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Climate change

2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 64

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Combined Effects Of Dissolved Oxygen And Temperature On Aerobic Respiration And Respiratory Recovery Responses Of The Spioniform Polychaete, Streblospio Gynobranchiata, In Relation To Body Size, Alyssa Bennett Dec 2017

Combined Effects Of Dissolved Oxygen And Temperature On Aerobic Respiration And Respiratory Recovery Responses Of The Spioniform Polychaete, Streblospio Gynobranchiata, In Relation To Body Size, Alyssa Bennett

Master's Theses

Elevated surface temperatures exacerbate the threat of hypoxia within coastal ecosystems. These two primary stressors likely interact as they elicit opposing physiological responses from marine organisms. Metabolic depression is typically associated with hypoxia, while metabolic rates increase with temperature. Moreover, physiological effects of combined stressors may not be additive. In light of increasing pressures from hypoxia, elevated ocean temperatures, and other stressors within coastal regions, studies need to examine effects of multiple stressors on physiology of coastal organisms.

Mass-specific aerobic respiration (VO2) was characterized as a proxy for metabolic cost of Streblospio gynobranchiata, at combined levels of dissolved oxygen ...


Effects Of Temperature On Growth And Molting In Blue Crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) And Lesser Blue Crabs (Callinectes Similis), Abigail Ann Kuhn Dec 2017

Effects Of Temperature On Growth And Molting In Blue Crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) And Lesser Blue Crabs (Callinectes Similis), Abigail Ann Kuhn

Master's Theses

Temperature can exert impacts on many processes in ectotherms. With global temperatures rising due to climate change, many ectothermic species may exhibit changes in growth rates and size at maturity, and these changes can have population-level effects. Predicting responses of species to climate change will require not only knowledge of thermal tolerance limits, but also effects of temperature change on growth rates and other life history parameters. For arthropods that exhibit discontinuous growth (i.e., molting), this includes both intermolt period and growth per molt. Previous laboratory and field experiments suggest that temperature affects both intermolt period (IMP) and growth ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter Dec 2017

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


Estimating The Range Shift And Harvesting Intensity Of Junipers In Bhutan (Eastern Himalaya), Rinchen Namgay Nov 2017

Estimating The Range Shift And Harvesting Intensity Of Junipers In Bhutan (Eastern Himalaya), Rinchen Namgay

Theses

The authors of more than 97% of the scientific publications on climate change agree that global temperature has increased in the last six decades and is caused by human beings via emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This phenomenon has altered natural ecosystem functions, causing many species to shift to a more suitable habitat. Throughout the world, because of recent climate warming, many forms of range shift associated with climate warming has occurred. While animals can move as warming happens, plants being stationary organisms cannot move, so the difference in the distribution of different plant life stages is an ...


Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado Nov 2017

Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Adaptive Variation In Tiger Salamander Populations, Meghan Parsley Oct 2017

Adaptive Variation In Tiger Salamander Populations, Meghan Parsley

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Amphibians face an unknown future in a time of rapid environmental change due to global climate perturbations. Since amphibians are perceived to be indicators of ecosystem health, understanding the causes of their declines can improve our perception of threats to other species. Molecular techniques have allowed us to explore how environmental change affects genetic variation and to predict evolutionary adaptive potential of amphibian populations. The identification of populations with the greatest potential to respond to changing environmental variables may be an important conservation strategy to aid in future management efforts. I utilized targeted exon capture sequencing to identify adaptive variation ...


Physiological Ecology Of Four Endemic Alabama Species And The Exotic Asiatic Weatherfish, Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842), Lindsay M. White, Mark E. Meade, Benjamin A. Staton Sep 2017

Physiological Ecology Of Four Endemic Alabama Species And The Exotic Asiatic Weatherfish, Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842), Lindsay M. White, Mark E. Meade, Benjamin A. Staton

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The occurrence of Asiatic Weatherfish, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, in Alabama, a state known for its rich biodiversity, has generated concern among conservation managers. The current study used respirometry techniques to investigate the effects of increasing temperature on four native southeastern fishes (one cyprinid, two percids, and one elassomid) and the non-native M. anguillicaudatus. A minimum of five individuals of each species were used, and three experimental temperatures were chosen to represent spring and summer averages of northeast Alabama streams (15, 20, and 25°C). Overall, mean standard metabolic rates (SMRs) for M. anguillicaudatus were low (97.01, 127.75, and 158 ...


Elevated Temperature And Co2 Concentrations Affect Carbon Flux In Two Boreal Conifers, Sasha Madhavji Sep 2017

Elevated Temperature And Co2 Concentrations Affect Carbon Flux In Two Boreal Conifers, Sasha Madhavji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elevated temperatures and CO2 will alter carbon flux in two dominant boreal tree species Picea mariana (black spruce) and Larix laricina (tamarack). Trees were grown in three temperature treatments (ambient, ambient +4 °C, and ambient +8 °C) at either 400 ppm or 750 ppm CO2, to simulate climate conditions between now and the year 2100. Spruce acclimated to increasing temperature detractively; warming scenarios reduced spruce net carbon gain. Tamarack maintained comparable levels of net photosynthesis (Anet) across warming treatments and both species acclimated respiration (Rdark) with increasing growth temperature. Elevated CO2-grown spruce suppressed A ...


Warming And Elevated Co2 Alter The Suberin Chemistry In Roots Of Photosynthetically Divergent Grass Species, Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil, Elise Pendall, Apparao M. Rao Sep 2017

Warming And Elevated Co2 Alter The Suberin Chemistry In Roots Of Photosynthetically Divergent Grass Species, Vidya Suseela, Nishanth Tharayil, Elise Pendall, Apparao M. Rao

Publications

A majority of soil carbon (C) is either directly or indirectly derived from fine roots, yet roots remain the least understood component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. The decomposability of fine roots and their potential to contribute to soil C is partly regulated by their tissue chemical composition. Roots rely heavily on heteropolymers such as suberins, lignins and tannins to adapt to various environmental pressures and to maximize their resource uptake functions. Since the chemical construction of roots is partly shaped by their immediate biotic/abiotic soil environments, global changes that perturb soil resource availability and plant growth could potentially ...


A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann Sep 2017

A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Increasing concern about the impacts of climate change on ecosystems is prompting ecologists and ecosystem managers to seek reliable projections of physical drivers of change. The use of global climate models in ecology is growing, although drawing ecologically meaningful conclusions can be problematic. The expertise required to access and interpret output from climate and earth system models is hampering progress in utilizing them most effectively to determine the wider implications of climate change. To address this issue, we present a joint approach between climate scientists and ecologists that explores key challenges and opportunities for progress. As an exemplar, our focus ...


Long-Term Changes In A Spatially Subsidized Insular Ecosystem In The Archipelago Of Bahía De Los Ángeles, Baja California, Mexico, Thais Fournier Aug 2017

Long-Term Changes In A Spatially Subsidized Insular Ecosystem In The Archipelago Of Bahía De Los Ángeles, Baja California, Mexico, Thais Fournier

Theses

Interactions between climate change and the processes that structure coastal communities are poorly understood.Long – term weather patterns that include extreme events (e.g., El Niño Southern Oscillation, or “ENSO”) allow us to test hypotheses of how changes in weather (e.g., precipitation) will influence communities over long time frames. One system that is particularly vulnerable to climate changes is the coastal ecotone, which occupies 8% of the earth’s surface. A large exchange of resources (spatial subsidies) link habitats across this ocean – land interface, often with dramatic consequences for the recipient systems. Spatial subsidies such as marine input influence ...


Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau Aug 2017

Rethinking Urban Green Infrastructure As A Means To Promote Avian Conservation, Allen Lau

Master's Projects and Capstones

There is an under-recognized potential for cities to use urban green infrastructure to contribute to avian biodiversity conservation. At the global scale, climate change and growing urbanization are primary global drivers leading to decline and homogenization in world bird populations. Birds are fundamental and intricate species in ecosystems, and even in urban areas, act as indicator and regulator species contributing to healthy ecosystem function. While many cities have recognized the economic and social benefits associated with green spaces, such as the vast benefits ecosystem services provide to the urban dweller, the use of green spaces to concurrently contribute to avian ...


Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee Aug 2017

Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the productivity and resilience of agroecosystems in the Korean Peninsula. Having learned valuable lessons from a Chapman University project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture which concentrated on the semi-arid region of southwestern United States, our joint Korea—Chapman University team has applied similar methodologies to the Korean Peninsula, which is itself an interesting study case in the mid-latitude region. In particular, the Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environments due to differences in political and socioeconomic systems between South Korea and North Korea. Specifically, North Korea has been suffering from food shortages due to natural ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions And Carbon Sequestration In Turfgrass: Effects Of Irrigation And Nitrogen Fertilization (Year 2), R. Braun, D. Bremer Jul 2017

Nitrous Oxide Emissions And Carbon Sequestration In Turfgrass: Effects Of Irrigation And Nitrogen Fertilization (Year 2), R. Braun, D. Bremer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

This study was conducted from 2013–2016 to determine how irrigation and N fertilization may be managed to reduce N2O emissions and enhance carbon sequestration. In this study, annual nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were greatest in urea and the least in unfertilized (no N) among treatments. During summer, the lower irrigation treatment resulted in less N2O emitted. All fertilizer and irrigation treatments maintained acceptable quality and high levels of percent green cover; however, the controlled-release fertilizer resulted in more consistent turf quality and green cover compared to urea and unfertilized. Urea fertilizer had higher ...


Trees And Climate Change, Megan Dettenmaier, Michael R. Kuhns, Bethany Unger, Darren Mcavoy Jul 2017

Trees And Climate Change, Megan Dettenmaier, Michael R. Kuhns, Bethany Unger, Darren Mcavoy

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.


Determining Effects Of Heat Stress On Illinois Soybeans, Ava Alford, Charles Burroughs, Lisa Ainsworth Jul 2017

Determining Effects Of Heat Stress On Illinois Soybeans, Ava Alford, Charles Burroughs, Lisa Ainsworth

Phenotypic Plasticity Research Experience for Community College Students

Rising global temperatures affect our food supply. Heat stress could negatively affect photosynthesis, plant development, and flower and pod production. The research summarized in this poster aims to better understand which physiological processes in soybeans are negatively affected by heat stress in order to identify targets for future soybean production. Using infrared heat arrays, two different cultivars of Illinois soybeans are continually heated. Throughout the experiment, data is collected on photosynthesis, leaf area index, and overall productivity of the plant. At the end of the growing season, all of the soybean plants will be harvested and their biomass will be ...


Spatial And Temporal Variation In Mangrove Distribution (1950-2014) In Tampa, Florida Usa, Carolyn Cheatham Rhodes Jun 2017

Spatial And Temporal Variation In Mangrove Distribution (1950-2014) In Tampa, Florida Usa, Carolyn Cheatham Rhodes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I carried out an observational study of historic high resolution aerial imagery spanning six decades (1950-2014) to identify recent and historic spatial extent of mangrove forests, within the municipal boundaries of the City of Tampa, Florida USA. My objectives were to map mangrove distribution and spatial extent and any change or patterns of change discernable. I observed variable patterns of change and rates of expansion varied between sites spatially as well as within sites between time intervals. I found notable changes in mangrove extent in the Tampa from historic and modern aerial imagery for the ~64-year period between 1950 and ...


Climate Change, One Health And Mercury, L. K. Duffy, T. Vertigan, B. Dainowski, K. Dunlap, Amy Hirons Jun 2017

Climate Change, One Health And Mercury, L. K. Duffy, T. Vertigan, B. Dainowski, K. Dunlap, Amy Hirons

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Climate change is occurring on both regional and global scales. The use and global distribution of toxic metals is increasing and affecting environmental, animal and human health as a result of air, water and food contamination. Mercury (Hg) in major forms Hg°, Hg2+ and methyl mercury (CH3Hg+) are increasingly available around the globe. Both metal and organic contaminants are impacting the health of all species on the planet. Mercury is an example of a metal that can cause or aggravate a disease state, for example, diabetes. Habitat stewardship is needed to maintain a healthy system, and selecting ...


Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning Jun 2017

Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from swine production systems are relatively well researched with the exception of emissions from land application of manure. GHGs inventories are needed for process-based modeling and science-based regulations. Thus, the objective of this observational study was to measure GHG fluxes from land application of swine manure on a typical corn field. Assessment of GHG emissions from deep injected land-applied swine manure, fall and reapplication in the spring, on a typical US Midwestern corn-on-corn farm was completed. Static chambers were used for flux measurement along with gas analysis on a GC-FID-ECD. Measured gas concentrations were used to ...


Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm May 2017

Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm

Student Honors Theses By Year

Recent research documents climate-induced changes in the algal communities of West Greenland lakes; however, less is known about the response of zooplankton to climate change effects in this region. Zooplankton are predominantly the top predator in these lakes, and thus may be changing due to direct climate effects on physical lake habitat and chemistry or indirect effects on their food source. Cladoceran remains from two lake sediment cores were collected in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwest Greenland: SS1341, located midway between the Greenland ice sheet and the coast, and SS901, close in proximity to the ice sheet. Modern zooplankton data ...


Understanding The Complex Relationships Between Climate, Vegetation, And Foraging Behavior Of A Climate-Sensitive Alpine Mammal In Order To Explain Patterns Of Persistence, Evan Cole May 2017

Understanding The Complex Relationships Between Climate, Vegetation, And Foraging Behavior Of A Climate-Sensitive Alpine Mammal In Order To Explain Patterns Of Persistence, Evan Cole

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mountain ecosystems offer substantial ecosystem services but are highly sensitive to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) serves as an indicator species of climate change and a model organism for studying its impacts on mountain mammals. Certain aspects of plant community composition and structure can function as predictors of pika distribution, but understanding the links between climate, forage quality, and foraging behavior is necessary to identify the mediating mechanism. Pika foraging pressure help shape the local plant community, which can confound modeling efforts and must be considered when evaluating the influence of vegetation on pika persistence. Plant Secondary Metabolites ...


Financial Assessment Of Agricultural Lands At Risk To Coastal Salt Marsh Migration In Relation To Climate Change Induced Sea Level Rise In Dorchester County, Maryland, Jewell Porter May 2017

Financial Assessment Of Agricultural Lands At Risk To Coastal Salt Marsh Migration In Relation To Climate Change Induced Sea Level Rise In Dorchester County, Maryland, Jewell Porter

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The increasing rate and effects of sea level rise is a major environmental concern in the Chesapeake Bay. This paper evaluates the impacts of rising sea level on coastal salt marshes and the surrounding agricultural lands at risk in Dorchester County, Maryland to build off existing environmental monitoring work performed by NOAA’s Sentinel Site Program. The results of the spatial analysis were used to estimate monetary benefits to incentivize farmers to protect these marshes by making their land available for marsh migration to occur. Looking at three scenarios of sea level rise and marsh migration, grain crops (corn, soybeans ...


Plasticity And Biotic Interactions Mediate Plant Persistence In A Changing World, Alix Ann Pfennigwerth May 2017

Plasticity And Biotic Interactions Mediate Plant Persistence In A Changing World, Alix Ann Pfennigwerth

Masters Theses

Anthropogenic global change is occurring today at a faster rate and larger scale than ever before. Understanding how plants will respond to such large-scale disturbance is critical for biodiversity conservation, yet the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms underlying these responses remain poorly understood. In this thesis, I investigated the mechanisms underlying plant response to two major drivers of global change, climate change and the widespread mortality of foundation species. First, I examined genetic and plastic plant trait responses to climatic variation using elevation gradients, which serve as space-for-time substitutions for climate change. Through field observations in three populations of the North ...


Implications Of Body Size And Habitat Distribution Of Carcinus Maenas For Predation On Mytilus Edulis In The Gulf Of Maine, Mckenzie Thompson May 2017

Implications Of Body Size And Habitat Distribution Of Carcinus Maenas For Predation On Mytilus Edulis In The Gulf Of Maine, Mckenzie Thompson

Honors College

The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species along the Gulf of Maine. Its rapid decline in population size over the last forty years has led many researchers to question if the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas, is affecting its distribution. The increase in annual mean water temperature, due to global climate change, has led many to fear an expansion of the green crab’s range and an increase in population density among areas they currently inhabit. The Damariscotta River in Walpole, Maine offers a unique thermal gradient to study the effects of temperature on green crab distribution ...


The Potential Impact Of Climate Change On Blue Whale Migration In The Eastern Pacific, Amanda Shuman May 2017

The Potential Impact Of Climate Change On Blue Whale Migration In The Eastern Pacific, Amanda Shuman

Honors College

Climate change is one of the most pressing problems the world is facing today. Due to human emissions, the amount of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is escalating at a concerning rate. This increase is causing ocean temperatures to rise, pH levels to lower, and altering the habitats of countless species. Balaenoptera musculus, or the blue whale, is a highly migratory species that relies on the stability of its’ habitats for foraging and calving grounds. They rely on the upwelling of nutrients and consistent conditions that allow for substantial prey populations to accumulate. With the effects of climate change altering ...


Using Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling For Long-Term Conservation Planning Of Three Federally Listed Bats In North America, Mitchell L. Meyer May 2017

Using Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling For Long-Term Conservation Planning Of Three Federally Listed Bats In North America, Mitchell L. Meyer

Master's Theses

We are currently in a sixth mass extinction event in which the extinction rate is higher than it has ever been. This mass extinction event is caused by human influence on the environment. Biodiversity is worth conserving because of its many uses to humans. Bats are a diverse group of mammals that humans rely on for pest control services. The gray bat, northern long-eared bat, and Indiana bat are on the Threatened and Endangered Species List and are in need of conservation. I built species distribution models using occurrence records, climate data, and Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling technique. I predicted ...


Direct And Indirect Effects Of Climate Change On Plant Populations And Communities In Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink May 2017

Direct And Indirect Effects Of Climate Change On Plant Populations And Communities In Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forecasting the effects of climate change on plant and animal populations is a high priority in ecology. We studied the effects of climate on plant populations through the use of observational and experimental data, as well as analytical models. Our research questions were: (1) Do the effects of interannual climate variation on the population growth rates of widespread species show a coherent pattern across gradients of mean annual climate? (2) How well can population models fit to observational data predict the response of populations to field experiments that manipulate climate? And (3) does niche overlap between competitors predict the magnitude ...


Growth Of Orbicella Faveolata In La Parguera, Puerto Rico, Darren B. Marshall Apr 2017

Growth Of Orbicella Faveolata In La Parguera, Puerto Rico, Darren B. Marshall

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Reef-building corals are subject to high amounts of stress, including pollution and rising sea surface temperatures due to climate change. These factors can affect the ability of corals to produce their calcium carbonate skeletons. Evaluation of the effects of climate change may be facilitated by evaluation of records of coral skeletal growth over a long period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal growth of the coral Orbicella faveolata in La Parguera, Puerto Rico over a 32-year period. For this, 14 Orbicella faveolata core samples were collected from corals at two reefs (1.2 km apart ...


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani Apr 2017

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...


Precipitation Drivers Of Cropping Frequency In The Brazilian Cerrado: Evidence And Implications For Decision-Making, Keith R. Spangler, Amanda H. Lynch, Stephanie A. Spera Apr 2017

Precipitation Drivers Of Cropping Frequency In The Brazilian Cerrado: Evidence And Implications For Decision-Making, Keith R. Spangler, Amanda H. Lynch, Stephanie A. Spera

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

The Amazon basin has been subjected to unprecedented rates of land-use change over the past several decades, primarily as a result of the expansion of agriculture. Enhanced rain forest conservation efforts toward the end of the twentieth century slowed deforestation of the Amazon but, in turn, increased demand for land repurposing in the adjacent Cerrado (savanna) region, where conservation regulations are less strict. To maintain or increase yields while minimizing the need for additional land, agricultural producers adopted a form of intensification in which two rain-fed crops are planted within a single growing season (double cropping). Using 10 years (August ...