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Climate change

2014

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Articles 61 - 73 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Impacts Of Multiple Anthropogenic Disturbances On The Montane Forests Of The Green Mountains, Vermont, Usa, Carolyn Ann Pucko Jan 2014

The Impacts Of Multiple Anthropogenic Disturbances On The Montane Forests Of The Green Mountains, Vermont, Usa, Carolyn Ann Pucko

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

How and why species’ ranges shift has long been a focus of ecology but is now becoming increasingly important given the current rate of climatic and environmental change. In response to global warming, species will need to migrate northward or upward to stay within their climatic tolerances. The ability of species to migrate will determine their fate and affect the community compositions of the future. However, to more accurately predict the future extent of species, we must identify and understand their responses to past and current climatic and environmental changes. The first place change is expected to occur is within ...


Drought-Induced Woody Plant Mortality In An Encroached Semi-Arid Savanna Depends On Topoedaphic Factors And Land Management, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Carissa L. Wonkka, Charles A. Taylor, Chris B. Zou, Jeremiah J. Twidwell, William E. Rogers Jan 2014

Drought-Induced Woody Plant Mortality In An Encroached Semi-Arid Savanna Depends On Topoedaphic Factors And Land Management, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, Carissa L. Wonkka, Charles A. Taylor, Chris B. Zou, Jeremiah J. Twidwell, William E. Rogers

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Questions: How do recent patterns of drought-induced woody plant mortality in Texas semi-arid savanna compare to the extended drought of the 1950s? Does the relative composition of the woody plant community shift ubiquitously across the landscape following woody plant mortality and dieback or are shifts dependent on differences among species, soils, land use and plant demography?

Location: Texas Agrilife Research Station, Sonora, Texas, USA (30.1° N 100.3° W).

Methods: Following an exceptional drought from 1951 to 1957, a study was conducted to quantify rates of mortality for various woody plant species. In 2011, we repeated this study within ...


On The Challenges Of Modeling The Net Radiative Forcing Of Wetlands: Reconsidering Mitsch Et Al. 2013, Scott C. Neubauer Jan 2014

On The Challenges Of Modeling The Net Radiative Forcing Of Wetlands: Reconsidering Mitsch Et Al. 2013, Scott C. Neubauer

Biology Publications

Wetlands play a role in regulating global climate by removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and sequestering it as soil carbon, and by emitting methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. In a recent article in this journal (Mitsch et al. Landscape Ecol 28:583–597, 2013), CO2 sequestration and CH4 emissions were modeled for several freshwater wetlands that vary in vegetation type, climate, and hydrology. The authors of that study made significant errors that caused them to underestimate the importance of wetland CH4 emissions on climate dynamics. Here, I reanalyze the Mitsch et al. dataset and ...


Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Profiles Of Symbiodinium Spp. Unaltered By Heat Stress In A Coral Host, Daniel J. Barshis, Jason T. Ladner, Thomas A. Oliver, Stephen R. Palumbi Jan 2014

Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Profiles Of Symbiodinium Spp. Unaltered By Heat Stress In A Coral Host, Daniel J. Barshis, Jason T. Ladner, Thomas A. Oliver, Stephen R. Palumbi

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium form an endosymbiosis with reef building corals, in which photosynthetically derived nutrients comprise the majority of the coral energy budget. An extraordinary amount of functional and genetic diversity is contained within the coral-associated Symbiodinium, with some phylotypes (i.e., genotypic groupings), conferring enhanced stress tolerance to host corals. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have enabled transcriptome-wide profiling of the stress response of the cnidarian coral host; however, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular response to stress of coral-associated Symbiodinium, as well as differences among physiologically susceptible and tolerant types, remains largely unexplored. Here, we ...


Predicted Wildlife Disease-Related Climate Change Impacts Of Specific Concern To Usda Aphis Wildlife Services, Timothy P. Algeo, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Jerome E. Freier, Thomas J. Deliberto Jan 2014

Predicted Wildlife Disease-Related Climate Change Impacts Of Specific Concern To Usda Aphis Wildlife Services, Timothy P. Algeo, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Jerome E. Freier, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

USDA APHISWildlife Services plans for and responds to a variety of exigencies such as wildlife hazards to aircraft, disease emergence from wildlife translocations, oral rabies vaccine barrier compromises, and extreme weather events. These are often collaborative efforts with state and federal agencies and others. Climate change based in part on fossil fuel use and methane gas emissions has predictable as well as unknown consequences. As a federal leader in wildlife disease research and management, it is incumbent upon Wildlife Services to be current with the scientific literature; assess potential impacts and wildlife disease management intervention needs from predicted climate change ...


Krill, Climate, And Contrasting Future Scenarios For Arctic And Antarctic Fisheries, Margaret M. Mcbride, Padmini Dalpadado, Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Olav Rune Godø, Alistair J. Hobday, Anne B. Hollowed, Trond Kristiansen, Eugene J. Murphy, Patrick H. Ressler, Sam Subbey, Eileen E. Hofmann, Harald Loeng Jan 2014

Krill, Climate, And Contrasting Future Scenarios For Arctic And Antarctic Fisheries, Margaret M. Mcbride, Padmini Dalpadado, Kenneth F. Drinkwater, Olav Rune Godø, Alistair J. Hobday, Anne B. Hollowed, Trond Kristiansen, Eugene J. Murphy, Patrick H. Ressler, Sam Subbey, Eileen E. Hofmann, Harald Loeng

CCPO Publications

Arctic and Antarcticmarine systems have incommon high latitudes, large seasonal changes in light levels, cold air and sea temperatures, and sea ice. In other ways, however, they are strikingly different, including their: age, extent, geological structure, ice stability, and foodweb structure. Both regions contain very rapidly warming areas and climate impacts have been reported, as have dramatic future projections. However, the combined effects of a changing climate on oceanographic processes and foodweb dynamics are likely to influence their future fisheries in very different ways. Differences in the life-history strategies of the key zooplankton species (Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean ...


Can We Predict The Future: Juvenile Finfish And Their Seagrass Nurseries In The Chesapeake Bay, Cynthia M. Jones Jan 2014

Can We Predict The Future: Juvenile Finfish And Their Seagrass Nurseries In The Chesapeake Bay, Cynthia M. Jones

OEAS Faculty Publications

The importance of estuarine seagrass beds as nurseries for juvenile fish has become a universal paradigm, especially for estuaries that are as important as the Chesapeake Bay. Yet, scientific tests of this hypothesis were equivocal depending on species, location, and metrics. Moreover, seagrasses themselves are under threat and one-third of seagrasses have disappeared worldwide with 65 of their losses occurring in estuaries. Although there have been extensive studies of seagrasses in the Chesapeake Bay, surprisingly few studies have quantified the relationship between seagrass as nurseries for finfish in the Bay. Of the few studies that have directly evaluated the use ...


The Extent Of Heat On Health And Sustainable Farming In Ghana - Bawku East, Kwasi Frimpong, Jacques Oosthuizen, Eddie J. Van Etten Jan 2014

The Extent Of Heat On Health And Sustainable Farming In Ghana - Bawku East, Kwasi Frimpong, Jacques Oosthuizen, Eddie J. Van Etten

ECU Publications Post 2013

Little is known about the health effects of heat in outdoor work and appropriate work and rest schedules for farmers working in developing countries. As temperatures continue to increase in tropical regions, such as Northern Ghana, it is necessary to evaluate how farmers experience and respond to high heat exposures. In this study, WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature) estimates and the ISO work / rest standards were applied to a cohort of farmers in the rural areas of Bawku East, Northern Ghana, to assess how farmers respond to high heat and how much they rest to protect their health, as well ...


Musical Chairs In A Boreal Peatland: How Permafrost Thaw Reverses Successional Processes, Mélissa M. Fafard Jan 2014

Musical Chairs In A Boreal Peatland: How Permafrost Thaw Reverses Successional Processes, Mélissa M. Fafard

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The current climate trends indicate amplified high latitude warming. Boreal peatlands can be found within those high latitudes and have important functions hydrologically, ecologically and also in terms of carbon cycling. Peatland’s are wetlands that have accumulated more than 40 cm of peat and can range from minerotrophic fens to ombrotrophic bogs. Naturally, a rich fen can be converted to a bog once groundwater sources are cut off by Sphagnum spp. In areas underlain by discontinuous permafrost, landscape changes are occurring particularly rapidly as the permafrost there is sensitive to both vertical and horizontal thaw. The purpose of this ...


Experiences Of Heat Stress Vulnerability And Climate Change Among Farmers In Ghana, Kwasi Frimpong, Jacques D. Oosthuizen, Eddie J. Van Etten Jan 2014

Experiences Of Heat Stress Vulnerability And Climate Change Among Farmers In Ghana, Kwasi Frimpong, Jacques D. Oosthuizen, Eddie J. Van Etten

ECU Publications Post 2013

The trend over the last decade of increasing temperature associated with climate change with the impacts being felt in the poorest communities of the developing world is unequivocal. Bawku East of northern Ghana is assessed as one of the poorest communities. Being a farming community the study investigates the extent of farmers’ experiences on heat and climate change. A selected number of 308 farmers from a farming population of over 15,000 were interviewed about heat stress and climate change to gauge their level of vulnerability to heat stress at the household and farm levels, as well as their general ...


The Influences Of Poultry Litter Biochar And Water Source On Radish Growth And Nutrition, Julia Allen, David E. Longer, Edward E. Gbur, Lichen Hao Jan 2014

The Influences Of Poultry Litter Biochar And Water Source On Radish Growth And Nutrition, Julia Allen, David E. Longer, Edward E. Gbur, Lichen Hao

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Many row-crop fields today have declined in soil fertility due to poor management practices and overuse of pesticides. Under these conditions, plant nutrient uptake can be sub-optimal. There are several soil amendments that can be used to improve soil quality and plant growth. This study focused on the addition of biochar to the soil and the use of structured water to enhance plant growth. Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of organic feedstocks. Previous studies which focused on biochar have shown an increase in plant yield, nutrient availability in the soil, and soil water holding capacity. Structured water is the liquid ...


Nitrogen Fertilization Has A Stronger Effect On Soil Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterial Communities Than Elevated Atmospheric Co2, Sean T. Berthrong, Chris M. Yeager, Laverne Gallegos-Graves, Blaire Steven, Stephanie A. Eichorst, Robert B. Jackson, Cheryl R. Kuske Jan 2014

Nitrogen Fertilization Has A Stronger Effect On Soil Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterial Communities Than Elevated Atmospheric Co2, Sean T. Berthrong, Chris M. Yeager, Laverne Gallegos-Graves, Blaire Steven, Stephanie A. Eichorst, Robert B. Jackson, Cheryl R. Kuske

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data ...


Species Distribution Modelling Using Bioclimatic Variables To Determine The Impacts Of A Changing Climate On The Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus Occidentals; Pseudocheiridae), Shaun Molloy, Robert Davis, Eddie Van Etten Dec 2013

Species Distribution Modelling Using Bioclimatic Variables To Determine The Impacts Of A Changing Climate On The Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus Occidentals; Pseudocheiridae), Shaun Molloy, Robert Davis, Eddie Van Etten

Shaun W Molloy Dr

The ngwayir (western ringtail possum Pseudocheirus occidentalis) is an arboreal species endemic to south-western Australia. The range and population of this species have been significantly reduced through multiple anthropogenic impacts. Classified as vulnerable, the ngwayir is highly susceptible to extremes of temperature and reduced water intake. Ngwayir distribution was determined using three different species distribution models using ngwayir presence records related to a set of 19 bioclimatic variables derived fromhistorical climate data, overlaid with 2050 climate change scenarios.MaxEnt was used to identify core habitat and demonstrate how this habitat may be impacted. A supplementary modelling exercise was also conducted ...