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Climate change

2018

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Articles 61 - 86 of 86

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter Mar 2018

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter

Neil H. Carter

Information, energy, and materials are flowing over greater distances than in the past, changing the structure and feedbacks within and across coupled human and natural systems worldwide. The telecoupling framework was recently developed to understand the feedbacks and multidirectional flows characterizing social and environmental interactions between distant systems. We extend the application of the telecoupling framework to illustrate how flows in beef affect and are affected by social-ecological processes occurring between distant systems in Africa, and how those dynamics will likely change over the next few decades because of climate-induced shifts in a major bovine disease, trypanosomosis. The disease is ...


Ecosystem Functional Response Across Precipitation Extremes In A Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew T. Tredennick, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink, J. Bret Taylor, Peter B. Adler Mar 2018

Ecosystem Functional Response Across Precipitation Extremes In A Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew T. Tredennick, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink, J. Bret Taylor, Peter B. Adler

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Background

Precipitation is predicted to become more variable in the western United States, meaning years of above and below average precipitation will become more common. Periods of extreme precipitation are major drivers of interannual variability in ecosystem functioning in water limited communities, but how ecosystems respond to these extremes over the long-term may shift with precipitation means and variances. Long-term changes in ecosystem functional response could reflect compensatory changes in species composition or species reaching physiological thresholds at extreme precipitation levels.

Methods

We conducted a five year precipitation manipulation experiment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in Idaho, United States. We ...


Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul Mar 2018

Phenology Differences Between Native And Novel Exotic‐Dominated Grasslands Rival The Effects Of Climate Change, Brian J. Wilsey, Leanne M. Martin, Andrew D. Kaul

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

1. Novel ecosystems can differ from the native systems they replaced. We used phenology measures to compare ecosystem functioning between novel exotic-dominated and native-dominated grasslands in the central U.S.

2. Phenology, or timing of biological events, is affected by climate and land use changes. We assessed how phenology shifts are being altered by exotic species dominance by comparing remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index within growing seasons at exotic- and native-dominated sites along a latitudinal gradient. Exotic species were dominated by the C3 species functional group in the north and the C4 species functional group in the south.

3 ...


Landscape-Scale Effects Of Supra-Seasonal Drought On Semi-Aquatic Snake Assemblages, Philip N. Vogrinc, Andrew M. Durso, Christopher T. Winne, John D. Willson Feb 2018

Landscape-Scale Effects Of Supra-Seasonal Drought On Semi-Aquatic Snake Assemblages, Philip N. Vogrinc, Andrew M. Durso, Christopher T. Winne, John D. Willson

Biology Faculty Publications

Climate change is predicted to alter the frequency and intensity of precipitation events, placing stress on freshwater aquatic ecosystems and their associated wildlife. Thus, understanding interspecific variation in drought sensitivity and the repeatability of those responses across heterogeneous landscapes is critical. Semi-aquatic snakes serve important roles within aquatic ecosystems and several species are threatened. Yet, little is known about the effects of drought on semi-aquatic snake populations or assemblages. We systematically trapped 20 isolated wetlands in South Carolina before (2006) and after (2013) a multi-year supra-seasonal drought to determine drought-induced shifts in occupancy and detection for five semi-aquatic snake species ...


Climate-Change–Driven Accelerated Sea-Level Rise Detected In The Altimeter Era, R. S. Nerem, B. D. Beckley, J. T. Fasullo, B. D. Hamlinigton, D. Masters, Gary T. Mitchum Feb 2018

Climate-Change–Driven Accelerated Sea-Level Rise Detected In The Altimeter Era, R. S. Nerem, B. D. Beckley, J. T. Fasullo, B. D. Hamlinigton, D. Masters, Gary T. Mitchum

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Using a 25-y time series of precision satellite altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, and Jason-3, we estimate the climate-change–driven acceleration of global mean sea level over the last 25 y to be 0.084 ± 0.025 mm/y2. Coupled with the average climate-change–driven rate of sea level rise over these same 25 y of 2.9 mm/y, simple extrapolation of the quadratic implies global mean sea level could rise 65 ± 12 cm by 2100 compared with 2005, roughly in agreement with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5) model projections.


Infrared Heater System For Warming Tropical Forest Understory Plants And Soils, Bruce Kimball, Auro M. Alonso-Rodriguez, Molly A. Cavaleri, Sasha Reed, Grizelle Gonzalez, Tana E. Wood Feb 2018

Infrared Heater System For Warming Tropical Forest Understory Plants And Soils, Bruce Kimball, Auro M. Alonso-Rodriguez, Molly A. Cavaleri, Sasha Reed, Grizelle Gonzalez, Tana E. Wood

Michigan Tech Publications

The response of tropical forests to global warming is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting the future carbon balance of Earth. To determine the likely effects of elevated temperatures on tropical forest understory plants and soils, as well as other ecosystems, an infrared (IR) heater system was developed to provide in situ warming for the Tropical Responses to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Three replicate heated 4‐m‐diameter plots were warmed to maintain a 4°C increase in understory vegetation compared to three unheated control plots, as sensed by IR thermometers ...


Changes In Feeding Selectivity Of Freshwater Invertebrates Across A Natural Thermal Gradient, Timothy A C Gordon, Joana Neto-Cerejeira, Paula C. Furey, Eoin J. O’Gorman Jan 2018

Changes In Feeding Selectivity Of Freshwater Invertebrates Across A Natural Thermal Gradient, Timothy A C Gordon, Joana Neto-Cerejeira, Paula C. Furey, Eoin J. O’Gorman

Paula Furey

No abstract provided.


Temperate And Tropical Forest Canopies Are Already Functioning Beyond Their Thermal Thresholds For Photosynthesis, Alida C. Mau, Sasha C. Reed, Tana E. Wood, Molly A. Cavaleri Jan 2018

Temperate And Tropical Forest Canopies Are Already Functioning Beyond Their Thermal Thresholds For Photosynthesis, Alida C. Mau, Sasha C. Reed, Tana E. Wood, Molly A. Cavaleri

Michigan Tech Publications

Tropical tree species have evolved under very narrow temperature ranges compared to temperate forest species. Studies suggest that tropical trees may be more vulnerable to continued warming compared to temperate species, as tropical trees have shown declines in growth and photosynthesis at elevated temperatures. However, regional and global vegetation models lack the data needed to accurately represent such physiological responses to increased temperatures, especially for tropical forests. To address this need, we compared instantaneous photosynthetic temperature responses of mature canopy foliage, leaf temperatures, and air temperatures across vertical canopy gradients in three forest types: tropical wet, tropical moist, and temperate ...


Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco Jan 2018

Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco

Research on Capitol Hill

Abundance of native forb species is declining, leading to degraded ecosystems within the Great Basin.

Forbs provide many ecosystem functions, including wildlife habitat for species such as Sage Grouse, increased biodiversity, resistance to erosion, and protection from invasive plant species.

Climate change is predicted to affect timing, frequency, and intensity of precipitation within the Great Basin. During the fall season, precipitation is expected to increase by 30%.

Changes in precipitation will likely affect fall emergence of forbs, which is essential for overwintering and establishment.

Learning how precipitation affects forb emergence could lead to new methods that increase fall emergence and ...


The Role Of Climate In The Dynamics Of Annual Plants In A Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem, Danielle Ignace, Nancy Huntly, Peter Chesson Jan 2018

The Role Of Climate In The Dynamics Of Annual Plants In A Chihuahuan Desert Ecosystem, Danielle Ignace, Nancy Huntly, Peter Chesson

Biological Sciences: Faculty Publications

Question: What is the role of temporal climate fluctuations in the dynamics of desert winter annual plants in the Portal Bajada, and in the sustained irruption of the non-native annual plant species, Erodium cicutarium?

Field site: Portal Bajada, San Simon Valley, Arizona, USA. Methods: We counted plants at flowering over a 21-year period on twelve permanent plots and related these numbers to weather data collected at an on-site weather station, supplemented by observations from the National Climate Data Center. Specific summary climate variables considered most relevant to annual plant biology were developed as candidate predictors of plant response variables.

Statistical ...


Changing Climatic Averages And Variance: Implications For Mesophication At The Eastern Edge Of North America’S Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan Kutta, Jason A. Hubbart Jan 2018

Changing Climatic Averages And Variance: Implications For Mesophication At The Eastern Edge Of North America’S Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan Kutta, Jason A. Hubbart

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Observed conversion of xerophytic warm genera species to mesophytic cool genera species in North America’s Eastern Deciduous Forest (EDF) suggests species composition is in disequilibrium with recent climatic warming. However, increasing annual average temperatures is an oversimplification of long-term climatic change and the importance of climate variance is often neglected. Seven-year moving averages and standard deviations of annually averaged maximum temperatures, minimum temperatures, daily precipitation, and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) in West Virginia, USA were quantified over a 111-year period of record (1906–2016). Maximum temperatures decreased significantly (−5.3%; p < 0.001), minimum temperatures increased significantly (7.7%; p < 0.001), and precipitation increased (2.2%; p = 0.107). Additionally, maximum temperature variance decreased (−17.4%; p = 0.109), minimum temperature variance decreased significantly (−22.6%; p = 0.042), and precipitation variance increased significantly (26.6%; p = 0.004). Results indicate a reduced diurnal temperature range and significant reductions in estimated VPD (10.3%; p < 0.001) that imply increased relative humidity, cloud cover, and soil moisture that may support increasingly abundant mesophytic cool genera species. Feedback mechanisms associated with extensive changes in land use, fire suppression, and browser population may have exacerbated climatic changes. Long-term assessments of changing climatic averages and variance are needed to ensure sustainability of forest ecosystem services, health, and productivity in a swiftly changing climate across the broader EDF region and similar temperate forest ecosystems globally.


The Ecology And Economics Of Restoration: When, What, Where, And How To Restore Ecosystems, Jason R. Rohr, Emily S. Bernhardt, Marc W. Cadotte, William H. Clements Jan 2018

The Ecology And Economics Of Restoration: When, What, Where, And How To Restore Ecosystems, Jason R. Rohr, Emily S. Bernhardt, Marc W. Cadotte, William H. Clements

Integrative Biology Faculty and Staff Publications

Restoration ecology has provided a suite of tools for accelerating the recovery of ecosystems damaged by drivers of global change. We review both the ecological and economic concepts developed in restoration ecology, and offer guidance on when, what, where, and how to restore ecosystems. For when to restore, we highlight the value of pursuing restoration early to prevent ecosystems from crossing tipping points and evaluating whether unassisted natural recovery is more cost-effective than active restoration. For what to restore, we encourage developing a restoration plan with stakeholders that will restore structural, compositional, and functional endpoints, and whose goal is a ...


Environmental Effects Are Stronger Than Human Effects On Mammalian Predator-Prey Relationships In Arid Australian Ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K.-P. Leung Jan 2018

Environmental Effects Are Stronger Than Human Effects On Mammalian Predator-Prey Relationships In Arid Australian Ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K.-P. Leung

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these process on a model endangered rodent, dusky hopping-mice (Notomys fuscus). We established a large manipulative experiment in arid Australia, and collected information from relative abundance indices, camera traps, GPS-collared dingoes (Canis familiaris) and dingo scats, along with a range of ...


Rapid Coastal Forest Decline In Florida's Big Bend, Matthew J. Mccarthy, Benjamin Dimmitt, Frank E. Muller-Karger Jan 2018

Rapid Coastal Forest Decline In Florida's Big Bend, Matthew J. Mccarthy, Benjamin Dimmitt, Frank E. Muller-Karger

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Coastal ecosystems throughout the world are increasingly vulnerable to degradation as a result of accelerating sea-level rise and saltwater intrusion, more frequent and powerful extreme weather events, and anthropogenic impacts. Hardwood swamp forests in the Big Bend region of Florida’s Gulf of Mexico coast (USA) are largely devoid of the latter, but have degraded rapidly since the turn of the 21st Century. Photographs of the forest, collected on the ground since 2009, were used to guide an analysis of a 60 km2 study area using satellite images. The images confirm that the coastal forest area declined 0.60 ...


Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine Jan 2018

Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance. Here in this review, the geographic ...


Evaluating Current And Future Range Limits Of An Endangered, Keystone Rodent (Dipodomys Ingens), Ivy V. Widick Jan 2018

Evaluating Current And Future Range Limits Of An Endangered, Keystone Rodent (Dipodomys Ingens), Ivy V. Widick

HSU theses and projects

Climate is often considered the single most important factor limiting species’ ranges. Other factors, such as biotic interactions, are often assumed to be included via abiotic proxies. However, differential responses to climate change may decouple these relationships or lead to adaptation to novel environments. Accounting for competition and local adaptation should more accurately describe environmental factors influencing current distributions and increase the predictive accuracy of future distributions. Modeling the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens) is an excellent application of these model improvements, as the species range consists of geographically and genetically isolated populations experiencing disparate climatic change. From eight ...


Dendroclimatic Analysis Of White Pine (Pinus Strobus L.) Using Long-Term Provenance Test Sites Across Eastern North America, Sophan Chhin, Ronald S. Zalesny Jr, William C. Parker, John Brissette Jan 2018

Dendroclimatic Analysis Of White Pine (Pinus Strobus L.) Using Long-Term Provenance Test Sites Across Eastern North America, Sophan Chhin, Ronald S. Zalesny Jr, William C. Parker, John Brissette

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Background: The main objective of this study was to examine the climatic sensitivity of the radial growth response of 13 eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) provenances planted at seven test sites throughout the northern part of the species’ native distribution in eastern North America.

Methods: The test sites (i.e., Wabeno, Wisconsin, USA; Manistique, Michigan, USA; Pine River, Michigan, USA; Newaygo, Michigan, USA; Turkey Point, Ontario, Canada; Ganaraska, Ontario, Canada; and Orono, Maine, USA) examined in this study were part of a range-wide white pine provenance trial established in the early 1960s in the eastern United States and Canada ...


Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen Jan 2018

Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are experiencing rapid and substantial changes to their environment due to global climate change. Polar bears of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) have historically spent most of the year on the sea ice. However, recent reports from Alaska indicate that the proportion of the SB subpopulation observed on-shore during late summer and early fall has increased. Our objective was to investigate whether this on-shore behavior has developed through genetic inheritance, asocial learning, or through social learning. From 2010 to 2013, genetic data were collected from SB polar bears in the fall via hair snags and remote ...


In Anthropocene Air: Deleuze's Encounter With Shakespeare, Steven Swarbrick Jan 2018

In Anthropocene Air: Deleuze's Encounter With Shakespeare, Steven Swarbrick

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter Jan 2018

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter

Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

Information, energy, and materials are flowing over greater distances than in the past, changing the structure and feedbacks within and across coupled human and natural systems worldwide. The telecoupling framework was recently developed to understand the feedbacks and multidirectional flows characterizing social and environmental interactions between distant systems. We extend the application of the telecoupling framework to illustrate how flows in beef affect and are affected by social-ecological processes occurring between distant systems in Africa, and how those dynamics will likely change over the next few decades because of climate-induced shifts in a major bovine disease, trypanosomosis. The disease is ...


Growth Dynamics Of Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) Across Northwestern North America, Anastasia E. Sniderhan Jan 2018

Growth Dynamics Of Black Spruce (Picea Mariana) Across Northwestern North America, Anastasia E. Sniderhan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The impacts of climate change have been widely documented around the world. One of the most rapidly changing areas is the boreal forest of North America. The extent of change has been such that there have been shifts in long-standing climate-growth relationships in many boreal tree species; while the growth of many of these high-latitude forests were formerly limited by temperature, warming has increased the evapotranspirative demands such that there is widespread drought stress limiting productivity in the boreal forest. With the importance of the boreal forest as a global carbon sink, it is imperative to understand the extent of ...


Drivers Of Post-Fire Vascular Plant Regeneration In The Conifer-Dominated Boreal Forest Of Southern Northwest Territories, Alison White Jan 2018

Drivers Of Post-Fire Vascular Plant Regeneration In The Conifer-Dominated Boreal Forest Of Southern Northwest Territories, Alison White

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In recent years, climate warming has led to an increase in the severity and frequency of naturally occurring fires in boreal ecosystems globally. In 2014, an unprecedented 3.4 million hectares of boreal forest burned in the Northwest Territories (NWT). While much research has focused on post-fire succession of serotinous tree species such as Picea mariana (black spruce) and Pinus banksiana (jack pine), the understory community of vascular plants play an important role in ecosystem functioning but less is known about the response of this component of the system to changing fire regimes. Regeneration strategies such as the ability to ...


Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross Jan 2018

Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Forest ecosystems are being altered by climate change, invasive species, and additional stressors. Our ability to detect these changes and quantify their impacts relies on detailed data across spatial and temporal scales. This dissertation expands the ecological utility of long-term satellite imagery by developing high quality forest mapping products and examining spatiotemporal changes in tree species abundance and phenology across the northeastern United States (US; the ‘Northeast’).

Species/genus-level forest composition maps were developed by integrating field data and Landsat images to model abundance at a sub-pixel scale. These abundance maps were then used to 1) produce a more detailed ...


Nutritional Ecology Of Aphaenogaster Ants In Response To Climate Change, Katie A. Miller Jan 2018

Nutritional Ecology Of Aphaenogaster Ants In Response To Climate Change, Katie A. Miller

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Climate change is predicted to impact organismal nutritional ecology. Increased temperatures can directly accelerate physiological rate processes, which in turn, impact nutritional requirements. Climate change can also impact organisms indirectly by altering the quality and quantity of nutritional resources, creating the potential for nutritional mismatch between what nutrients are available in the environment and what organisms require. Investigation of organismal stoichiometry, particularly the balance of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of organisms, can help illuminate the extent to which changes in climate may impact organism nutritional ecology. Ants represent an excellent system to examine stoichiometry because they occur across a ...


Estimating The Heritability Of Thermal Tolerance In Acropora Cervicornis And The Physiological Basis Of Adaptation That Correlates To Survival At Elevated Temperatures, Kelsey L. Yetsko Jan 2018

Estimating The Heritability Of Thermal Tolerance In Acropora Cervicornis And The Physiological Basis Of Adaptation That Correlates To Survival At Elevated Temperatures, Kelsey L. Yetsko

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human activities have substantially increased the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, resulting in warmer ocean temperatures that are having a negative impact on reef corals, which are highly susceptible to changes in temperature. Understanding the degree to which species vary in their tolerance to elevated temperatures and whether this variation is heritable is important in determining their ability to adapt to climate change. In order to address this, Acropora cervicornis fragments from 20 genetically distinct colonies were kept at either ambient or elevated temperatures, and mortality was monitored for 26 days. Heritability of thermal tolerance was estimated using a clonal ...


A Review Of Heat Stress Policies In The Context Of Climate Change And Its Impacts On Outdoor Workers: Evidence From Zimbabwe, Bigboy Ngwenya, Jacques Oosthuizen, Martyn Cross, Kwasi Frimpong, Cynthia N. Chaibva Jan 2018

A Review Of Heat Stress Policies In The Context Of Climate Change And Its Impacts On Outdoor Workers: Evidence From Zimbabwe, Bigboy Ngwenya, Jacques Oosthuizen, Martyn Cross, Kwasi Frimpong, Cynthia N. Chaibva

ECU Publications Post 2013

Record-breaking summer heat events are increasing in frequency in Zimbabwe and 2016 was a particularly hot year with the country experiencing its worst heat wave event in decades. Currently, Zimbabwe has no coordinated public health response to deal with heat wave events and no specific data on heat-related morbidity and mortality. The country has no legislation for protecting workers against environmental heat exposure, particularly those most vulnerable who are employed in the informal sector. These workers are also at risk due to their outdoor work environments. The article outlines the state of climate and heat stresses in Zimbabwe, as benchmarked ...