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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Breeding For Resilience To Increasing Temperatures: A Field Trial Assessing Genetic Variation In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell, David Van Sanford Dec 2018

Breeding For Resilience To Increasing Temperatures: A Field Trial Assessing Genetic Variation In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell, David Van Sanford

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Breeding for resilience to climate change is a daunting prospect. Crop and climate models tell us that global wheat yields are likely to decline as the climate warms, causing a significant risk to global food security. High temperatures are known to affect crop development yet breeding for tolerance to heat stress is difficult to achieve in field environments. We conducted an active warming study over two years to quantify the effects of heat stress on genetic variation of soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Forty SRW cultivars and breeding lines were chosen based on marker genotypes at photoperiod ...


Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang Sep 2018

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Wildfire is a primary natural disturbance in boreal forests, and post-fire vegetation recovery rate influences carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere in the region. Seed availability and environmental filtering are two important determinants in regulating post-fire vegetation recovery in boreal forests. Quantifying how these determinants change over time is helpful for understanding post-fire forest successional trajectory. Time series of remote sensing data offer considerable potential in monitoring the trajectory of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics beyond current field surveys about structural attributes, which generally lack a temporal perspective across large burned areas. We used a time series ...


Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo Aug 2018

Thresholds And Drivers Of Coral Calcification Responses To Climate Change, Niklas Kornder, Bernhard Riegl, Joana Figueiredo

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Increased temperature and CO2 levels are considered key drivers of coral reef degradation. However, individual assessments of ecological responses (calcification) to these stressors are often contradicting. To detect underlying drivers of heterogeneity in coral calcification responses, we developed a procedure for the inclusion of stress–effect relationships in ecological meta‐analyses. We applied this technique to a dataset of 294 empirical observations from 62 peer‐reviewed publications testing individual and combined effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on coral calcification. Our results show an additive interaction between warming and acidification, which reduces coral calcification by 20% when pCO ...


Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor May 2018

Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor

Journal of Latin American Geography

Despite continued forest loss and extensive demand for wood products throughout Guatemala, the locally managed and protected forests of Totonicapán remain some of the most intact within the country. Here, we study the growth rings of Guatemalan fir (Pinaceae; Abies guatemalensis Rehder; pinabete) at Totonicapán to assess environmental influences on tree growth and the potential vulnerability of these forests to climate change in the western highlands. We find that late summer and dry season precipitation are critical drivers in annual ring-width variability and that tree growth responds negatively to warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. Considering ...


Providing Modeling Tools On Extreme Events Of Climate Change To Puget Sound Managers, Andrea Copping, Zhaoqing Yang, Ian Miller, Jude Apple, Guillaume Mauger, Nathalie Voisin, Aimee Fullerton, Ning Sun, Mikaela Freeman Apr 2018

Providing Modeling Tools On Extreme Events Of Climate Change To Puget Sound Managers, Andrea Copping, Zhaoqing Yang, Ian Miller, Jude Apple, Guillaume Mauger, Nathalie Voisin, Aimee Fullerton, Ning Sun, Mikaela Freeman

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

As climate change becomes a reality for the management of Puget Sound, water resource and fisheries managers should consider incorporating predictions and outcomes of future climate drivers into their long-range plans and daily operations. Modeling tools that focus on climate impacts and predictions show that extreme events are more often responsible for large impacts than the long-term press of climate change. Working with water resource and fisheries managers in the Dungeness and Skagit watersheds, this project uses outputs of existing climate and estuarine models to define thresholds and metrics associated with extreme climate-driven events that are of importance to the ...


Recent Conditions Highlight Regional Differences In Temperature, Salinity And Dissolved Oxygen Between Strait Of Juan De Fuca And Puget Sound Sites Under Anomalous 2014-2017 Climate Patterns, Julia Bos, Christopher Krembs, Skip Albertson, Mya Keyzers, Allison Brownlee, Carol Maloy Apr 2018

Recent Conditions Highlight Regional Differences In Temperature, Salinity And Dissolved Oxygen Between Strait Of Juan De Fuca And Puget Sound Sites Under Anomalous 2014-2017 Climate Patterns, Julia Bos, Christopher Krembs, Skip Albertson, Mya Keyzers, Allison Brownlee, Carol Maloy

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Understanding impacts of climate change on Salish Sea water quality is critical yet challenging due to the complexity, strength and diversity of influences on circulation and mixing. Different extreme climate conditions in recent years (2014-2017) include record warm temperatures with reduced snow pack in 2014-2015 followed by a few years of alternating summer droughts with record rainy seasons. These conditions influenced marine water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO) throughout the Salish Sea. Analyses reveal distinct differences in these key physical and chemical characteristics between Strait of Juan de Fuca sites and sites within Puget Sound basins. Extremely low DO ...


Space Matters: Incorporating Mechanistically Determined Spatial Patterns Into Projected Impacts Of Climate Change On Stream Temperature, Se-Yeun Lee, Aimee H. Fullerton, Ashley Steel, Christian Torgersen Apr 2018

Space Matters: Incorporating Mechanistically Determined Spatial Patterns Into Projected Impacts Of Climate Change On Stream Temperature, Se-Yeun Lee, Aimee H. Fullerton, Ashley Steel, Christian Torgersen

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

River temperatures are increasing as a results of climate change, and combined with decreased summertime flows, coldwater species are becoming increasingly stressed. In order to conserve sensitive species, managers need an estimate of how the availability of summertime thermal refuges in rivers will change in the future. Here, we applied the DHSVM-RBM, an existing process-based water temperature model that has been shown to accurately represent temporal variance in water temperature over hours to years. We calibrated this model to empirical data for two case study watersheds (Siletz River, Oregon and Snoqualmie River, Washington) to also ensure representation of observed spatial ...


Zooplankton Ecology Of The Fraser River Estuary, Joanne Breckenridge, Evgeny Pakhomov Apr 2018

Zooplankton Ecology Of The Fraser River Estuary, Joanne Breckenridge, Evgeny Pakhomov

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Zooplankton are critical components of the pelagic food web. This presentation will discuss zooplankton ecology in the Fraser River Estuary, drawing on the preliminary results of a monitoring study, which ran from August 2013 to May 2016, as well as specific investigations into the life history and behaviour of one of the dominant species, the copepod Eurytemora affinis. Data analysis is ongoing, but, for most of the year, estuarine zooplankton appear limited by the estuary’s short residence time. Due to the advective nature of their environment, estuarine zooplankton have evolved mechanisms to retain populations within the estuary. Our results ...


Climate Change Adaptation Planning For Port Of Seattle Waterfront Properties, Joseph Gellings Apr 2018

Climate Change Adaptation Planning For Port Of Seattle Waterfront Properties, Joseph Gellings

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

As Seattle’s economy continues to evolve, its significance as a port city is undiminished. The container ports of Seattle and Tacoma recently entered into a joint management agreement and, together, they are the fourth largest container gateway in North America. At the same time, competition is fierce between the remaining rival ports and capital spending on the land-side cargo terminals is a key variable in this competition. This makes it critical that the Port understands what role climate change adaptation will play in the broader challenge of setting the level of public fund expenditures on terminal upgrade projects. The ...


Lessons Learned: Tidal Marsh Restoration In A Dynamic Context Of Stress And Climate Change, Roger N. Fuller Apr 2018

Lessons Learned: Tidal Marsh Restoration In A Dynamic Context Of Stress And Climate Change, Roger N. Fuller

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

In the Stillaguamish estuary, tidal wetlands have been receding for decades as a result of both natural and anthropogenic changes. Despite current restoration efforts, monitoring suggests that rising stress from climate change impacts on summer flows, legacy stresses from the levee system, and increased plant mortality from avian and insect herbivores may interact to accelerate the rate of marsh loss. Lessons learned from a 2012 restoration project should inform adaptive management and future restoration projects. Post-restoration monitoring has revealed a pattern of interacting stresses at both the site and system scales that affects marsh productivity and resilience to climate change ...


Guiding Chinook Salmon Recovery Projects Towards A More Resilient Future, Stacy Vynne Mckinstry, Amber Moore Apr 2018

Guiding Chinook Salmon Recovery Projects Towards A More Resilient Future, Stacy Vynne Mckinstry, Amber Moore

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Changing climate conditions, along with land-use and other ecological changes, are affecting the health, vitality, and resilience of Chinook salmon populations in watersheds throughout Puget Sound. Restoration and protection projects are designed to address the most critical factors affecting salmon populations. However, with climate change, these factors may change: the medium- and long-term success of the projects and expected benefits to salmon may be compromised and/or current investments may not achieve expected results. The Puget Sound Partnership recently released guidance to help project sponsors and local salmon recovery lead entities identify key climate-related risks for Chinook salmon, guide project ...


Fir Island Farm: Estuary Restoration Project: Designing For Climate Change And Uncertainty In Shoreline Flood Risk Reduction And Ecosystem Restoration Projects, David Cline Apr 2018

Fir Island Farm: Estuary Restoration Project: Designing For Climate Change And Uncertainty In Shoreline Flood Risk Reduction And Ecosystem Restoration Projects, David Cline

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The recently designed and constructed Fir Island Farm – Estuary Restoration Project involves construction of a 1-mile long shoreline levee (dike) setback for restoration of 130 acres of farm land for tidal marsh estuary ecosystem restoration. The key uncertainty, and resiliency, design elements of concern include 1) selection of dike level of protection and design elevations considering climate change sea level rise projections, 2) inclusion of erosion protection measures, 3) farm drainage tailwater conditions and 4) ecosystem marsh vegetated plain future elevations and large woody debris loading conditions. This presentation discusses how site characterization, instrumentation, numerical modeling and monitoring were used ...


Understanding And Predicting Coccolithophorid Calcification In A Changing Ocean, Natasha Aisha Gafar Jan 2018

Understanding And Predicting Coccolithophorid Calcification In A Changing Ocean, Natasha Aisha Gafar

Theses

My project builds on previous work to derive a new biologically based model to describe the response of coccolithophorid growth, photosynthesis and calcification to changing carbonate chemistry (pCO2), which, also accounts for the effects of temperature and light. This model, was used to increase understanding of the interacting effects of light, temperature and CO2 on the two key coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. I also examined how changing light and pCO2 influenced the large coccolithophore Scyphosphaera apsteinii through both experiments and the application of the above model.