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Climate change

2018

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Articles 61 - 80 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter Jan 2018

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter

Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

Information, energy, and materials are flowing over greater distances than in the past, changing the structure and feedbacks within and across coupled human and natural systems worldwide. The telecoupling framework was recently developed to understand the feedbacks and multidirectional flows characterizing social and environmental interactions between distant systems. We extend the application of the telecoupling framework to illustrate how flows in beef affect and are affected by social-ecological processes occurring between distant systems in Africa, and how those dynamics will likely change over the next few decades because of climate-induced shifts in a major bovine disease, trypanosomosis. The disease is ...


Local Trampling Disturbance Effects On Alpine Plant Populations And Communities: Negative Implications For Climate Change Vulnerability, Nathalie Chardon, Sonja Wipf, Christian Rixen, Annabarbara Beilstein, Daniel F. Doak Jan 2018

Local Trampling Disturbance Effects On Alpine Plant Populations And Communities: Negative Implications For Climate Change Vulnerability, Nathalie Chardon, Sonja Wipf, Christian Rixen, Annabarbara Beilstein, Daniel F. Doak

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Global change is modifying species communities from local to landscape scales, with

alterations in the abiotic and biotic determinants of geographic range limits causing

species range shifts along both latitudinal and elevational gradients. An important

but often overlooked component of global change is the effect of anthropogenic

disturbance, and how it interacts with the effects of climate to affect both species

and communities, as well as interspecies interactions, such as facilitation and competition.

We examined the effects of frequent human trampling disturbances on alpine

plant communities in Switzerland, focusing on the elevational range of the widely

distributed cushion plant Silene ...


Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco Jan 2018

Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco

Research on Capitol Hill

Abundance of native forb species is declining, leading to degraded ecosystems within the Great Basin.

Forbs provide many ecosystem functions, including wildlife habitat for species such as Sage Grouse, increased biodiversity, resistance to erosion, and protection from invasive plant species.

Climate change is predicted to affect timing, frequency, and intensity of precipitation within the Great Basin. During the fall season, precipitation is expected to increase by 30%.

Changes in precipitation will likely affect fall emergence of forbs, which is essential for overwintering and establishment.

Learning how precipitation affects forb emergence could lead to new methods that increase fall emergence and ...


In Anthropocene Air: Deleuze's Encounter With Shakespeare, Steven Swarbrick Jan 2018

In Anthropocene Air: Deleuze's Encounter With Shakespeare, Steven Swarbrick

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Climate Change And Wildfire: Implications For Forest Management In The Blue Mountains Of Eastern Oregon, Angela Elaine Boag Jan 2018

Climate Change And Wildfire: Implications For Forest Management In The Blue Mountains Of Eastern Oregon, Angela Elaine Boag

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Shifting climate and wildfire regimes are changing forest structure and function globally. In the western US, future forest structure will be determined by interactions between climate change and disturbance, including increasingly frequent large wildfires, as well as the forest management actions of landowners and managers. While research on the ecological impacts of these changes is rapidly expanding, there is limited focus on how forest vulnerability may vary across land ownerships, which may have varying capacities for climate-adaptive forest management. In this dissertation, I explored how coniferous forests in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon are vulnerable to climate and wildfire ...


The Effects Of Human Trampling Disturbance, Plant-Plant Interactions, And Climate On The Performance And Distribution Of The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene Acaulis, Nathalie Isabelle Chardon Jan 2018

The Effects Of Human Trampling Disturbance, Plant-Plant Interactions, And Climate On The Performance And Distribution Of The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene Acaulis, Nathalie Isabelle Chardon

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Delineating the abiotic and biotic processes that set species geographic distributions has been a central theme in ecological research for hundreds of years, yet we still do not understand many aspects of this broad question. Discerning what processes determine past and current range limits is particularly critical for predicting how species distributions will respond to climate change. In Chapters 2 and 3, I address how the interactions of climate, inter-species interactions such as competition, and human disturbances together influence range limits. I show that disturbance has positive effects on the alpine cushion plants Silene acaulis and Minuartia obtusiloba at the ...


The Role Of Climate In The Dynamics Of Annual Plants In A Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem, Danielle Ignace, Nancy Huntly, Peter Chesson Jan 2018

The Role Of Climate In The Dynamics Of Annual Plants In A Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem, Danielle Ignace, Nancy Huntly, Peter Chesson

Biological Sciences: Faculty Publications

Question: What is the role of temporal climate fluctuations in the dynamics of desert winter annual plants in the Portal Bajada, and in the sustained irruption of the non-native annual plant species, Erodium cicutarium?

Field site: Portal Bajada, San Simon Valley, Arizona, USA. Methods: We counted plants at flowering over a 21-year period on twelve permanent plots and related these numbers to weather data collected at an on-site weather station, supplemented by observations from the National Climate Data Center. Specific summary climate variables considered most relevant to annual plant biology were developed as candidate predictors of plant response variables.

Statistical ...


Modeling The Abundance And Distribution Of Terrestrial Plants Through Space And Time, Caroline Curtis Jan 2018

Modeling The Abundance And Distribution Of Terrestrial Plants Through Space And Time, Caroline Curtis

Doctoral Dissertations

Anthropogenically-driven changes threaten ecosystems and species over regional to global scales. I addressed several questions related to how species ranges will respond to these changes over large spatial and temporal extents to better understand what determines where a species occurs.

First, I modeled presence and abundance of two widespread invasive plants in the southwest U.S. under current and projected future climatic conditions, from which I inferred impact risk. These results provide more insight than presence modeling alone and highlight the possibility of increased invasion pressure in the future.

Second, I tested the assumption that expert-based climatic tolerance data will ...


Rapid Coastal Forest Decline In Florida's Big Bend, Matthew J. Mccarthy, Benjamin Dimmitt, Frank E. Muller-Karger Jan 2018

Rapid Coastal Forest Decline In Florida's Big Bend, Matthew J. Mccarthy, Benjamin Dimmitt, Frank E. Muller-Karger

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Coastal ecosystems throughout the world are increasingly vulnerable to degradation as a result of accelerating sea-level rise and saltwater intrusion, more frequent and powerful extreme weather events, and anthropogenic impacts. Hardwood swamp forests in the Big Bend region of Florida’s Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) are largely devoid of the latter, but have degraded rapidly since the turn of the 21st Century. Photographs of the forest, collected on the ground since 2009, were used to guide an analysis of a 60 km2 study area using satellite images. The images confirm that the coastal forest area declined 0.60 ...


Estimating The Heritability Of Thermal Tolerance In Acropora Cervicornis And The Physiological Basis Of Adaptation That Correlates To Survival At Elevated Temperatures, Kelsey L. Yetsko Jan 2018

Estimating The Heritability Of Thermal Tolerance In Acropora Cervicornis And The Physiological Basis Of Adaptation That Correlates To Survival At Elevated Temperatures, Kelsey L. Yetsko

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human activities have substantially increased the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, resulting in warmer ocean temperatures that are having a negative impact on reef corals, which are highly susceptible to changes in temperature. Understanding the degree to which species vary in their tolerance to elevated temperatures and whether this variation is heritable is important in determining their ability to adapt to climate change. In order to address this, Acropora cervicornis fragments from 20 genetically distinct colonies were kept at either ambient or elevated temperatures, and mortality was monitored for 26 days. Heritability of thermal tolerance was estimated using a clonal ...


Growth Dynamics Of Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) Across Northwestern North America, Anastasia E. Sniderhan Jan 2018

Growth Dynamics Of Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) Across Northwestern North America, Anastasia E. Sniderhan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The impacts of climate change have been widely documented around the world. One of the most rapidly changing areas is the boreal forest of North America. The extent of change has been such that there have been shifts in long-standing climate-growth relationships in many boreal tree species; while the growth of many of these high-latitude forests were formerly limited by temperature, warming has increased the evapotranspirative demands such that there is widespread drought stress limiting productivity in the boreal forest. With the importance of the boreal forest as a global carbon sink, it is imperative to understand the extent of ...


Drivers Of Post-Fire Vascular Plant Regeneration In The Conifer-Dominated Boreal Forest Of Southern Northwest Territories, Alison White Jan 2018

Drivers Of Post-Fire Vascular Plant Regeneration In The Conifer-Dominated Boreal Forest Of Southern Northwest Territories, Alison White

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In recent years, climate warming has led to an increase in the severity and frequency of naturally occurring fires in boreal ecosystems globally. In 2014, an unprecedented 3.4 million hectares of boreal forest burned in the Northwest Territories (NWT). While much research has focused on post-fire succession of serotinous tree species such as Picea mariana (black spruce) and Pinus banksiana (jack pine), the understory community of vascular plants play an important role in ecosystem functioning but less is known about the response of this component of the system to changing fire regimes. Regeneration strategies such as the ability to ...


Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross Jan 2018

Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Forest ecosystems are being altered by climate change, invasive species, and additional stressors. Our ability to detect these changes and quantify their impacts relies on detailed data across spatial and temporal scales. This dissertation expands the ecological utility of long-term satellite imagery by developing high quality forest mapping products and examining spatiotemporal changes in tree species abundance and phenology across the northeastern United States (US; the ‘Northeast’).

Species/genus-level forest composition maps were developed by integrating field data and Landsat images to model abundance at a sub-pixel scale. These abundance maps were then used to 1) produce a more detailed ...


Evaluating Current And Future Range Limits Of An Endangered, Keystone Rodent (Dipodomys Ingens), Ivy V. Widick Jan 2018

Evaluating Current And Future Range Limits Of An Endangered, Keystone Rodent (Dipodomys Ingens), Ivy V. Widick

Theses and projects

Climate is often considered the single most important factor limiting species’ ranges. Other factors, such as biotic interactions, are often assumed to be included via abiotic proxies. However, differential responses to climate change may decouple these relationships or lead to adaptation to novel environments. Accounting for competition and local adaptation should more accurately describe environmental factors influencing current distributions and increase the predictive accuracy of future distributions. Modeling the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) is an excellent application of these model improvements, as the species range consists of geographically and genetically isolated populations experiencing disparate climatic change. From eight ...


Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine Jan 2018

Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance. Here in this review, the geographic ...


Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen Jan 2018

Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are experiencing rapid and substantial changes to their environment due to global climate change. Polar bears of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) have historically spent most of the year on the sea ice. However, recent reports from Alaska indicate that the proportion of the SB subpopulation observed on-shore during late summer and early fall has increased. Our objective was to investigate whether this on-shore behavior has developed through genetic inheritance, asocial learning, or through social learning. From 2010 to 2013, genetic data were collected from SB polar bears in the fall via hair snags and remote ...


Environmental Effects Are Stronger Than Human Effects On Mammalian Predator-Prey Relationships In Arid Australian Ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K.-P. Leung Jan 2018

Environmental Effects Are Stronger Than Human Effects On Mammalian Predator-Prey Relationships In Arid Australian Ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K.-P. Leung

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these process on a model endangered rodent, dusky hopping-mice (Notomys fuscus). We established a large manipulative experiment in arid Australia, and collected information from relative abundance indices, camera traps, GPS-collared dingoes (Canis familiaris) and dingo scats, along with a range of ...


A Review Of Heat Stress Policies In The Context Of Climate Change And Its Impacts On Outdoor Workers: Evidence From Zimbabwe, Bigboy Ngwenya, Jacques Oosthuizen, Martyn Cross, Kwasi Frimpong, Cynthia N. Chaibva Jan 2018

A Review Of Heat Stress Policies In The Context Of Climate Change And Its Impacts On Outdoor Workers: Evidence From Zimbabwe, Bigboy Ngwenya, Jacques Oosthuizen, Martyn Cross, Kwasi Frimpong, Cynthia N. Chaibva

ECU Publications Post 2013

Record-breaking summer heat events are increasing in frequency in Zimbabwe and 2016 was a particularly hot year with the country experiencing its worst heat wave event in decades. Currently, Zimbabwe has no coordinated public health response to deal with heat wave events and no specific data on heat-related morbidity and mortality. The country has no legislation for protecting workers against environmental heat exposure, particularly those most vulnerable who are employed in the informal sector. These workers are also at risk due to their outdoor work environments. The article outlines the state of climate and heat stresses in Zimbabwe, as benchmarked ...


Understanding And Predicting Coccolithophorid Calcification In A Changing Ocean, Natasha Aisha Gafar Jan 2018

Understanding And Predicting Coccolithophorid Calcification In A Changing Ocean, Natasha Aisha Gafar

Theses

My project builds on previous work to derive a new biologically based model to describe the response of coccolithophorid growth, photosynthesis and calcification to changing carbonate chemistry (pCO2), which, also accounts for the effects of temperature and light. This model, was used to increase understanding of the interacting effects of light, temperature and CO2 on the two key coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. I also examined how changing light and pCO2 influenced the large coccolithophore Scyphosphaera apsteinii through both experiments and the application of the above model.


Ecosystem Calcification And Production In Two Great Barrier Reef Coral Reefs : Methodological Challenges And Environmental Drivers, Ashly Mcmahon Jan 2018

Ecosystem Calcification And Production In Two Great Barrier Reef Coral Reefs : Methodological Challenges And Environmental Drivers, Ashly Mcmahon

Theses

This thesis investigates the drivers of coral reef ecosystem metabolism and the abilities of the different methodologies and analytical approaches to accurately represent reef dynamics. It encompassed tracing natural nutrient additions through bird guano into a coral cay. Developing a new, automated system for measuring carbonate chemistry for coral reef metabolism and the effects of mass coral bleaching on ecosystem functioning were quantified. Overall, it showed that natural nutrient additions and bleaching differentially affect coral reef metabolism and that subtle differences in analytical methods, sampling approaches, and data interpretation techniques can cause significant variation in metabolic estimates.