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Climate change

2020

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Future Of Maine's Forests Under Alternative Socioeconomic, Climate And Conservation Pathways, Jianheng Zhao Dec 2020

The Future Of Maine's Forests Under Alternative Socioeconomic, Climate And Conservation Pathways, Jianheng Zhao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maine is a historically important timber supply region in North America and understanding the potential change in forestlands and their product industries affected by climate change and various socio-economic conditions can better improve the forest healthy and sustain a sustainable product industry. A statistical harvest choice model for the state of Maine was developed in chapter 1. It was estimated using a multinomial logit model of two products, under varying management intensities, and ownership classifications across varying market conditions. Results indicate that stumpage prices have a significant effect on forest landowners' harvest decisions and that the expansion of conservation land ...


The Effect Of Climate Change On Livestock Carrying Capacity Of Inner Mongolia, Yurong Wei, Ruiqing Guo, Xuebiao Pan, Buju Long Dec 2020

The Effect Of Climate Change On Livestock Carrying Capacity Of Inner Mongolia, Yurong Wei, Ruiqing Guo, Xuebiao Pan, Buju Long

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Empirical Assessment Of Climate Change Impacts On Agriculture In Samarkand Region, Sh.B. Babakholov Dec 2020

Empirical Assessment Of Climate Change Impacts On Agriculture In Samarkand Region, Sh.B. Babakholov

Irrigation and Melioration

Agricultural production is highly sensitive to climate factors like other endogenous factors, and the expected climate change projections may have a negative impact on the efficiency and income of agricultural producers. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the impact of changes in climatic factors (average air temperature and precipitation) on the technical efficiency of cotton growing farmers as its determinants in Samarkand region. Empirical analyzes were performed on the cases of 1141 cotton-growing farms using panel-based Time-Invariant Inefficiency model. According to the results of the analysis, cotton farms in the region have an average technical efficiency of 76%, which in ...


Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu Dec 2020

Climate Warming’S Alteration Of Host-Parasite Dynamics, Ting-Hsuan Wu

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

Parasites and pathogens have significant roles in host population control, and thus host-parasite interactions affect biodiversity. The important question reviewed in this paper is how changes in temperature due to climate change affect host-parasite interactions. There is mounting evidence that elevated temperatures have both beneficial and detrimental effects on parasites and independently on hosts. These independent changes result in altered host-parasite dynamics through various mechanisms. If elevated temperatures enhance parasite survival, risk of disease transmission among hosts is enhanced as well. This enhancement is dependent on temperature-induced shifts in the host lifecycle, as asynchrony in host and parasite development can ...


Drivers Of Decadal Vegetation Change In Northern Alaska, Jacob Allen Harris Dec 2020

Drivers Of Decadal Vegetation Change In Northern Alaska, Jacob Allen Harris

Masters Theses

The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change. This research documents vegetation change near Atqasuk and Utqiaġvik, Alaska. At each location, 30 plots distributed in a matrix across the landscape, were sampled annually from 2010 to 2019 using a point frame. For every encounter we recorded the height and classified it into eight broad functional groups (deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, forbs, graminoids, bryophytes, lichens, litter and standing dead vegetation); for vascular plants we also identified the species. We found a consistent increase in plant stature and cover over time which was dramatic at Atqasuk. Graminoid cover and height increased at both ...


Not Too Hot, Not Too Cold, But Moderately Variable: The Influence Of Environmental Variability On Coral Thermal Tolerance, Courtney Nicole Klepac Dec 2020

Not Too Hot, Not Too Cold, But Moderately Variable: The Influence Of Environmental Variability On Coral Thermal Tolerance, Courtney Nicole Klepac

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Anthropogenic climate change is causing an increase in the frequency and severity of marine heat waves, resulting in declining health of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. Coral bleaching events – the breakdown in symbiosis between the coral host and their intracellular photosynthetic algae – are increasingly common in recent years and contribute to widespread losses in coral cover. However, bleaching and heat stress responses vary across spatial scales both within and among coral species. Coral populations native to highly variable environments can have greater bleaching resistance than corals from more stable habitats and corals transplanted into these variable reef sites can increase their ...


Phenotypic Responses Of Sagebrush To The Southwestern North America Megadrought: A Genotype-By-Environment (Gxe) Approach, Kara A. Navock Dec 2020

Phenotypic Responses Of Sagebrush To The Southwestern North America Megadrought: A Genotype-By-Environment (Gxe) Approach, Kara A. Navock

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The Southwestern North America megadrought is an extreme climate event. Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) is the dominant, keystone species of sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in arid and semi-arid habitats of western North America. I conducted a genotype-by-environment (GxE) experiment on two putative genotypes (drought-tolerant, G1 and drought-sensitive, G2) and two cytotypes, diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x), to determine the phenotypic responses of big sagebrush seedlings to drought. For three chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, my results indicate a complex set of factors influence sagebrush responses to drought, including canalization, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, cryptic genetic diversity, and GxE interactions. Variation in leaf temperature profiles of ...


Livestock Diversity And Climate Change In Rangelands, Irene Hoffmann, Beate Scherf, David Boerma Nov 2020

Livestock Diversity And Climate Change In Rangelands, Irene Hoffmann, Beate Scherf, David Boerma

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Climate Change On Livestock Carrying Capacity Of Inner Mongolia, Yurong Wei, Ruiqing Guo, Xuebiao Pan, Buju Long Nov 2020

The Effect Of Climate Change On Livestock Carrying Capacity Of Inner Mongolia, Yurong Wei, Ruiqing Guo, Xuebiao Pan, Buju Long

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Research On The Relationship Between Climate And Plant Community In North Grassland Of China, Xuebiao Pan, Yurong Wei, Buju Long, Zhihua Pan Nov 2020

Research On The Relationship Between Climate And Plant Community In North Grassland Of China, Xuebiao Pan, Yurong Wei, Buju Long, Zhihua Pan

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


A Conceptual Model To Explain Increasing Woody Biomass In Arid And Semi‐Arid Regions, Anthony R. Palmer, D. Eamus Nov 2020

A Conceptual Model To Explain Increasing Woody Biomass In Arid And Semi‐Arid Regions, Anthony R. Palmer, D. Eamus

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Human Interference And Climate Variability On The Grasslands Of Kerala, K. Shadananan Nair Nov 2020

Impacts Of Human Interference And Climate Variability On The Grasslands Of Kerala, K. Shadananan Nair

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Socio‐Ecological Influences On Grazier Uptake Of Seasonal Climate Forecasts On The Rangelands In Australia, Nadine A. Marshall, A. J. Ash, I. J. Gordon, C. K. Mcdonald Nov 2020

Socio‐Ecological Influences On Grazier Uptake Of Seasonal Climate Forecasts On The Rangelands In Australia, Nadine A. Marshall, A. J. Ash, I. J. Gordon, C. K. Mcdonald

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Process‐Based Modelling Of Timothy Survival In Winter, Marcel Van Oijen, S. M. Thorsen, A. H. M. C. Schapendonk, Mats Höglind Nov 2020

Process‐Based Modelling Of Timothy Survival In Winter, Marcel Van Oijen, S. M. Thorsen, A. H. M. C. Schapendonk, Mats Höglind

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Climate And Grazing Interact To Control Rangeland Vegetative Characteristics At A Regional Scale On The Tibetan Plateau, Julia A. Klein, J. Harte, X. Q. Zhao Nov 2020

Climate And Grazing Interact To Control Rangeland Vegetative Characteristics At A Regional Scale On The Tibetan Plateau, Julia A. Klein, J. Harte, X. Q. Zhao

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Warming‐Induced Decline In Ecosystem Services Is Mitigated By Plant Traits On The Tibetan Plateau, Julia A. Klein, J. Harte, X. Q. Zhao Nov 2020

Warming‐Induced Decline In Ecosystem Services Is Mitigated By Plant Traits On The Tibetan Plateau, Julia A. Klein, J. Harte, X. Q. Zhao

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Increased Autumn Temperature And Co2 Concentration On Frost Hardening And Winter Survival In Lolium Perenne, Mats Höglind, M. Jørgensen, Liv Østrem, L. Mortensen Nov 2020

Effect Of Increased Autumn Temperature And Co2 Concentration On Frost Hardening And Winter Survival In Lolium Perenne, Mats Höglind, M. Jørgensen, Liv Østrem, L. Mortensen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Climate Change And Human Activity Impacts On The Net Primary Production Of Alpine Grassland In Northern Tibet, China, Qingzhu Gao, Yue Li, Yunfan Wan, Wangzha Jiangcun, Baoshan Wang, Wenfu Li Nov 2020

Climate Change And Human Activity Impacts On The Net Primary Production Of Alpine Grassland In Northern Tibet, China, Qingzhu Gao, Yue Li, Yunfan Wan, Wangzha Jiangcun, Baoshan Wang, Wenfu Li

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Interactions Between Defoliation, Warming, And Drought In A Native Northern Grassland In Alberta, Canada, J. F. Cahill, E. W. Bork, S. X. Chang, H. C. Proctor, S. D. Wilson Nov 2020

Interactions Between Defoliation, Warming, And Drought In A Native Northern Grassland In Alberta, Canada, J. F. Cahill, E. W. Bork, S. X. Chang, H. C. Proctor, S. D. Wilson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Climate Change On Grassland--A Modelling Approach, Lianhai Wu, C. F. E. Topp Nov 2020

The Impact Of Climate Change On Grassland--A Modelling Approach, Lianhai Wu, C. F. E. Topp

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Climate Change Challenge For Managed Grasslands In New Zealand, Judy Lawrence Nov 2020

The Climate Change Challenge For Managed Grasslands In New Zealand, Judy Lawrence

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Using Stable Isotope ( 13c) And C/N Ratio To Study The Effects Of Climate Change On Olive Trees, Rezq Basheer-Salimia Nov 2020

Using Stable Isotope ( 13c) And C/N Ratio To Study The Effects Of Climate Change On Olive Trees, Rezq Basheer-Salimia

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

In this research, the impact of some climate change effects on the olive tree was studied. Specifically, the research investigated the impact of the lack of water and drought on the physiology of olive trees using stable carbon isotopic (Delta13C) and C/N ratios. Four olive cultivars including Souri, Roomi, Improved-Nabali, and Nasouhi, planted in three geographical areas with different rainfall patterns were used. These locations are Yatta/Hebron area (dry and low rainfall area with less than 300 mm/year), Jab’a/Jerusalem area (semi-dry and medium rainfall zone), in addition to the Kufer Ra’e/Jenin area (area ...


Restoration Of Desertified Grassland And Challenges In Northern China--For The Possibility Of Sustained Desertification Reversion, Xueyong Zhao, Halin Zhao, Xiaoan Zuo, Yayong Luo, Shaokun Wang, Zhiqiang Kou, Hao Qu Oct 2020

Restoration Of Desertified Grassland And Challenges In Northern China--For The Possibility Of Sustained Desertification Reversion, Xueyong Zhao, Halin Zhao, Xiaoan Zuo, Yayong Luo, Shaokun Wang, Zhiqiang Kou, Hao Qu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Sensitivity Of A Shark Nursery Habitat To A Changing Climate, Daniel Crear, Robert Latour, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin Weng Oct 2020

Sensitivity Of A Shark Nursery Habitat To A Changing Climate, Daniel Crear, Robert Latour, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin Weng

VIMS Articles

Nursery area habitats such as estuaries are vital for the success of many fish populations. Climate change is altering conditions in these areas, which can thus impact the availability of suitable nursery habitat. The sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus uses Chesapeake Bay (USA) as a nursery habitat during the summer months from birth up to 10 yr of age. To assess the impacts of climate change on juvenile sandbar sharks, we developed a habitat model using longline data collected from a fishery-independent survey within Chesapeake Bay. With this model, we projected contemporary and future distributions of suitable habitat for juvenile sandbar ...


Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft Oct 2020

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Biodiversity conservation in developing countries is faced with many and mounting challenges, including increasing human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs). In Africa and other developing countries, increasing HWCs, particularly those adjacent to protected areas, can adversely affect local stakeholder perceptions and support for conservation. We analyzed HWC reports for multiple wildlife species compiled >23 years (1995–2017) from the Greater Tsavo Ecosystem (GTE) in Kenya to determine HWC trends. The GTE is the largest protected area in Kenya, covering 22,681 km2. Overall, 39,022 HWC incidents were reported in 6 GTE regions (i.e., Taveta, Mutomo, Kibwezi, Rombo, Galana, Bachuma ...


Economic Assesment Of The Impact Of Climate Factors On Wheat Yield In Samarkand Region, Sh.B. Babakholov Oct 2020

Economic Assesment Of The Impact Of Climate Factors On Wheat Yield In Samarkand Region, Sh.B. Babakholov

Irrigation and Melioration

Agricultural production is highly vulnerable to climate shocks and predicted climate consequences may pose severe challenges to the resilience of Uzbek agricultural system, especially in terms of food security and income stability of rural producers. In this context, present study proposed to assess the impact of climate factors, such particular changes in mean temperature and rainfalls on total output of wheat-cultivating farmers in Samarkand region. By considering irrigation source and heterogeneous geography of the region, farmers engaged in wheat production were analyzed in two: upstream and downstream zones using Fixed effect panel approach. The empirical findings of study revealed that ...


Determination And Assessment Of The Spatio-Temporal Changing Dynamics In The Groundwater Level And Mineralization In Irrigated Areas Under Climate Change (As An Example Of Syrdarya Province), S. Khasanov, S. Adilov, R. Kulmatov Oct 2020

Determination And Assessment Of The Spatio-Temporal Changing Dynamics In The Groundwater Level And Mineralization In Irrigated Areas Under Climate Change (As An Example Of Syrdarya Province), S. Khasanov, S. Adilov, R. Kulmatov

Irrigation and Melioration

In the irrigated lands of the Aral Sea Basin, salinization processes are taking place as a result of rising groundwater levels and increasing its mineralization due to the unsustainable use of water and land resources. This, in turn, leads to the withdrawing of arable land and a decrease in crop yields. This is especially the case in the irrigated areas of the lower reaches of the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, located in Uzbekistan, southern Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. This research was aimed to learn and evaluate the long-term changing behavior of groundwater level and mineralization in the irrigated areas of the ...


Variable Fall Climate Conditions On Carbon Assimilation And Spring Phenology Of Young Peach Trees, Brian T. Lawrence, Juan Carlos Melgar Oct 2020

Variable Fall Climate Conditions On Carbon Assimilation And Spring Phenology Of Young Peach Trees, Brian T. Lawrence, Juan Carlos Melgar

Publications

Variable fall temperature and moisture conditions may alter leaf senescence of deciduous fruit trees, influencing carbon assimilation before dormancy and phenology the following spring. This study explored gas exchange of young peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) when senescence proceeded normally or was delayed during the fall under two soil moisture treatments: Well-irrigated trees or water deficit. Results showed leaf carbon assimilation was similar between the senescence treatments, but whole tree assimilation was estimated to be greater in delayed senescence trees compared to normal senescence trees based on timing of defoliation and total leaf area. The effect of soil moisture ...


Dealing With Transitions In Climate, Economic, And Political Conditions In Eurasia, D. S. Ojima, T. Chuluun, S. Temirbekov, T. Riley Sep 2020

Dealing With Transitions In Climate, Economic, And Political Conditions In Eurasia, D. S. Ojima, T. Chuluun, S. Temirbekov, T. Riley

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Infrared Heater Arrays For Warming Grazingland Field Plots, Bruce A. Kimball, Matthew M. Conley, Shiping Wang, Xingwu Lin, Caiyun Luo, Jack Morgan, David Smith Sep 2020

Infrared Heater Arrays For Warming Grazingland Field Plots, Bruce A. Kimball, Matthew M. Conley, Shiping Wang, Xingwu Lin, Caiyun Luo, Jack Morgan, David Smith

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.