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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Examining The Effect Of Interstitial Space On Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica): Applications Of Photogrammetry And Three-Dimensional Modeling, Bailie Lavan May 2019

Examining The Effect Of Interstitial Space On Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica): Applications Of Photogrammetry And Three-Dimensional Modeling, Bailie Lavan

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Global oyster populations have decreased by as much as 99% in the past century. Oysters are known ecosystem engineers, providing benthic habitat for macrofauna, linking benthic and pelagic food webs, improving water quality, and mitigating shoreline erosion. Restoration efforts are critical in re-establishing native oyster populations. In the Chesapeake Bay, where oyster loss is primarily due to severe over harvest, artificial substrates with geometric shapes are widely used in restoration efforts. However, natural oyster reefs form emergent shapes with a high degree of aggregation and many interstitial spaces (three-dimensional volumetric spaces between oysters within a reef). The lack of interstitial ...


Analysis Of Temperature And Salinity Effects On Growth And Mortality Of Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In Louisiana, Troy Sehlinger Aug 2018

Analysis Of Temperature And Salinity Effects On Growth And Mortality Of Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In Louisiana, Troy Sehlinger

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Salinity (S) and temperature (T) control every facet of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) life cycle, principally reproduction, development, growth, and mortality. Previous studies conducted in in the Breton Sound (BR) and Barataria (BA) estuaries have reported differences in growth and mortality rates between the basins. In the present study, environmental conditions were synchronized to compare growth and mortality rates between basins at similar combinations of T and S. Results indicate that when T and S are the same (synchronized), seasonal oyster growth and mortality rates differ between BR and BA. Seasonal analyses revealed that as salinities increased in both ...


Differential Effects Of Bivalves On Sediment Nitrogen Cycling In A Shallow Coastal Bay, Ashley Smyth, Anna E. Murphy, Iris C. Anderson, Bk Song Jan 2017

Differential Effects Of Bivalves On Sediment Nitrogen Cycling In A Shallow Coastal Bay, Ashley Smyth, Anna E. Murphy, Iris C. Anderson, Bk Song

VIMS Articles

In coastal ecosystems, suspension-feeding bivalves can remove nitrogen though uptake and assimilation or enhanced denitrification. Bivalves may also retain nitrogen through increased mineralization and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). This study investigated the effects of oyster reefs and clam aquaculture on denitrification, DNRA, and nutrient fluxes (NOx, NH4 6 +, O2). Core incubations were conducted seasonally on sediments adjacent to restored oyster reefs (Crassostrea virginica), clam aquaculture beds (Mercenaria mercenaria) which contained live clams, and bare sediments from Smith Island Bay, Virginia, USA. Denitrification was significantly higher at oyster reef sediments and clam aquaculture site than bare sediment in the ...


Quantifying The Success Of Eastern Oyster Pilot Reefs In Brevard County, Florida, Lacie Anderson Jan 2016

Quantifying The Success Of Eastern Oyster Pilot Reefs In Brevard County, Florida, Lacie Anderson

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Crassostrea virginica, the eastern oyster, is a native keystone species that inhabits many coastal and estuarine ecosystems along the Atlantic seaboard. Introduction of the eastern oyster into estuarine areas with limited current populations is gaining popularity as a pro-active approach to improve estuarine water quality. In November 2014 and April 2015, a total of five pilot oyster reef treatments were deployed in Brevard County: bagged adult oysters (grown by community members under their docks through oyster gardening) collected in fall 2014 and spring 2015, bagged clean shell, oyster restoration mats, and empty plots (control). Locations of deployment included a Merritt ...


Modeling The Dispersion Of Eastern Oyster Larvae (Crassostrea Virginica) And Its Effects On The Movement Of Disease Resistant Genes In The Delaware Bay Estuary, Diego A. Narvaez Apr 2012

Modeling The Dispersion Of Eastern Oyster Larvae (Crassostrea Virginica) And Its Effects On The Movement Of Disease Resistant Genes In The Delaware Bay Estuary, Diego A. Narvaez

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

This study combines several models to address two primary research questions. How does the interaction of larval biology and environmental variability determine the spatial distribution of oyster larvae in Delaware Bay? What is the role of larval dispersion in the transference of disease-resistant genes? The particle-tracking module in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was converted into an Individual-Based model representing Eastern oyster larvae that has growth and vertical migration. Exchange of larvae between natural oyster reefs was estimated and used in an Individual-Based genetic model that simulates the genetic structure of eastern oysters. Particles were released from a number ...


Modeling The Vertical Distribution Of Oyster Larvae In Response To Environmental Conditions, Margaret M. Dekshenieks, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell Jan 1996

Modeling The Vertical Distribution Of Oyster Larvae In Response To Environmental Conditions, Margaret M. Dekshenieks, Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Eric N. Powell

CCPO Publications

A size-structured, time and vertically-dependent model was used to investigate the effects of water column structure on the distribution of larvae of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. Formulations used to model larval growth and behavior are based upon laboratory studies. Simulated vertical larval distributions obtained for conditions representative of a well-mixed, partially stratified and strongly stratified water column illustrate the effect that salinity and temperature gradients have on moderating larval swimming and hence on larvae vertical location. For well-mixed conditions, smaller larvae are dispersed throughout most of the water column. For strongly stratified conditions, the smaller-sized larvae cluster within the region ...


Effects Of Inter-Specific Density And Food Supply On Survivorship And Growth Of Newly Settled Benthos, Roman Zajac, Robert B. Whitlatch, Richard W. Osman Aug 1989

Effects Of Inter-Specific Density And Food Supply On Survivorship And Growth Of Newly Settled Benthos, Roman Zajac, Robert B. Whitlatch, Richard W. Osman

Biology and Environmental Science Faculty Publications

Using a laboratory model system comprised of newly settled oysters Crassostrea virginica and established fouling species (Botrylloides sp. initially, and others including Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis as the experiment progressed), we tested how differences in food supply and competitor density may affect post-settlement surivorship and growth of sessile marine invertebrates over a 44 d period. After 15 d, results were mixed but indicated that both food and density conditions affected growth and survivorship significantly, with some suggestion of high food levels ameliorating high density effects However, 44 d after settlement, oysters had reduced survivorship and growth when competitors were ...


Effects Of Resident Species On Recruitment Into A Community: Larval Settlement Versus Post-Settlement Mortality In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica, Roman Zajac, Richard W. Osman, Robert B. Whitlatch Jun 1989

Effects Of Resident Species On Recruitment Into A Community: Larval Settlement Versus Post-Settlement Mortality In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica, Roman Zajac, Richard W. Osman, Robert B. Whitlatch

Biology and Environmental Science Faculty Publications

Laboratory and field experiments revealed that a variety of species of common, sessile invertebrates, including barnacles, ascidians, and bryozoans, affected the settlement and post-settlement abundance of the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). While the nature of the effects varied, most species both reduced oyster settlement by covering and removing substrate available for attachment, and increased settlement on adjacent surfaces. The solitary ascidians Ciona intestinalis (L.) and Styela clava (Herdman), were found to be predators of oyster larvae. Post-settlement survivorship and growth were also strongly affected by the presence of sessile species. In most cases the effects were negative and correlated with ...