use the biopsychosocial model of pain to develop a prognostic clinical phenotype for people that experience musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Chapter 2 presents an exploratory analysis to assess the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and pain severity and interference. Early childhood trauma was also explored as a moderator between genetic polymorphisms and pain outcomes. For pain severity, major allele carriers (A/A and G/A) of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers (G/G). Further, major allele carriers who had at least ...


Consensus Nomenclature For Dyneins And Associated Assembly Factors, Bryony Braschi, Heymut Omran, George B. Witman, Gregory J. Pazour, K. Kevin Pfister, Elspeth A. Bruford, Stephen M. King Jan 2022

Consensus Nomenclature For Dyneins And Associated Assembly Factors, Bryony Braschi, Heymut Omran, George B. Witman, Gregory J. Pazour, K. Kevin Pfister, Elspeth A. Bruford, Stephen M. King

Radiology Publications

Dyneins are highly complex, multicomponent, microtubule-based molecular motors. These enzymes are responsible for numerous motile behaviors in cytoplasm, mediate retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), and power ciliary and flagellar motility. Variants in multiple genes encoding dyneins, outer dynein arm (ODA) docking complex subunits, and cytoplasmic factors involved in axonemal dynein preassembly (DNAAFs) are associated with human ciliopathies and are of clinical interest. Therefore, clear communication within this field is particularly important. Standardizing gene nomenclature, and basing it on orthology where possible, facilitates discussion and genetic comparison across species. Here, we discuss how the human gene nomenclature for dyneins, ODA docking complex ...


Plasmonic-Based Biosensor For The Early Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Thakshila Liyanage, Bayan Alharbi, Linh Quan, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher, Gymama Slaughter Jan 2022

Plasmonic-Based Biosensor For The Early Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Thakshila Liyanage, Bayan Alharbi, Linh Quan, Aurora Esquela-Kerscher, Gymama Slaughter

Bioelectrics Publications

A tapered optical fiber (TOF) plasmonic biosensor was fabricated and used for the sensitive detection of a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human serum obtained from noncancer and prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs let7a, let-7c, miR-200b, miR-141, and miR-21 were tested as predictive cancer biomarkers since multianalyte detection minimizes false-positive and false-negative rates and establishes a strong foundation for early PCa diagnosis. The biosensing platform integrates metallic gold triangular nanoprisms (AuTNPs) laminated on the TOF to excite surface plasmon waves in the supporting metallic layer and enhance the evanescent mode of the fiber surface. This sensitive ...


Cross Species Use Of Human Microarray Genotyping Technology For Bornean Orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus) Snp Discovery, Ruth Ella Linsky, R. Steven Wagner, Reniastoetie Djojoasmoro, Joseph G. Lorenz, Biruté M. F. Galdikas Jan 2022

Cross Species Use Of Human Microarray Genotyping Technology For Bornean Orangutan (Pongo Pygmaeus) Snp Discovery, Ruth Ella Linsky, R. Steven Wagner, Reniastoetie Djojoasmoro, Joseph G. Lorenz, Biruté M. F. Galdikas

Student Published Works

Previous genetic studies of orangutans (Pongo spp.) have relied mainly upon mitochondrial DNA or microsatellite short tandem repeats (STR) for genomic genotyping analysis. Scientists have yet to take advantage of the genetic closeness of the great apes to humans for genomic analysis by using advanced techniques available for human genotyping. To genotype orangutans at Tanjung Puting National Park, we developed a novel combination of a methyl-based magnetic enrichment capture of genomic fecal DNA with genotyping on a human targeted single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray, and compared this to additional microsatellite (STR) micro-capillary genotyping. We successfully isolated 125 known human genomic ...


Factors Influencing Brook Trout Population Dynamics And Resilience In Central Appalachian Headwater Streams, Christopher W. Schwinghamer Jan 2022

Factors Influencing Brook Trout Population Dynamics And Resilience In Central Appalachian Headwater Streams, Christopher W. Schwinghamer

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Central Appalachia has a unique history of human perturbation due largely to its historical economic reliance on extractive industry and timber harvest. Legacy impacts from these historic disturbances along with contemporary stressors in the form of continued industry, changing climates, altered land use, habitat fragmentation, and introduced species can present great threats to the region’s aquatic ecosystems. Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis are a species that has recreational and economic importance to the communities of central Appalachia but declines in size and abundance have been observed. Given the disturbances that threaten Brook Trout populations, understanding how their populations will respond ...


Inter-Primer Binding Site (Ipbs) Retrotransposon Markers Provide Insights Into Thegenetic Diversity And Population Structure Of Carrots (Daucus, Apiaceae), Mehtap Yildiz, Carlos Arbizu Jan 2022

Inter-Primer Binding Site (Ipbs) Retrotransposon Markers Provide Insights Into Thegenetic Diversity And Population Structure Of Carrots (Daucus, Apiaceae), Mehtap Yildiz, Carlos Arbizu

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

Studies of genetic diversity and population structure are essential as an initial step in conservation and breeding programs for modern crops. Carrot (Daucus spp.) is among the ten most important vegetables worldwide, however, its genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships are not totally deciphered. Here, we explored the utility of 21 inter-primer binding site (iPBS) retrotransposon markers to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of 38 accessions of Daucus and one accession of a related genus. The manual scoring revealed 309 bands based on their presence/absence. The dendrogram based on the UPGMA clustering algorithm and a principal coordinate analysis ...


Divergent Selection For Water Conversion Ratio In Broiler Populations, Joseph Hiltz Dec 2021

Divergent Selection For Water Conversion Ratio In Broiler Populations, Joseph Hiltz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Water scarcity is a global reality and with the anticipated population growth, freshwater resources will be further strained to meet both human needs and agriculture applications. To ensure a water sustainable and food secure future, all aspects of agriculture must become more efficient. Two strategies were explored. The potential of improving water efficiency in broilers was examined. The first strategy was to develop a more efficient and accurate method for measuring water consumption/inputs in agriculture. To date, water measuring technology has lacked the necessary sophistication to assure accuracy and repeatability of low flow water usage.

After establishing a low ...


Achievements And Perspectives In The Breeding Of Tropical Grasses And Legumes, John W. Miles Nov 2021

Achievements And Perspectives In The Breeding Of Tropical Grasses And Legumes, John W. Miles

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Pasture and forage plant breeding is complicated by the perennial nature of the plants, the diversity of environments in which improved cultivars will be used, and the complex criteria of merit involved, criteria that necessarily include some measure of impact on the efficiency of animal production. While pasture plant breeding in the temperate zone is a demonstrably productive activity, the record of success for the tropical species -- "success" measured by release and adoption of bred cultivars -- is less convincing, in spite of four decades of activity in numerous public sector breeding programs and a large published literature. The difference is ...


Alfalfa, J. H. Bouton Nov 2021

Alfalfa, J. H. Bouton

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Cultivated alfalfa or lucerne (Medicago sativa spp. sativa) is the most important forage legume in the world with approximately 32 million hectares cultivated mainly in the temperate regions of both the northern and southern hemispheres. Intensive research has been conducted on the management and physiology of the crop and a major seed industry has developed world wide. Since insect and disease pests are numerous in alfalfa, development of cultivars with the proper fall dormancy and a broad genetic base for pest resistance has been pursued in order to provide increased adaptation, persistence, and yield. There has been a movement lately ...


Editorial For The Genetics Of Alzheimer’S Disease Special Issue: October 2021, Laura Ibanez, Justin B. Miller Nov 2021

Editorial For The Genetics Of Alzheimer’S Disease Special Issue: October 2021, Laura Ibanez, Justin B. Miller

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Population Genetic Analyses Of Arctic Char (Salvelinus Alpinus) Life History Types In Nettilling Lake & Amadjuak River Ecosystem: A Test Of Reproductive Isolation, Chen Liu Oct 2021

Population Genetic Analyses Of Arctic Char (Salvelinus Alpinus) Life History Types In Nettilling Lake & Amadjuak River Ecosystem: A Test Of Reproductive Isolation, Chen Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A great number of studies have identified strong genetic differences between sympatric anadromous and resident populations of Salmonidae. However, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) migratory phenotypes in the Nettilling Lake and Amadjuak River ecosystem in Nunavut, Canada have not been genetically characterized, and it remains unclear if distinct genotypes and phenotypes associated with migratory life history differences are maintained through reproductive isolation, and they have been assumed to be sympatric populations, or co-occurring populations. Co-occurring Arctic char (n=225) were sampled from eleven sites along the Amadjuak River in 2014 and 2015. Twelve microsatellite loci were used to quantify genetic variation ...


Meaningful Associations In The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Anthony Steven Dick, David N. Kennedy, Terry L. Jernigan, Wesley K. Thompson Oct 2021

Meaningful Associations In The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, Anthony Steven Dick, David N. Kennedy, Terry L. Jernigan, Wesley K. Thompson

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is the largest single-cohort prospective longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and children's health in the United States. A cohort of n = 11,880 children aged 9-10 years (and their parents/guardians) were recruited across 22 sites and are being followed with in-person visits on an annual basis for at least 10 years. The study approximates the US population on several key sociodemographic variables, including sex, race, ethnicity, household income, and parental education. Data collected include assessments of health, mental health, substance use, culture and environment and neurocognition, as well as geocoded exposures, structural ...


Effects Of Hormone Replacement Therapy (Hrt) On Gene Expression In The Amyloid Processing Pathway Of Ovariectomized Rhesus Macaque Females Under An Obesogenic Diet, Megan Ball Oct 2021

Effects Of Hormone Replacement Therapy (Hrt) On Gene Expression In The Amyloid Processing Pathway Of Ovariectomized Rhesus Macaque Females Under An Obesogenic Diet, Megan Ball

University Honors Theses

Estrogens rapidly decline at the onset of menopause, putting women at higher risk of osteoporosis, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Estradiol hormone therapies (HT) have been suggested to limit these negative effects on women, with controversial findings as to their effectiveness. A study at OHSU recently found differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using RNAseq between ovariectomized/hysterectomized (OvH) old (range = 19.4–23.2 years) female rhesus macaques on HT and those on a placebo on chronic western style diet (WSD). The DEGs identified in the amyloid processing pathway of the amygdala were selected for validation using ...


The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running Sep 2021

The Effects Of Ppal-1 In Arabidopsis Gamete Development, Amanda J White, Susana Perez-Martinez, Mark P. Running

The Cardinal Edge

Prenylation is a type of post-translational modification in which a 15- or 20-carbon lipid is added to the carboxyl (C) terminus of the protein. Arabidopsis thaliana contains the PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASE ALPHA SUBUNIT-LIKE (PPAL) gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the α-subunits of the three known prenylation enzymes, PFT, PGGT, and Rab-GGT. We previously identified two mutations in PPAL, one of which is ppal-1, which contains a T-DNA insertion in the fourth intron. We have previously observed that self-fertilizing heterozygous ppal-1 plants produce progeny in which homozygous ppal-1 is underrepresented. This project attempts to ascertain possible affects of ppal-1 ...


The Onset Of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia And Individual Differences In Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Excretion: A Review Of Proposed Mechanisms, Michelle Stehman, Stephen A. Maris Sep 2021

The Onset Of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia And Individual Differences In Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Excretion: A Review Of Proposed Mechanisms, Michelle Stehman, Stephen A. Maris

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 2: Issue 1, Article 10, 2021. Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) has been reported to develop during endurance events such as triathlons and marathons. As these events become more popular, the incidence of developing EAH also increases. The development of EAH is commonly associated with the overconsumption of hypotonic fluids such as water and tends to be more prevalent in females. There is also evidence to suggest the inappropriate secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) leading to water retention may predispose an individual for developing EAH, especially when coupled with the overconsumption of fluids. Recent research ...


A Timeline Of Discovery And Current Research On Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma And Emergence Of Potentially Permanent Treatment Solutions, Yonosuke Dejesus, Guadalupe Moreno Ceballos Aug 2021

A Timeline Of Discovery And Current Research On Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma And Emergence Of Potentially Permanent Treatment Solutions, Yonosuke Dejesus, Guadalupe Moreno Ceballos

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

This research examines the timeline of the discovery and research of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG). By reviewing the literature on genetic and molecular mechanisms, we aim to emphasize a long-term treatment solution (iSTENT) to mitigate intraocular pressure (IOP) related to POAG etiology and disease progression. POAG is a multifactorial, autosomal dominant, adult-onset eye disease wherein the optic nerve cells become damaged due to a buildup of excess aqueous humor, resulting in increased IOP. Consequently, POAG leads to progressive loss of peripheral vision and is the leading cause of blindness in the US. Due to the multifactorial nature of glaucoma’s ...


You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller Aug 2021

You Are What You Eat — Exploring The Microbiome Through Inquiry-Based Labs. Microbiome Lesson Plans, Karla S. Fuller

Open Educational Resources

If these commonly used spices have the ability to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth, could they also potentially inhibit the growth of normal, harmless bacteria that live in your body? In this lab, we will test common bacteria for resistance to food additives.


Complex Feline Disease Mapping Using A Dense Genotyping Array [Preprint], Isabel Hernandez, Jessica J. Hayward, Michelle E. White Aug 2021

Complex Feline Disease Mapping Using A Dense Genotyping Array [Preprint], Isabel Hernandez, Jessica J. Hayward, Michelle E. White

UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

The current feline genotyping array of 63k single nucleotide polymorphisms has proven its utility within breeds, and its use has led to the identification of variants associated with Mendelian traits in purebred cats. However, compared to single gene disorders, association studies of complex diseases, especially with the inclusion of random bred cats with relatively low linkage disequilibrium, require a denser genotyping array and an increased sample size to provide statistically significant associations. Here, we undertook a multi-breed study of 1,122 cats, most of which were admitted and phenotyped for nine common complex feline diseases at the Cornell University Hospital ...


The Ovarian Follicle Of Ruminants: The Path From Conceptus To Adult, Jennifer L. Juengel, Robert A. Cushman, Joëlle Dupont, Stéphane Fabre, Richard G. Lea, Graeme B. Martin, Francesca Mossa, Janet L. Pitman, Christopher A. Price, Peter Smith Aug 2021

The Ovarian Follicle Of Ruminants: The Path From Conceptus To Adult, Jennifer L. Juengel, Robert A. Cushman, Joëlle Dupont, Stéphane Fabre, Richard G. Lea, Graeme B. Martin, Francesca Mossa, Janet L. Pitman, Christopher A. Price, Peter Smith

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

This review resulted from an international workshop and presents a consensus view of critical advances over the past decade in our understanding of follicle function in ruminants. The major concepts covered include: (1) the value of major genes; (2) the dynamics of fetal ovarian development and its sensitivity to nutritional and environmental influences; (3) the concept of an ovarian follicle reserve, aligned with the rise of anti-Müllerian hormone as a controller of ovarian processes; (4) renewed recognition of the diverse and important roles of theca cells; (5) the importance of follicular fluid as a microenvironment that determines oocyte quality; (6 ...