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Climate change

2014

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher Dec 2014

The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The proportion of aerosol iron (Fe) that dissolves in seawater varies greatly and is dependent on aerosol composition and the physicochemical conditions of seawater, which may change depending on location or be altered by global environmental change. Aerosol and surface seawater samples were collected in the Sargasso Sea and used to investigate the impact of these changing conditions on aerosol Fe dissolution in seawater. Our data show that seawater temperature, pH, and oxygen concentration, within the range of current and projected future values, had no significant effect on the dissolution of aerosol Fe. However, the source and composition of aerosols ...


Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann Dec 2014

Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann

Biology Publications

Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around − 20.5 °C and survived brief exposures ...


Warming Reduces Tall Fescue Abundance But Stimulates Toxic Alkaloid Concentrations In Transition Zone Pastures Of The U.S., Rebecca L. Mcculley, Lowell P. Bush, Anna E. Carlisle, Huihua Ji, Jim A. Nelson Oct 2014

Warming Reduces Tall Fescue Abundance But Stimulates Toxic Alkaloid Concentrations In Transition Zone Pastures Of The U.S., Rebecca L. Mcculley, Lowell P. Bush, Anna E. Carlisle, Huihua Ji, Jim A. Nelson

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte ...


Collapse Of An Ecological Network In Ancient Egypt, Justin Yeakel, Mathias Pires, Lars Rudolf, Nathaniel Dominy Oct 2014

Collapse Of An Ecological Network In Ancient Egypt, Justin Yeakel, Mathias Pires, Lars Rudolf, Nathaniel Dominy

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The dynamics of ecosystem collapse are fundamental to determining how and why biological communities change through time, as well as the potential effects of extinctions on ecosystems. Here, we integrate depictions of mammals from Egyptian antiquity with direct lines of paleontological and archeological evidence to infer local extinctions and community dynamics over a 6,000-y span. The unprecedented temporal resolution of this dataset enables examination of how the tandem effects of human population growth and climate change can disrupt mammalian communities. We show that the extinctions of mammals in Egypt were nonrandom and that destabilizing changes in community composition coincided ...


Acclimation Of Photosynthetic Temperature Optima Of Temperate And Boreal Tree Species In Response To Experimental Forest Warming, Kerrie M. Sendall, Peter B. Reich, Changming Zhao, Hou Jihua, Xia Orong Wei, Artur Stefanski, Karen Rice, Roy L. Rich, Rebecca A. Montgomery Oct 2014

Acclimation Of Photosynthetic Temperature Optima Of Temperate And Boreal Tree Species In Response To Experimental Forest Warming, Kerrie M. Sendall, Peter B. Reich, Changming Zhao, Hou Jihua, Xia Orong Wei, Artur Stefanski, Karen Rice, Roy L. Rich, Rebecca A. Montgomery

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Rising temperatures caused by climate change could negatively alter plant ecosystems if temperatures exceed optimal

temperatures for carbon gain. Such changes may threaten temperature-sensitive species, causing local extinctions and

range migrations. This study examined the optimal temperature of net photosynthesis (Topt) of two boreal and four

temperate deciduous tree species grown in the field in northern Minnesota, United States under two contrasting temperature

regimes. We hypothesized that Topt would be higher in temperate than co-occurring boreal species, with

temperate species exhibiting greater plasticity in Topt, resulting in better acclimation to elevated temperatures. The

chamberless experiment, located at two sites in ...


Breeding Time In A Migratory Songbird Is Predicted By Drought Severity And Group Size, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown Oct 2014

Breeding Time In A Migratory Songbird Is Predicted By Drought Severity And Group Size, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown

Papers in Natural Resources

Global climate change is altering the breeding phenology of many organisms, and one reported consequence of warmer average temperatures is earlier breeding times in migratory songbirds of north temperate latitudes. Less studied are the potential interactions between earlier breeding and social behavior in colonial species. We investigated how breeding time, as measured by colony initiation dates across the entire summer, in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) of southwestern Nebraska, USA, changed over a 30-year period and could be predicted by climatic variables, year, and colony size. Mean colony initiation date became earlier over the study, with variation best predicted by the ...


Natural Selection On Thermal Performance In A Novel Thermal Environment, Michael L. Logan, Robert M. Cox, Ryan Calsbeek Sep 2014

Natural Selection On Thermal Performance In A Novel Thermal Environment, Michael L. Logan, Robert M. Cox, Ryan Calsbeek

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Tropical ectotherms are thought to be especially vulnerable to climate change because they are adapted to relatively stable temperature regimes, such that even small increases in environmental temperature may lead to large decreases in physiological performance. One way in which tropical organisms may mitigate the detrimental effects of warming is through evolutionary change in thermal physiology. The speed and magnitude of this response depend, in part, on the strength of climate-driven selection. However, many ectotherms use behavioral adjustments to maintain preferred body temperatures in the face of environmental variation. These behaviors may shelter individuals from natural selection, preventing evolutionary adaptation ...


Limited Alpine Climatic Warming And Modeled Phenology Advancement For Three Alpine Species In The Northeast United States, Michael L. Davis, Kenneth D. Kimball, Douglas M. Weihrauch, Georgia L. D. Murray, Kenneth Rancourt Sep 2014

Limited Alpine Climatic Warming And Modeled Phenology Advancement For Three Alpine Species In The Northeast United States, Michael L. Davis, Kenneth D. Kimball, Douglas M. Weihrauch, Georgia L. D. Murray, Kenneth Rancourt

Ecology Center Publications

  • Premise of the study: Most alpine plants in the Northeast United States are perennial and flower early in the growing season, extending their limitedgrowing season. Concurrently, they risk the loss of reproductive efforts to late frosts. Quantifying long-term trends in northeastern alpine flower phenology and late-spring/early-summer frost risk is limited by a dearth of phenology and climate data, except for Mount Washington, New Hampshire (1916 m a.s.l.).
  • Methods: Logistic phenology models for three northeastern US alpinespecies (Diapensia lapponica, Carex bigelowii and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were developed from 4 yr (2008–2011) of phenology and air temperature measurements from ...


Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana Sep 2014

Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana

Marine Science Faculty Publications

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming ...


Aiding Decision Making To Reduce The Impacts Of Climate Change, Howard Kunreuther Sep 2014

Aiding Decision Making To Reduce The Impacts Of Climate Change, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Utilizing theory and empirical insights from psychology and behavioural economics, this paper examines individuals’ cognitive and motivational barriers to adopting climate change adaptation and mitigation measures that increase consumer welfare. We explore various strategies that take into account the simplified decision-making processes used by individuals and resulting biases. We make these points by working through two examples: (1) investments in energy efficiency products and new technology and (2) adaptation measures to reduce property damage from future floods and hurricanes. In both cases there is a reluctance to undertake these measures due to high and certain upfront costs, delayed and probabilistic ...


A Threat To New Zealand's Tuatara Heats Up, Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Nicola J. Nelson Sep 2014

A Threat To New Zealand's Tuatara Heats Up, Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Nicola J. Nelson

Biology Faculty Publications

No matter how many times we head to one of New Zealand's offshore islands, the feelings are always a mix of sheer awe at the beauty and biodiversity preserved in these special refuges and lingering nerves. Did we remember all the gear? Do we have enough food and water in case we get stuck? Can the helicopter land on the side of a cliff in these winds? These epic journeys are in pursuit of a lone remnant of the reptile evolutionary tree, with a unique ecology that has big implications under climate change.


Changing Forest Structure Across The Landscape Of The Sierra Nevada, Ca, Usa, Since The 1930s, Christopher R. Dolanc, Hugh D. Safford, James H. Thorne, Solomon Z. Dobrowski Aug 2014

Changing Forest Structure Across The Landscape Of The Sierra Nevada, Ca, Usa, Since The 1930s, Christopher R. Dolanc, Hugh D. Safford, James H. Thorne, Solomon Z. Dobrowski

Forest Management Faculty Publications

Understanding the dynamics of forest structure aids inference regarding future forests and their distributions around the world. Over the last few decades, several papers have addressed changing forest structure in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA, but these studies were limited in scope. We carried out a broad comparison of forest density and composition in the 1930s versus the 2000s for the west slope of the central and northern Sierra Nevada, using the two most extensive data sets available. Forests in this region have endured a long, complex history of human disturbance, and are now experiencing climatic shifts. We subdivided the ...


Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre Aug 2014

Enhanced Acidification Of Global Coral Reefs Driven By Regional Biogeochemical Feedbacks, Tyler Cyronak, Kai G. Schulz, Isaac R. Santos, Bradley D. Eyre

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Physical uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long‐term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short‐term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ...


Can Fire Atlas Data Improve Species Distribution Model Projections?, Shawn M. Crimmins, Solomon Z. Dobrowski, Alison R. Mynsberge, Hugh D. Safford Jul 2014

Can Fire Atlas Data Improve Species Distribution Model Projections?, Shawn M. Crimmins, Solomon Z. Dobrowski, Alison R. Mynsberge, Hugh D. Safford

Forest Management Faculty Publications

Correlative species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in studies of climate change impacts, yet are often criticized for failing to incorporate disturbance processes that can influence species distributions. Here we use two temporally independent data sets of vascular plant distributions, climate data, and fire atlas data to examine the influence of disturbance history on SDM projection accuracy through time in the mountain ranges of California, USA. We used hierarchical partitioning to examine the influence of fire occurrence on the distribution of 144 vascular plant species and built a suite of SDMs to examine how the inclusion of fire-related predictors ...


Ecological Biogeography Of The Terrestrial Nematodes Of Victoria Land, Antarctica, Byron Adams, Diana Wall, Ross Virginia, Emma Broos, Matthew A. Knox Jun 2014

Ecological Biogeography Of The Terrestrial Nematodes Of Victoria Land, Antarctica, Byron Adams, Diana Wall, Ross Virginia, Emma Broos, Matthew A. Knox

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species ...


Meltdown: How Polar Bears Are Functioning In The Changing Arctic, John Whiteman Jun 2014

Meltdown: How Polar Bears Are Functioning In The Changing Arctic, John Whiteman

UW-NPS Hank Harlow Summer Seminar Series 2014

Whiteman will talk about how polar bears have coped with warmer temperatures and reduced ice every summer in the Arctic Sea, and whether they will continue to cope in the face of a changing climate. Whiteman studied the physiology, nutritional state and behavior of polar bears for two summers.


Commercial Land Grabs Threaten Global Food Ecosystem, Lauren Carasik Jun 2014

Commercial Land Grabs Threaten Global Food Ecosystem, Lauren Carasik

Media Presence

No abstract provided.


Sex Ratio Bias And Extinction Risk In An Isolated Population Of Tuatara (Sphenodon Punctatus), Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Joanne M. Monks, Susan N. Keall, Joanna N. Wilson, Nicola J. Nelson Apr 2014

Sex Ratio Bias And Extinction Risk In An Isolated Population Of Tuatara (Sphenodon Punctatus), Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Joanne M. Monks, Susan N. Keall, Joanna N. Wilson, Nicola J. Nelson

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding the mechanisms underlying population declines is critical for preventing the extinction of endangered populations. Positive feedbacks can hasten the process of collapse and create an ‘extinction vortex,’ particularly in small, isolated populations. We provide a case study of a male-biased sex ratio creating the conditions for extinction in a natural population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on North Brother Island in the Cook Strait of New Zealand. We combine data from long term mark-recapture surveys, updated model estimates of hatchling sex ratio, and population viability modeling to measure the impacts of sex ratio skew. Results from the mark-recapture surveys show ...


Exposure Of U.S. National Parks To Land Use And Climate Change 1900-2100, Andrew J. Hansen, Cory Davis, Jessica Haas, David M. Theobald, John E. Gross, William B. Monahan, Tom Olliff, Steven W. Running Apr 2014

Exposure Of U.S. National Parks To Land Use And Climate Change 1900-2100, Andrew J. Hansen, Cory Davis, Jessica Haas, David M. Theobald, John E. Gross, William B. Monahan, Tom Olliff, Steven W. Running

Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications

Many protected areas may not be adequately safeguarding biodiversity from human activities on surrounding lands and global change. The magnitude of such change agents and the sensitivity of ecosystems to these agents vary among protected areas. Thus, there is a need to assess vulnerability across networks of protected areas to determine those most at risk and to lay the basis for developing effective adaptation strategies. We conducted an assessment of exposure of U.S. National Parks to climate and land use change and consequences for vegetation communities. We first defined park protected-area centered ecosystems (PACEs) based on ecological principles. We ...


Snowshoe Hares Display Limited Phenotypic Plasticity To Mismatch In Seasonal Camouflage, Marketa Zimova, L. Scott Mills, Paul M. Lukacs, Michael S. Mitchell Mar 2014

Snowshoe Hares Display Limited Phenotypic Plasticity To Mismatch In Seasonal Camouflage, Marketa Zimova, L. Scott Mills, Paul M. Lukacs, Michael S. Mitchell

Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications

As duration of snow cover decreases owing to climate change, species undergoing seasonal colour moults can become colour mismatched with their background. The immediate adaptive solution to this mismatch is phenotypic plasticity, either in phenology of seasonal colour moults or in behaviours that reduce mismatch or its consequences. We observed nearly 200 snowshoe hares across a wide range of snow conditions and two study sites in Montana, USA, and found minimal plasticity in response to mismatch between coat colour and background. We found that moult phenology varied between study sites, likely due to differences in photoperiod and climate, but was ...


Swimming Against The Tide: Resilience Of A Riverine Turtle To Recurrent Extreme Environmental Events, Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen Mar 2014

Swimming Against The Tide: Resilience Of A Riverine Turtle To Recurrent Extreme Environmental Events, Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Extreme environmental events (EEEs) are likely to exert deleterious effects on populations. From 1996 to 2012 we studied the nesting dynamics of a riverine population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that experienced seven years with significantly definable spring floods. We used capture–mark–recapture methods to estimate the relationships between more than 5 m and more than 6 m flood events and population parameters. Contrary to expectations, flooding was not associated with annual differences in survival, recruitment or annual population growth rates of the adult female segment of the population. These findings suggest that female C. pictaexhibit resiliency to ...


Management For Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?, Diana Six, Eric Biber, Elisabeth Long Jan 2014

Management For Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?, Diana Six, Eric Biber, Elisabeth Long

Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications

While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant ...


Religion, Partisanship, And Attitudes Toward Science Policy, Ted G. Jelen, Linda A. Lockett Jan 2014

Religion, Partisanship, And Attitudes Toward Science Policy, Ted G. Jelen, Linda A. Lockett

Political Science Faculty Publications

We examine issues involving science which have been contested in recent public debate. These “contested science” issues include human evolution, stem-cell research, and climate change. We find that few respondents evince consistently skeptical attitudes toward science issues, and that religious variables are generally strong predictors of attitudes toward individual issues. Furthermore, and contrary to analyses of elite discourse, partisan identification is not generally predictive of attitudes toward contested scientific issues.


Evolution Of Tnf-Induced Apoptosis Reveals 550 My Of Functional Conservation, Steven D. Quistad, Aleksandr Stotland, Katie Barott, Cameron A. Smurthwaite, Brett J. Hilton, Juris A. Grasis, Roland Wolkowicz, Forest Rohwer Jan 2014

Evolution Of Tnf-Induced Apoptosis Reveals 550 My Of Functional Conservation, Steven D. Quistad, Aleksandr Stotland, Katie Barott, Cameron A. Smurthwaite, Brett J. Hilton, Juris A. Grasis, Roland Wolkowicz, Forest Rohwer

Departmental Papers (Biology)

The Precambrian explosion led to the rapid appearance of most major animal phyla alive today. It has been argued that the complexity of life has steadily increased since that event. Here we challenge this hypothesis through the characterization of apoptosis in reef-building corals, representatives of some of the earliest animals. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that all of the major components of the death receptor pathway are present in coral with high-predicted structural conservation with Homo sapiens. The TNF receptor-ligand superfamilies (TNFRSF/TNFSF) are central mediators of the death receptor pathway, and the predicted proteome of Acropora digitifera contains more putative coral ...


Changing Forest Water Yields In Response To Climate Warming: Results From Long-Term Experimental Watershed Sites Across North America, Irena F. Creed, Adam T. Spargo, Julia A. Jones, Jim M. Buttle, Mary B. Adams, Fred D. Beall, Eric G. Booth, John L. Campbell, Dave Clow, Kelly Elder, Mark B. Green, Nancy B. Grimm, Chelcy Miniat, Patricia Ramlal, Amartya Saha, Stephen Sebestyen, Dave Spittlehouse, Shannon Sterling, Mark W. Williams, Rita Wrinkler, Huaxia Yao Jan 2014

Changing Forest Water Yields In Response To Climate Warming: Results From Long-Term Experimental Watershed Sites Across North America, Irena F. Creed, Adam T. Spargo, Julia A. Jones, Jim M. Buttle, Mary B. Adams, Fred D. Beall, Eric G. Booth, John L. Campbell, Dave Clow, Kelly Elder, Mark B. Green, Nancy B. Grimm, Chelcy Miniat, Patricia Ramlal, Amartya Saha, Stephen Sebestyen, Dave Spittlehouse, Shannon Sterling, Mark W. Williams, Rita Wrinkler, Huaxia Yao

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Climate warming is projected to affect forest water yields but the effects are expected to vary. We investigated how forest type and age affect water yield resilience to climate warming. To answer this question, we examined the variability in historical water yields at long-term experimental catchments across Canada and the United States over 5-year cool and warm periods. Using the theoretical framework of the Budyko curve, we calculated the effects of climate warming on the annual partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield. Deviation (d) was defined as a catchment’s change in actual ET divided by ...


Finding Them Before They Find Us: Informatics, Parasites, And Environments In Accelerating Climate Change, Daniel R. Brooks, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Scott Lyell Gardner, Kurt E. Galbreath, David Herczeg, Hugo H. Mejía-Madrid, S. Elizabeth Rácz, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan Jan 2014

Finding Them Before They Find Us: Informatics, Parasites, And Environments In Accelerating Climate Change, Daniel R. Brooks, Eric P. Hoberg, Walter A. Boeger, Scott Lyell Gardner, Kurt E. Galbreath, David Herczeg, Hugo H. Mejía-Madrid, S. Elizabeth Rácz, Altangerel Tsogtsaikhan Dursahinhan

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Parasites are agents of disease in humans, livestock, crops, and wildlife and are powerful representations of the ecological and historical context of the diseases they cause. Recognizing a nexus of professional opportunities and global public need, we gathered at the Cedar Point Biological Station of the University of Nebraska in September 2012 to formulate a cooperative and broad platform for providing essential information about the evolution, ecology, and epidemiology of parasites across host groups, parasite groups, geographical regions, and ecosystem types. A general protocol, documentation–assessment–monitoring–action (DAMA), suggests an integrated proposal to build a proactive capacity to understand ...


Egg Cannibalism In A Gull Colony Increases With Sea Surface Temperature, Lynelle M. Weldon, Shandelle M. Henson, James Hayward, Brianna G. Payne, Libby C. Megna, Andre E. Moncrieff Jan 2014

Egg Cannibalism In A Gull Colony Increases With Sea Surface Temperature, Lynelle M. Weldon, Shandelle M. Henson, James Hayward, Brianna G. Payne, Libby C. Megna, Andre E. Moncrieff

Faculty Publications

Cannibalism occurs regularly across a broad range of taxa with a variety of ecological and evolutionary consequences. Rises in sea surface temperature (SST) have been linked to increased cannibalism in some species, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens), and Peruvian hake (Merluccius gayi peruanus), and might be expected in birds that depend on marine food webs for sustenance. Increased SSTs are associated with lowered ocean thermoclines and weakened upwellings. These changes, in turn, lead to decreased productivity in surface water and movement of surviving forage fish to deeper water, thereby food-stressing surface feeders such as gulls, diminishing ...


Comparison Of Phenology And Pathogen Prevalence, Including Infection With The Ehrlichia Muris-Like (Eml) Agent, Of Ixodes Scapularis Removed From Soldiers In The Midwestern And Northeastern United States Over A 15 Year Period (1997-2012), Ellen Stromdahl, Sarah Hamer, Sarah Jenkins, Lynne Sloan, Phillip Williamson, Erik Foster, Robyn Nadolny, Chad Elkins, Mary Vince, Bobbi Pritt Jan 2014

Comparison Of Phenology And Pathogen Prevalence, Including Infection With The Ehrlichia Muris-Like (Eml) Agent, Of Ixodes Scapularis Removed From Soldiers In The Midwestern And Northeastern United States Over A 15 Year Period (1997-2012), Ellen Stromdahl, Sarah Hamer, Sarah Jenkins, Lynne Sloan, Phillip Williamson, Erik Foster, Robyn Nadolny, Chad Elkins, Mary Vince, Bobbi Pritt

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program (HTTKP) of the US Army Public Health Command have been tested for pathogens by PCR. We noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of I. scapularis submitted from soldiers at two sites in the upper Midwest ( Camp Ripley, MN, and Ft. McCoy, WI) and one site in the northeastern US (Ft. Indiantown Gap ...


Understanding Corn Belt Farmer Perspectives On Climate Change To Inform Engagement Strategies For Adaptation And Mitigation, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., J. Hobbs, A. Loy, L. W. Morton, L. W. Prokopy, J. Tyndall Jan 2014

Understanding Corn Belt Farmer Perspectives On Climate Change To Inform Engagement Strategies For Adaptation And Mitigation, J. G. Arbuckle Jr., J. Hobbs, A. Loy, L. W. Morton, L. W. Prokopy, J. Tyndall

Sociology Publications

Development of extension and outreach that effectively engage farmers in climate change adaptation and/or mitigation activities can be informed by an improved understanding of farmers' perspectives on climate change and related impacts. This research employed latent class analysis (LCA) to analyze data from a survey of 4,778 farmers from 11 US Corn Belt states. The research focused on two related research questions: (1) to what degree do farmers differ on key measures of beliefs about climate change, experience with extreme weather, perceived risks to agriculture, efficacy, and level of support for public and private adaptive and mitigative action ...


Ecotypes Of An Ecologically Dominant Prairie Grass (Andropogon Gerardii) Exhibit Genetic Divergence Across The U.S. Midwest Grasslands’ Environmental Gradient, Miranda M. Grey, Paul St. Amand, Nora M. Bello, Matthew B. Galliart, Mary Knapp, Karen A. Garrett, Theodore J. Morgan, Sarah G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, Eduard D. Akhunov, Loretta C. Johnson Jan 2014

Ecotypes Of An Ecologically Dominant Prairie Grass (Andropogon Gerardii) Exhibit Genetic Divergence Across The U.S. Midwest Grasslands’ Environmental Gradient, Miranda M. Grey, Paul St. Amand, Nora M. Bello, Matthew B. Galliart, Mary Knapp, Karen A. Garrett, Theodore J. Morgan, Sarah G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, Eduard D. Akhunov, Loretta C. Johnson

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates.

Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate ...