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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Thermal Stress-Related Spatiotemporal Variations In High-Latitude Coral Reef Benthic Communities, Nicholas P. Jones, Joana Figueiredo, David S. Gilliam Aug 2020

Thermal Stress-Related Spatiotemporal Variations In High-Latitude Coral Reef Benthic Communities, Nicholas P. Jones, Joana Figueiredo, David S. Gilliam

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

High-latitude coral reef communities have been postulated as the first areas to undergo reorganisation under climate change. Tropicalisation has been identified in some high-latitude communities and is predicted in others, but it is unclear how the resident benthic taxa are affected. We conducted a long-term (2007–2016) assessment of changes to benthic community cover in relation to thermal stress duration on the Southeast Florida Reef Tract (SEFRT). Thermal stress events, both hot and cold, had acute (thermal stress duration affected benthic cover that year) and chronic (thermal stress duration affected benthic cover the following year) impacts on benthic cover. Chronic ...


Uncovering The Role Of Symbiodiniaceae Assemblage Composition And Abundance In Coral Bleaching Response By Minimizing Sampling And Evolutionary Biases, Timothy D. Swain, Simon Lax, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino May 2020

Uncovering The Role Of Symbiodiniaceae Assemblage Composition And Abundance In Coral Bleaching Response By Minimizing Sampling And Evolutionary Biases, Timothy D. Swain, Simon Lax, Vadim Backman, Luisa A. Marcelino

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Background

Biodiversity and productivity of coral-reef ecosystems depend upon reef-building corals and their associations with endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae, which offer diverse functional capabilities to their hosts. The number of unique symbiotic partners (richness) and relative abundances (evenness) have been hypothesized to affect host response to climate change induced thermal stress. Symbiodiniaceae assemblages with many unique phylotypes may provide greater physiological flexibility or form less stable symbioses; assemblages with low abundance phylotypes may allow corals to retain thermotolerant symbionts or represent associations with less-suitable symbionts.

Results

Here we demonstrate that true richness of Symbiodiniaceae phylotype assemblages is generally not discoverable from direct ...


Characterizing The Range Shifts Of Two Peromyscus Species In Maine, Molly Bennett May 2020

Characterizing The Range Shifts Of Two Peromyscus Species In Maine, Molly Bennett

Honors College

In a changing climate, two species of mice in Maine (Peromyscus maniculatus and Peromyscus leucopus) are currently undergoing range shifts. The objective of my thesis is to determine the historical and current range of each species within the state of Maine. I used two approaches. I assembled ear biopsies collected this summer in Acadia National Park and throughout the state by the Gardner and Levesque labs to genotype the mice as either P. maniculatus or P. leucopus. Additionally, I summarized research that denotes where the two species were historically present around the state. These species are functionally impossible to tell ...


What’S Going To Happen To My Pancakes? The Impacts Of Climate Change Upon Blueberries And Sugar Maple, Ashley Kayser May 2020

What’S Going To Happen To My Pancakes? The Impacts Of Climate Change Upon Blueberries And Sugar Maple, Ashley Kayser

Honors College

The United Nations believes that the foremost challenge of the future will be climate change. Because of human use of fossil fuels, greenhouse gases have been released into the atmosphere at unsustainable rates, which have resulted in an altered climate that will impact weather patterns around the globe. There have already been measurable shifts in precipitation and temperature in many regions; in the state of Maine the general trend has been toward higher temperatures and increased precipitation. This is resulting in impacts to agriculture throughout the state. Blueberries and sugar maple are two culturally and economically valuable crops which will ...


Breeding Wheat For Resilience To Increasing Nighttime Temperatures, Kathleen Russell, David A. Van Sanford Apr 2020

Breeding Wheat For Resilience To Increasing Nighttime Temperatures, Kathleen Russell, David A. Van Sanford

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Increases in global mean temperature since 1960 are largely attributed to the rise in minimum nighttime temperatures thereby decreasing diurnal temperature variation. Increased night temperatures are known to affect crop development. A multi-year study investigating the effects of increased night temperatures on soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties was conducted during the 2015-2016 growing seasons at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Research Farm in Lexington, KY. Thirty-six cultivars and breeding lines were chosen based on their genotypes at photoperiod and vernalization loci. This material was planted in a randomized complete block experiment with two replications and two environments ...


How Climate Impacts The Composition Of Wolf-Killed Elk In Northern Yellowstone National Park, Christopher C. Wilmers, Matthew C. Metz, Daniel R. Stahler, Michel T. Kohl, Chris Geremia, Douglas W. Smith Mar 2020

How Climate Impacts The Composition Of Wolf-Killed Elk In Northern Yellowstone National Park, Christopher C. Wilmers, Matthew C. Metz, Daniel R. Stahler, Michel T. Kohl, Chris Geremia, Douglas W. Smith

Ecology Center Publications

  1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles.
  2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets of climate interact with prey abundance and demography to influence the composition of predator kills.
  3. Over 20 winters, we monitored 17 wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park ...


Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon Feb 2020

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon

Journal articles

The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in 1976 led to a change in rainfall for the broad-scale winter annual grain cropping and pasture region in the south-west of Western Australia (the WA wheatbelt). Agriculture in the eastern part the WA Wheatbelt was particularly sensitive to the change in rainfall because it is a marginal area for agronomic production, with low rainfall before changes in sea surface temperature. A second shift in sea surface temperature occurred in 2000, but there has been no analysis of the resulting impact on rainfall in the eastern WA wheatbelt. An analysis of rainfall ...


Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update, Ivan J. Fernandez, Sean Birkel, Julia Simonson, Bradford Lyon, Andrew Pershing, Esperanza Stancioff, George L. Jacobson, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr. Feb 2020

Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update, Ivan J. Fernandez, Sean Birkel, Julia Simonson, Bradford Lyon, Andrew Pershing, Esperanza Stancioff, George L. Jacobson, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr.

Climate Change Institute Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


2020 Update Mtg: Climate Change Trends And Their Effects On Ecosystems Of Cape Cod National Seashore, Stephen Smith Jan 2020

2020 Update Mtg: Climate Change Trends And Their Effects On Ecosystems Of Cape Cod National Seashore, Stephen Smith

Cranberry Station Extension meetings

No abstract provided.


Local Adaptation Constrains Drought Tolerance In A Tropical Foundation Tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, Tiffany Knight Jan 2020

Local Adaptation Constrains Drought Tolerance In A Tropical Foundation Tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, Tiffany Knight

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

  1. Plant species with broad climatic ranges might be more vulnerable to climate change than previously appreciated due to intraspecific variation in climatic stress tolerance. In tropical forests, drought is increasingly frequent and severe, causing widespread declines and altering community dynamics. Yet, little is known about whether foundation tropical trees vary in drought tolerance throughout their distributions, and how intraspecific variation in drought tolerance might contribute to their vulnerability to climate changE.
  2. We tested for local adaptation in seedling emergence and establishment with a full-factorial reciprocal transplant experiment including 27 populations and 109,350 seeds along a 3,500 mm precipitation ...


Understanding Global Change: From Documentation And Collaboration To Social Transformation, Karen E. Pennesi Jan 2020

Understanding Global Change: From Documentation And Collaboration To Social Transformation, Karen E. Pennesi

Anthropology Publications

The conclusion to the book situates the chapters within four programs of anthropological research on climate change: (1) documentation of local impacts of and adaptations to climate change, (2) connections to socioeconomic and political contexts, (3) collaborations with nonanthropologists, and (4) activism and social transformation. The final section notes the persistent challenges to creating positive change and meaningful research outcomes. It highlights some examples of success and outlines future directions for politically engaged anthropological work around climate change.


Sharp‐Tailed Grouse In The Nebraska Sandhills Select Residual Cover Patches For Nest Sites, William L. Vodehnal, Gregory L. Schenbeck, Daniel W, Uresk Jan 2020

Sharp‐Tailed Grouse In The Nebraska Sandhills Select Residual Cover Patches For Nest Sites, William L. Vodehnal, Gregory L. Schenbeck, Daniel W, Uresk

Nebraska Game and Parks Commission -- Staff Research Publications

We evaluated selection and availability of residual cover (dead standing herbage) by sharptailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) at time of nest‐site selection in an intact and annually grazed grassland. We used radiotelemetry in 1988–1990 to locate 147 nests in the sandhills of Nebraska, USA, and classified 121 as initial nests and 26 as renests. We used visual obstruction readings (VOR) to measure the height and density of residual cover at nests and 373 landscape‐scale transects around leks (trap sites). We excluded 77 nests from vegetation analysis because green herbage or early livestock grazing compromised residual cover measurements. Most ...


Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman Jan 2020

Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman

OEAS Faculty Publications

As CO2 levels in Earth’s atmosphere and oceans steadily rise, varying organismal responses may produce ecological losers and winners. Increased ocean CO2 can enhance seagrass productivity and thermal tolerance, providing some compensation for climate warming. However, the metabolic shifts driving the positive response to elevated CO2 by these important ecosystem engineers remain unknown. We analyzed whole-plant performance and metabolic profiles of two geographically distinct eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations in response to CO2 enrichment. In addition to enhancing overall plant size, growth and survival, CO2 enrichment increased the abundance of Calvin Cycle and nitrogen ...


Standardized Short-Term Acute Heat Stress Assays Resolve Historical Differences In Coral Thermotolerance Across Microhabitat Reef Sites, Christian R. Voolstra, Carol Buitrago-López, Gabriela Perna, Anny Cárdenas, Benjamin C. C. Hume, Nils Rädecker, Daniel J. Barshis Jan 2020

Standardized Short-Term Acute Heat Stress Assays Resolve Historical Differences In Coral Thermotolerance Across Microhabitat Reef Sites, Christian R. Voolstra, Carol Buitrago-López, Gabriela Perna, Anny Cárdenas, Benjamin C. C. Hume, Nils Rädecker, Daniel J. Barshis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral bleaching is one of the main drivers of reef degradation. Most corals bleach and suffer mortality at just 1–2°C above their maximum monthly mean temperatures, but some species and genotypes resist or recover better than others. Here, we conducted a series of 18‐hr short‐term acute heat stress assays side‐by‐side with a 21‐day long‐term heat stress experiment to assess the ability of both approaches to resolve coral thermotolerance differences reflective of in situ reef temperature thresholds. Using a suite of physiological parameters (photosynthetic efficiency, coral whitening, chlorophyll a , host protein, algal symbiont ...


Potential Effects Of Climate Change On The Geographic Distribution Of The Endangered Plant Species Manihot Walkerae, Gisel Garza, Armida Rivera, Crystian Sadel Venegas Barrera, Jose Guadalupe Martinez-Avalos, Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo Jan 2020

Potential Effects Of Climate Change On The Geographic Distribution Of The Endangered Plant Species Manihot Walkerae, Gisel Garza, Armida Rivera, Crystian Sadel Venegas Barrera, Jose Guadalupe Martinez-Avalos, Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Walker’s Manihot, Manihot walkerae, is an endangered plant that is endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. M. walkerae populations are highly fragmented and are found on both protected public lands and private property. Habitat loss and competition by invasive species are the most detrimental threats for M. walkerae; however, the effect of climate change on M. walkerae’s geographic distribution remains unexplored and could result in further range restrictions. Our objectives are to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on the distribution of M. walkerae and assess the usefulness of natural ...


No Evidence Of Fine Scale Thermal Adaption In Green Turtles, Taylor Apter Jan 2020

No Evidence Of Fine Scale Thermal Adaption In Green Turtles, Taylor Apter

Scientific Communications News

No abstract provided.


Assessing The Hierarchy Of Long-Term Environmental Controls On Diatom Communities Of Yellowstone National Park Using Lacustrine Sediment Records, Victoria Chraibi, Sherilyn C. Fritz Jan 2020

Assessing The Hierarchy Of Long-Term Environmental Controls On Diatom Communities Of Yellowstone National Park Using Lacustrine Sediment Records, Victoria Chraibi, Sherilyn C. Fritz

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

An ecosystem’s ability to maintain structure and function following disturbance, defined as resilience, is influenced by a hierarchy of environmental controls, including climate, surface cover, and ecological relationships that shape biological community composition and productivity. This study examined lacustrine sediment records of naturally fishless lakes in Yellowstone National Park to reconstruct the response of aquatic communities to climate and trophic cascades from fish stocking. Sediment records of diatom algae did not exhibit a distinct response to fish stocking in terms of assemblage or algal productivity. Instead, 3 of 4 lakes underwent a shift to dominance by benthic diatom species ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. Jan 2020

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Organic Chemistry Insights For The Exceptional Soil Carbon Storage Of The Seagrass Posidonia Australis, Oscar Serrano, Mohammad Rozaimi, Paul Lavery, Ronald J. Smernik Jan 2020

Organic Chemistry Insights For The Exceptional Soil Carbon Storage Of The Seagrass Posidonia Australis, Oscar Serrano, Mohammad Rozaimi, Paul Lavery, Ronald J. Smernik

ECU Publications Post 2013

The high organic carbon (OC) stores in seagrass meadows have led to their recognition as significant Blue Carbon sinks, though the diagenetic conditions that enable OC retention in seagrass soils remain poorly understood. In this study, seagrass soils were sampled from a Posidonia australis meadow in Oyster Harbour (Albany; south-western Australia) to investigate the preservation of sedimentary OC. We analysed soil characteristics (colour, grain size and redox potential), radiocarbon age, and characterised the soil organic matter (OM) using solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy to examine the preservation of OM down the soil profile. There was minimal change in ...


Vulnerability Of High-Elevation Endemic Salamanders To Climate Change: A Case Study With The Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon Punctatus), Carl D. Jacobsen, Donald J. Brown, William D. Flint, Thomas K. Pauley, Kurt A. Buhlmann, Joseph C. Mitchell Jan 2020

Vulnerability Of High-Elevation Endemic Salamanders To Climate Change: A Case Study With The Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon Punctatus), Carl D. Jacobsen, Donald J. Brown, William D. Flint, Thomas K. Pauley, Kurt A. Buhlmann, Joseph C. Mitchell

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Rapid contemporary climate change is a potential threat to long-term persistence of montane wildlife species because they often have narrow thermal tolerances and have limited potential to shift their distributions. The Appalachian Mountain region in the eastern United States is a global biodiversity hotspot for woodland salamanders (genus Plethodon), many of which are high-elevation endemic species. Robust assessments of the vulnerability of high-elevation endemic salamanders to climate change, including delineation of future potential climate refugia, are needed to guide climate change adaptations strategies. The Cow Knob Salamander (Plethodon punctatus) is a species of conservation concern found at high elevations in ...


Seed Source Regions Drive Fitness Differences In Invasive Macrophytes, Morgane B. Gillard, Rebecca E. Drenovsky, Gabrielle Thiébaut, Michèle Tarayre, Caryn J. Futrell, Brenda J. Grewell Jan 2020

Seed Source Regions Drive Fitness Differences In Invasive Macrophytes, Morgane B. Gillard, Rebecca E. Drenovsky, Gabrielle Thiébaut, Michèle Tarayre, Caryn J. Futrell, Brenda J. Grewell

2020 Faculty Bibliography

Premise Worldwide, ecosystems are threatened by global changes, including biological invasions. Invasive species arriving in novel environments experience new climatic conditions that can affect their successful establishment. Determining the response of functional traits and fitness components of invasive populations from contrasting environments can provide a useful framework to assess species responses to climate change and the variability of these responses among source populations. Much research on macrophytes has focused on establishment from clonal fragments; however, colonization from sexual propagules has rarely been studied. Our objective was to compare trait responses of plants generated from sexual propagules sourced from three climatic ...


Trade-Offs Between Morphology And Thermal Niches Mediate Adaptation In Response To Competing Selective Pressures, Stella F. Uiterwaal, Ian T. Lagerstrom, Thomas M. Luhring, Miranda E. Salsbery, John P. Delong Jan 2020

Trade-Offs Between Morphology And Thermal Niches Mediate Adaptation In Response To Competing Selective Pressures, Stella F. Uiterwaal, Ian T. Lagerstrom, Thomas M. Luhring, Miranda E. Salsbery, John P. Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

The effects of climate change—such as increased temperature variability and novel predators—rarely happen in isolation, but it is unclear how organisms cope with mul- tiple stressors simultaneously. To explore this, we grew replicate Paramecium caudatum populations in either constant or variable temperatures and exposed half to predation. We then fit thermal performance curves (TPCs) of intrinsic growth rate (rmax) for each replicate population (N = 12) across seven temperatures (10°C–38°C). TPCs of P. caudatum exposed to both temperature variability and predation re- sponded only to one or the other (but not both), resulting in unpredictable ...


Temperature Alters The Shape Of Predator–Prey Cycles Through Effects On Underlying Mechanisms, John P. Delong, Shelby Lyon Jan 2020

Temperature Alters The Shape Of Predator–Prey Cycles Through Effects On Underlying Mechanisms, John P. Delong, Shelby Lyon

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Background: Predicting the effects of climate warming on the dynamics of ecological systems requires understanding how temperature influences birth rates, death rates and the strength of species interactions. The temperature dependance of these processes—which are the underlying mechanisms of ecological dynamics—is often thought to be exponential or unimodal, generally supported by short-term experiments. However, ecological dynamics unfold over many generations. Our goal was to empirically document shifts in predator–prey cycles over the full range of temperatures that can possibly support a predator–prey system and then to uncover the effect of temperature on the underlying mechanisms driving ...


Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell Dec 2019

Food Availability Modulates Temperature-Dependent Effects On Growth, Reproduction, And Survival In Daphnia Magna, Gustavo S. Betini, Xueqi Wang, Tal Avgar, Matthew M. Guzzo, John M. Fryxell

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Reduced body size and accelerated life cycle due to warming are considered major ecological responses to climate change with fitness costs at the individual level. Surprisingly, we know little about how relevant ecological factors can alter these life history trade‐offs and their consequences for individual fitness. Here, we show that food modulates temperature‐dependent effects on body size in the water flea Daphnia magna and interacts with temperature to affect life history parameters. We exposed 412 individuals to a factorial manipulation of food abundance and temperature, tracked each reproductive event, and took daily measurements of body size from each ...


Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du Dec 2019

Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du

Aspen Bibliography

Since climate change significantly affects global biodiversity, a reasonable assessment of the vulnerability of species in response to climate change is crucial for conservation. Most existing methods estimate the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of species by projecting the change of a species’ distribution range. This single-component evaluation ignores the impact of other components on vulnerability. In this study, Populus davidiana (David’s aspen), a tree species widely used in afforestation projects, was selected as the research subject under four future climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathway (RCP)2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Exposure ...


Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones Dec 2019

Watching Grass Grow: How Soil Moisture Affects Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae And Growth In Little Bluestem, Laura M. Jones

Honors Scholar Theses

Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) are an ancient mutualism in which soil-dwelling fungi enhance plant absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen in exchange for photosynthates. VAM are sensitive to changes in soil moisture and nutrient content, fluctuating between mutualism and parasitism depending on conditions of drought stress and nutrient deficiency. Understanding how VAM respond to precipitation changes is crucial for both conservation and agricultural purposes. To test how soil moisture changes the effects of VAM colonization and growth in little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), a common prairie grass, I planted 300 seeds in a greenhouse in sterilized soil and soil inoculated with VAM fungi ...


Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell Dec 2019

Assessing Plant Performance In The Enviratron, Yin Bao, Scott Zarecor, Dylan Shah, Taylor Tuel, Darwin A. Campbell, Antony V. E. Chapman, David Imberti, Daniel Kiekhaefer, Henry Imberti, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yanhai Yin, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Steven A. Whitham, Lie Tang, Stephen H. Howell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Background: Assessing the impact of the environment on plant performance requires growing plants under controlled environmental conditions. Plant phenotypes are a product of genotype × environment (G × E), and the Enviratron at Iowa State University is a facility for testing under controlled conditions the effects of the environment on plant growth and development. Crop plants (including maize) can be grown to maturity in the Enviratron, and the performance of plants under different environmental conditions can be monitored 24 h per day, 7 days per week throughout the growth cycle.

Results: The Enviratron is an array of custom-designed plant growth chambers that ...


Changes In The Diet And Body Size Of A Small Herbivorous Mammal (Hispid Cotton Rat, Sigmodon Hispidus) Following The Late Pleistocene Megafauna Extinction, Catalina P. Tomé, Emma A. Elliott Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, Seth D. Newsome, Felisa A. Smith Dec 2019

Changes In The Diet And Body Size Of A Small Herbivorous Mammal (Hispid Cotton Rat, Sigmodon Hispidus) Following The Late Pleistocene Megafauna Extinction, Catalina P. Tomé, Emma A. Elliott Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, Seth D. Newsome, Felisa A. Smith

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

The catastrophic loss of large-bodied mammals during the terminal Pleistocene likely led to cascading effects within communities. While the extinction of the top consumers probably expanded the resources available to survivors of all body sizes, little work has focused on the responses of the smallest mammals. Here, we use a detailed fossil record from the southwestern United States to examine the response of the hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus to biodiversity loss and climatic change over the late Quaternary. In particular, we focus on changes in diet and body size. We characterize diet through carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen ...


Epidemic Spruce Beetle Outbreak Changes Drivers Of Engelmann Spruce Regeneration, Jessika M. Pettit, Julia I. Burton, R. Justin Derose, James N. Long, Steve L. Voelker Nov 2019

Epidemic Spruce Beetle Outbreak Changes Drivers Of Engelmann Spruce Regeneration, Jessika M. Pettit, Julia I. Burton, R. Justin Derose, James N. Long, Steve L. Voelker

Ecology Center Publications

Climate‐mediated disturbances outside the range of historical variability can have severe consequences on vital, post‐disturbance regeneration processes. High‐elevation forests of the Rocky Mountains that are dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Additionally, these forests have experienced recent epidemic spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks that have often resulted in >95% mortality of overstory Engelmann spruce. Therefore, the future distribution of Engelmann spruce forests depends largely on natural regeneration processes. We examined Engelmann spruce seedlings across gradients in soil moisture and stand structural conditions 20 yr ...


Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong Oct 2019

Phenotypically Plastic Responses To Predation Risk Are Temperature Dependent, Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clayton E. Cressler, John Delong

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Predicting how organisms respond to climate change requires that we understand the temperature dependence of fitness in relevant ecological contexts (e.g., with or without predation risk). Predation risk often induces changes to life history traits that are themselves temperature dependent. We explore how perceived predation risk and temperature interact to determine fitness (indicated by the intrinsic rate of increase, r) through changes to its underlying components (net reproductive rate, generation time, and survival) in Daphnia magna. We exposed Daphnia to predation cues from dragonfly naiads early, late, or throughout their ontogeny. Predation risk increased r differentially across temperatures and ...