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Climate change

2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, And Management Options For Marine Protected Areas, Brian D. Keller, Daniel F. Gleason, Elizabeth Mcleod, Christa M. Woodley, Satie Airame, Billy D. Causey, Alan M. Friedlander, Rikki Grober-Dunsmore, Johanna E. Johnson, Steven Miller, Robert S. Steneck Dec 2009

Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, And Management Options For Marine Protected Areas, Brian D. Keller, Daniel F. Gleason, Elizabeth Mcleod, Christa M. Woodley, Satie Airame, Billy D. Causey, Alan M. Friedlander, Rikki Grober-Dunsmore, Johanna E. Johnson, Steven Miller, Robert S. Steneck

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an ...


Sensitivity Of The Carbon Cycle In The Arctic To Climate Change, A. David Mcguire, Leif G. Anderson, Torben R. Christensen, Scott Dallimore, Laodong Guo, Daniel J. Hayes, Martin Heimann, Robie W. Macdonald, Nigel Roulet Nov 2009

Sensitivity Of The Carbon Cycle In The Arctic To Climate Change, A. David Mcguire, Leif G. Anderson, Torben R. Christensen, Scott Dallimore, Laodong Guo, Daniel J. Hayes, Martin Heimann, Robie W. Macdonald, Nigel Roulet

Faculty Publications

The recent warming in the Arctic is affecting a broad spectrum of physical, ecological, and human/cultural systems that may be irreversible on century time scales and have the potential to cause rapid changes in the earth system. The response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to changes in climate is a major issue of global concern, yet there has not been a comprehensive review of the status of the contemporary carbon cycle of the Arctic and its response to climate change. This review is designed to clarify key uncertainties and vulnerabilities in the response of the carbon cycle ...


Collaborative Research: The Response Of Lakes To Disturbance And Climate Change: Calibrating Sedimentary Records To Test The Landscape Position Concept, Jasmine E. Saros Oct 2009

Collaborative Research: The Response Of Lakes To Disturbance And Climate Change: Calibrating Sedimentary Records To Test The Landscape Position Concept, Jasmine E. Saros

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Landscape disturbance and climate change affect lakes in proportion to their contact with ground water, sometimes resulting in different responses in neighboring lakes. This project develops methods for reconstructing past water chemistry and food webs of lakes. The biological and chemical deposits in surface sediment samples will be compared with the water in 62 modern lakes. The resulting relationships will be tested by comparing sediment cores with 24 years of observations from the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research (NTL-LTER) site. The methods will then be used to reconstruct 150 years of history for several lakes, adding perspective to ...


Projected Climate Change Effects On Nuthatch Distribution And Diversity Across Asia, Shaily Menon, M. Zafar-Ul Islam, A. Townsend Peterson Sep 2009

Projected Climate Change Effects On Nuthatch Distribution And Diversity Across Asia, Shaily Menon, M. Zafar-Ul Islam, A. Townsend Peterson

Shaily Menon

We used ecological niche modeling approaches to explore climate change implications for one family of birds, the Sittidae, in Asia. Quantitative niche models based on present-day distributions for each of 13 species were projected onto future climate change scenarios. Species’ potential distributional areas tended to be predicted to retract along their fringes, and at lower elevations along mountain ranges. As observed in other studies, montane systems were relatively more robust to the horizontal effects of climate change on species’ distributions compared to flatland systems, so range contractions were focused in Southeast Asia and peninsular India.


Piping Plover (Charadrius Melodius) Conservation On The Barrier Islands Of New York: Habitat Quality And Implications In A Changing Climate, Jennifer Ruth Seavey Sep 2009

Piping Plover (Charadrius Melodius) Conservation On The Barrier Islands Of New York: Habitat Quality And Implications In A Changing Climate, Jennifer Ruth Seavey

Open Access Dissertations

Habitat loss is the leading cause of species extinction. Protecting and managing habitat quality is vital to an organism's persistence, and essential to endangered species recovery. We conducted an investigation of habitat quality and potential impacts from climate change to piping plovers (Charadrius melodius) breeding on the barrier island ecosystem of New York, during 2003-2005. Our first step in this analysis was to examined the relationship between two common measures of habitat quality: density and productivity (Chapter 1). We used both central and limiting tendency data analysis to find that density significantly limited productivity across many spatial scales, especially ...


Long Distance Microbial Transport In Air: Global Change Implications, Bradley J. Davey, J. C. Bruckner, Jenny C. Fisher, Duane P. Moser Aug 2009

Long Distance Microbial Transport In Air: Global Change Implications, Bradley J. Davey, J. C. Bruckner, Jenny C. Fisher, Duane P. Moser

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

The first manifestations of global change will most likelv be observed in the Earth's atmosphere. Changing wind patterns, for example, may effect the long distance dispersal of microor-g anisms. The overall objective of this research is to correlate molecular assessments of microbial community structure from cloud water and snow samples, obtained from DRI's Storm Peak Laboratory atop Mt. Werner in Colorado, with atmospheric data and calculated air mass back trajectories. Our activities for summer of 2009 will be a focused proof-of-concept exercise to determine if intact microbial DNA and viable cells can be recovered from cloud water and ...


Role Of Ecdysone Signaling In Fat Body Remodeling, Marsha Kristel Bernardo, N. Bond, Allen G. Gibbs Aug 2009

Role Of Ecdysone Signaling In Fat Body Remodeling, Marsha Kristel Bernardo, N. Bond, Allen G. Gibbs

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Climate change is fundamentally connected to animal development and survival, and the life history of an organism must be coordinated with predictable seasonal changes of the environment. Climate change affects the life cycle of plants, a major food source for insects. If photoperiod, the primary environmental queue that insects utilize to determine the proper emergence time, and food availability becomes out of sync, many populations of insects and other animals could be threatened. Understanding animal development can provide insight into this issue and could provide clues that may help the scientific community predict how insect populations may respond to climate ...


Projected Climate Change Effects On Nuthatch Distribution And Diversity Across Asia, Shaily Menon, M. Zafar-Ul Islam, A. Townsend Peterson Aug 2009

Projected Climate Change Effects On Nuthatch Distribution And Diversity Across Asia, Shaily Menon, M. Zafar-Ul Islam, A. Townsend Peterson

Peer Reviewed Publications

We used ecological niche modeling approaches to explore climate change implications for one family of birds, the Sittidae, in Asia. Quantitative niche models based on present-day distributions for each of 13 species were projected onto future climate change scenarios. Species’ potential distributional areas tended to be predicted to retract along their fringes, and at lower elevations along mountain ranges. As observed in other studies, montane systems were relatively more robust to the horizontal effects of climate change on species’ distributions compared to flatland systems, so range contractions were focused in Southeast Asia and peninsular India.


Preparing For A Changing And Variable Climate: Final Report To Grape And Wine Research And Development Corporation Rt 07/02-2, Glynn Ward Jul 2009

Preparing For A Changing And Variable Climate: Final Report To Grape And Wine Research And Development Corporation Rt 07/02-2, Glynn Ward

All other publications

Climate change has the potential to reshape the Australian wine industry. Regions will be differentially impacted and will respond according to their unique viticultural, environmental, economic and social characteristics. An industry forum and regional workshop series was held in Western Australia focusing on three wine regions: Margaret River, Pemberton and Mount Barker. Fine scale climate information (mesoscale maps) and overviews of current and emerging technologies and resources that can be used by the wine industry to plan for and manage the risks and opportunities resulting from a changing and variable climate were presented. The information indicated that the wine regions ...


Slides: Rethinking Western Water Law: Restoring The Public Interest In Western Water Law, Mark Squillace Jun 2009

Slides: Rethinking Western Water Law: Restoring The Public Interest In Western Water Law, Mark Squillace

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Mark Squillace, Director, Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado Law School

20 slides


Slides: Regional Energy-Water Resilience Under Climate Change, Bonnie G. Colby Jun 2009

Slides: Regional Energy-Water Resilience Under Climate Change, Bonnie G. Colby

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Dr. Bonnie G. Colby, Professor of Resource Economics & Hydrology, University of Arizona

24 slides


Slides: Market-Based Stream Flow Restoration And Mitigation, Amanda Cronin Jun 2009

Slides: Market-Based Stream Flow Restoration And Mitigation, Amanda Cronin

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Amanda Cronin, Washington Water Trust, Seattle, WA

23 slides


Slides: Water Footprints: Consciousness Raising Meets Risk Management, Steve Malloch Jun 2009

Slides: Water Footprints: Consciousness Raising Meets Risk Management, Steve Malloch

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Steve Malloch, Senior Western Water Program Manager, National Wildlife Federation, Seattle, WA

38 slides


Agenda: Western Water Law, Policy And Management: Ripples, Currents, And New Channels For Inquiry, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center, Western Water Policy Program Jun 2009

Agenda: Western Water Law, Policy And Management: Ripples, Currents, And New Channels For Inquiry, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center, Western Water Policy Program

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

In many pockets of the American West, stresses and demands on water resources are overwhelming our capacity to effectively manage change and accommodate the diversity of interests and values associated with our limited water resources.

This event will offer an opportunity for lawyers, policymakers, and water professionals to engage the experts on the challenges and emerging solutions to the most pressing water policy and management issues of the day.


Slides: Climate Change And The Death Of Stationarity: A New Era For Western Water?, Stephen T. Gray Jun 2009

Slides: Climate Change And The Death Of Stationarity: A New Era For Western Water?, Stephen T. Gray

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Steven T. Gray, Wyoming State Climatologist, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY

48 slides


Slides: Finding Flows: Fish Still Need Water Everyday, Melinda Kassen Jun 2009

Slides: Finding Flows: Fish Still Need Water Everyday, Melinda Kassen

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Melinda Kassen, Director of the Western Water Project, Trout Unlimited

12 slides


Slides: Groundwater Declines, Climate Change And Approaches To Adaptation, Katharine Jacobs Jun 2009

Slides: Groundwater Declines, Climate Change And Approaches To Adaptation, Katharine Jacobs

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Katharine Jacobs, Director of the Arizona Water Institute, University of Arizona

37 slides


Slides: Rapanos And The Courts: Navigating Through The Fog, Jim Murphy Jun 2009

Slides: Rapanos And The Courts: Navigating Through The Fog, Jim Murphy

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Jim Murphy, Wetlands and Water Resources Counsel, National Wildlife Federation, VT

25 slides


Slides: Integrated Policy, Planning, And Management Of Water Resources, Robert Wilkinson Jun 2009

Slides: Integrated Policy, Planning, And Management Of Water Resources, Robert Wilkinson

Western Water Law, Policy and Management: Ripples, Currents, and New Channels for Inquiry (Martz Summer Conference, June 3-5)

Presenter: Robert Wilkinson, Ph.D., Director of the Water Policy Program, Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California-- Santa Barbara

60 slides


Cultural Responses To Climate Change In The Holocene, Richard Prentice Jun 2009

Cultural Responses To Climate Change In The Holocene, Richard Prentice

Anthós

Variable Holocene climate conditions have caused cultures to thrive, adapt or fail. The invention of agriculture and the domestication of plants and animals allowed sedentary societies to develop and are the result of the climate becoming warmer after the last glaciation. The subsequent cooling of the Younger Dryas forced humans to concentrate into geographic areas that had an abundant water supply and ultimately favorable conditions for the use of agriculture and widespread domestication of plants and animals. Population densities would have reached a threshold and forced a return to foraging, however the end of the Younger Dryas at 10,000 ...


Linking Wildlife Populations With Ecosystem Change: State-Of-The-Art Satellite Ecology For National-Park Science, Mark Hebblewhite Apr 2009

Linking Wildlife Populations With Ecosystem Change: State-Of-The-Art Satellite Ecology For National-Park Science, Mark Hebblewhite

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

As human impacts increase in national parks and the greater ecosystems surrounding them, the National Park Service faces the difficulty of monitoring ecosystem changes and responses of key wildlife indicator species within parks. Responses of bison to trail grooming in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) and control of the animals once they leave the park (Bruggeman et al. 2007), migration of wildlife across park boundaries (Griffith et al. 2002; Berger 2004), effects of restored wolves on vegetation communities through trophic cascades (Hebblewhite et al. 2005), and responses of wildlife to the use of prescribed fires all represent problems ...


Differential Response Of Amp Activated Protein Kinase (Ampk) And Hsp70 To Temperature Stress In The Gastropod, Nucella Lapillus, Emily Zimmermann Apr 2009

Differential Response Of Amp Activated Protein Kinase (Ampk) And Hsp70 To Temperature Stress In The Gastropod, Nucella Lapillus, Emily Zimmermann

All Theses And Dissertations

Populations of the gastropod Nucella lapillus are polymorphic for shell color, with light-colored shells predominating on warmer, wave-protected shores and dark-colored shells limited primarily to cooler, wave-exposed shores. During thermal stress, darker shells attain higher body temperatures than lighter shells. These results suggest that heat stress may determine field distribution patterns. However, there is currently little evidence of physiological consequences of thermal stress in these organisms. Following the guiding hypothesis that heat stress leads to cellular energy depletion, we explored whether the central energy regulator AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is activated by heat stress. We compared this response in both ...


An Overview Of Human Health Issues, Marcella H. Sorg Feb 2009

An Overview Of Human Health Issues, Marcella H. Sorg

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang Jan 2009

Understanding How Disease And Environment Combine To Structure Resistance In Estuarine Bivalve Populations, Eileen E. Hofmann, David Bushek, Susan E. Ford, Ximing Guo, Dale Haidvogel, Dennis Hedgecock, John M. Klinck, Coren Milbury, Diego Narvaez, Eric Powell, Yongping Wang, Zhiren Wang, Liusuo Zhang

CCPO Publications

Delaware Bay oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations are influenced by two lethal parasites that cause Dermo and MSX diseases. As part of the US National Science Foundation Ecology of Infectious Diseases initiative, a program developed for Delaware Bay focuses on understanding how oyster population genetics and population dynamics interact with the environment and these parasites to structure he host populations, and how these interactions might modified by climate change. Laboratory and field studies undertaken during this program include identifying genes related to MSX and Dermo disease resistance, potential regions for refugia and the mechanisms that allow them to exist, phenotypic and ...


From Cells To Coastlines: How Can We Use Physiology To Forecast The Impacts Of Climate Change?, Brian Helmuth Jan 2009

From Cells To Coastlines: How Can We Use Physiology To Forecast The Impacts Of Climate Change?, Brian Helmuth

Faculty Publications

The interdisciplinary fields of conservation physiology, macrophysiology, and mechanistic ecological forecasting have recently emerged as means of integrating detailed physiological responses to the broader questions of ecological and evolutionary responses to global climate change. Bridging the gap between large-scale records of weather and climate (as measured by remote sensing platforms, buoys and ground-based weather stations) and the physical world as experienced by organisms (niche-level measurements) requires a mechanistic understanding of how ‘environmental signals’ (parameters such as air, surface and water temperature, food availability, water flow) are translated into signals at the scale of the organism or cell (e.g. body ...


Seasonal Variation In The Maximum Rate Of Leaf Gas Exchange Of Canopy And Understory Trees In An Amazonian Semideciduous Forest, Kerrie M. Sendall, George L. Vourlitis, Francisco A. Lobo Jan 2009

Seasonal Variation In The Maximum Rate Of Leaf Gas Exchange Of Canopy And Understory Trees In An Amazonian Semideciduous Forest, Kerrie M. Sendall, George L. Vourlitis, Francisco A. Lobo

Kerrie M Sendall

Leaf gas exchange, water potential, and specific leaf area of two tropical semi-deciduous tree species, Brosimum lactescens S. Moore and Tovomita schomburgkii Planch & Triana, were quantified to establish how these properties were affected by seasonal variations in rainfall and leaf canopy position. The study was conducted at a site near Sinop Mato Grosso, Brazil, which is located within the ecotone of savanna and tropical rain forest. Both species exhibited significant declines in leaf water potential (ΨL), specific leaf area, area- and mass-based light saturated photosynthesis and dark respiration, and maximum stomatal conductance during the dry-season, suggesting that leaf structural properties ...


Effects Of Increased Pco2 And Temperature On The North Atlantic Spring Bloom. Iii. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, Peter A. Lee, Jamie R. Rudisill, Aimee R. Neeley, Jennifer M. Maucher, David A. Hutchins, Yuanyuan Feng, Clinton E. Hare, Karine Leblanc, Julie M. Rose, Steven W. Wilhelm, Janet M. Rowe, Giacomo R. Ditullio Jan 2009

Effects Of Increased Pco2 And Temperature On The North Atlantic Spring Bloom. Iii. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, Peter A. Lee, Jamie R. Rudisill, Aimee R. Neeley, Jennifer M. Maucher, David A. Hutchins, Yuanyuan Feng, Clinton E. Hare, Karine Leblanc, Julie M. Rose, Steven W. Wilhelm, Janet M. Rowe, Giacomo R. Ditullio

Papers in Plant Pathology

The CLAW hypothesis argues that a negative feedback mechanism involving phytoplankton- derived dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) could mitigate increasing sea surface temperatures that result from global warming. DMSP is converted to the climatically active dimethylsulfide (DMS), which is transferred to the atmosphere and photochemically oxidized to sulfate aerosols, leading to increases in planetary albedo and cooling of the Earth’s atmosphere. A shipboard incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of increased temperature and pCO2 on the algal community structure of the North Atlantic spring bloom and their subsequent impact on particulate and dissolved DMSP concentrations (DMSPp and DMSP ...


Leaf Isoprene Emission Rate As A Function Of Atmospheric Co2 Concentration, Michael J. Wilkinson, Russell K. Monson, Nicole Trahan, Stanfield Lee, Erin Brown, Robert B. Jackson, H. Wayne Polley, Philip A. Fay, Ray Fall Jan 2009

Leaf Isoprene Emission Rate As A Function Of Atmospheric Co2 Concentration, Michael J. Wilkinson, Russell K. Monson, Nicole Trahan, Stanfield Lee, Erin Brown, Robert B. Jackson, H. Wayne Polley, Philip A. Fay, Ray Fall

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

There is considerable interest in modeling isoprene emissions from terrestrial vegetation, because these emissions exert a principal control over the oxidative capacity of the troposphere.


Primary Productivity And Water Balance Of Grassland Vegetation On Three Soils In A Continuous Co2 Gradient: Initial Results From The Lysimeter Co2 Gradient Experiment, Philip A. Fay, Alexia M. Kelley, Andrew C. Procter, Dafeng Hui, Virgina L. Jin, Robert B. Jackson, Hyrum B. Johnson, H. Wayne Polley Jan 2009

Primary Productivity And Water Balance Of Grassland Vegetation On Three Soils In A Continuous Co2 Gradient: Initial Results From The Lysimeter Co2 Gradient Experiment, Philip A. Fay, Alexia M. Kelley, Andrew C. Procter, Dafeng Hui, Virgina L. Jin, Robert B. Jackson, Hyrum B. Johnson, H. Wayne Polley

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Field studies of atmospheric CO2 effects on ecosystems usually include few levels of CO2 and a single soil type, making it difficult to ascertain the shape of responses to increasing CO2 or to generalize across soil types. The Lysimeter CO2 Gradient (LYCOG) chambers were constructed to maintain a linear gradient of atmospheric CO2 (~250 to 500 µ 1-1) on grassland vegetation established on intact soil monoliths from three soil series. The chambers maintained a linear daytime CO2 gradient from 263 µ 1-1 at the subambient end of the gradient to 502 µ ...


Effects Of Increased Pco2 And Temperature On The North Atlantic Spring Bloom: Iii. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, P.A. Lee, J.R. Rudisill, A.R. Neeley, D.A. Hutchins, Y. Feng, C.E. Hare, K. Leblanc, J.M. Rose, Steven Wilhelm, J.M. Rowe, G.R. Ditullio Jan 2009

Effects Of Increased Pco2 And Temperature On The North Atlantic Spring Bloom: Iii. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate, P.A. Lee, J.R. Rudisill, A.R. Neeley, D.A. Hutchins, Y. Feng, C.E. Hare, K. Leblanc, J.M. Rose, Steven Wilhelm, J.M. Rowe, G.R. Ditullio

Microbiology Publications and Other Works

The CLAW hypothesis argues that a negative feedback mechanism involving phytoplankton-derived dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) could mitigate increasing sea surface temperatures that result from global warming. DMSP is converted to the climatically active dimethylsulfide (DMS), which is transferred to the atmosphere and photochemically oxidized to sulfate aerosols, leading to increases in planetary albedo and cooling of the Earth’s atmosphere. A shipboard incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of increased temperature and pCO2 on the algal community structure of the North Atlantic spring bloom and their subsequent impact on particulate and dissolved DMSP concentrations (DMSPp and DMSPd). Under ...