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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16 Sep 2019

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29 Sep 2019

Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass Aug 2019

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

The beef industry is harmful to the environment and human health and alternative solutions must be implemented in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Water and grain are used in agriculture in abundance despite the negative environmental effects it causes. Cattle are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the sector, also contributing to climate change. Antibiotics are used in large quantities without regard to potential future consequences. One potential solution for this problem is lab-grown beef, which demands very little from the consumer and would take pressure off the environmental issues the beef industry creates. Lab-grown ...


Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor May 2018

Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor

Journal of Latin American Geography

Despite continued forest loss and extensive demand for wood products throughout Guatemala, the locally managed and protected forests of Totonicapán remain some of the most intact within the country. Here, we study the growth rings of Guatemalan fir (Pinaceae; Abies guatemalensis Rehder; pinabete) at Totonicapán to assess environmental influences on tree growth and the potential vulnerability of these forests to climate change in the western highlands. We find that late summer and dry season precipitation are critical drivers in annual ring-width variability and that tree growth responds negatively to warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. Considering ...


Using Cognitive Dissonance To Communicate With Hypocrites About Water Conservation And Climate Change, Melissa R. Taylor, Alexa J. Lamm, Lisa K. Lundy Jan 2017

Using Cognitive Dissonance To Communicate With Hypocrites About Water Conservation And Climate Change, Melissa R. Taylor, Alexa J. Lamm, Lisa K. Lundy

Journal of Applied Communications

The effects of climate change can be mitigated by altering human behavior related to water conservation; however, many who are aware of climate change are not aligning their behavior to curb the impact. This research sought to explore the relationship between citizens’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding water conservation and their knowledge and beliefs regarding climate change to guide the development of effective communication campaigns focused on water conservation. Using cognitive dissonance theory and an adapted environmental attitudes and behavior quartet, this research focused on individuals who demonstrated high levels of climate change knowledge but did not engage in positive ...


Rapid Museum, Gary Barwin Sep 2016

Rapid Museum, Gary Barwin

The Goose

Poetry by Gary Barwin


Estimated Effects Of Climate Change On The Reproductive Fitness Of The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix Occidentalis Caurina, Nadia Swit May 2016

Estimated Effects Of Climate Change On The Reproductive Fitness Of The Northern Spotted Owl, Strix Occidentalis Caurina, Nadia Swit

The Downtown Review

In this paper, the trends for current and future climate change were utilized to evaluate the potential reproductive success of the Spotted Owl, particularly the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) subspecies. As breeding season would exert additional stressors on the animal, a time period of five months, from January to June, was selected for the spring breeding season in which to evaluate temperature change. Previous research performed by Weathers and colleagues (2001) concerning the California Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) formulated a thermodynamic equation that was utilized to compare the metabolic rate of the owl at current and future environmental ...


Renewable Energy Consumption: Initiatives In Colorado And Washington, Robin K. Doroff Jan 2016

Renewable Energy Consumption: Initiatives In Colorado And Washington, Robin K. Doroff

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper examines the use of policy mechanisms to increase renewable energy consumption within the United States. In order to effectively measure the change of renewable energy consumption, I analyze two initiatives that promote energy consumption from renewable sources and overall increases in energy conservation. Colorado and Washington had approved initiatives in the years 2004 and 2006, respectively. Although the results are not entirely statistically significant, I find that the initiatives lead to increases in total renewable energy consumption and decreases in total energy use.


Enhancement Of The Role Of Spatial Planning In Climate Change Adaptation By Long Term Modelling Of Land Use Change In Hungary, Krisztián Schneller, Erzsébet Vajdovich Visy, Vilja Vaszócsik Jan 2016

Enhancement Of The Role Of Spatial Planning In Climate Change Adaptation By Long Term Modelling Of Land Use Change In Hungary, Krisztián Schneller, Erzsébet Vajdovich Visy, Vilja Vaszócsik

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The purposeful formation of land use significantly contributes to the moderation of the adverse impact of climate change. Since spatial planning plays a fundamental role in the formation of land use, therefore it is essential to integrate climate adaptation goals into the planning process (Biesbroek, G.R. et al., 2009). Spatial plans primarily assist the achievement of adaptation purposes by the delimitation and protection (primarily against urban sprawl) of areas (as zones, such as ecological corridors) which are important in adaptation and risk prevention. In Hungary at present the spatial planning system already contribute to the above mentioned objectives, but ...


Sustainable Urban Planning And Climate Change Scenarios: An Investigation Of Staten Island's Urban Planning, Melissa Wagner, Lauren E. Gentile, Joanna Merson, Elizabeth Wentz Jan 2016

Sustainable Urban Planning And Climate Change Scenarios: An Investigation Of Staten Island's Urban Planning, Melissa Wagner, Lauren E. Gentile, Joanna Merson, Elizabeth Wentz

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Recent events like Hurricane Sandy, which struck Staten Island, NY on October 29, 2012, serve as a costly reminder of how unsustainable designs and mounting social pressures can contribute to extensive structural damage and subsequent financial cost, from storm surge inundation and coastal flooding. It is unlikely that Hurricane Sandy was a one-time event but rather a warning of what can occur over the next century without proper mitigation strategies. Based on climate change projections, such extreme events are expected to become more frequent and intense due to warmer sea surface temperatures and rising sea levels (Emmanual, 2005; Kirtman et ...


Converting Croplands To Grassland: A Spatial Analysis Of The Economic Feasibility Of Soil Greenhouse Gas Mitigation In Midwest, United States, Paco C. Defrancis Aug 2015

Converting Croplands To Grassland: A Spatial Analysis Of The Economic Feasibility Of Soil Greenhouse Gas Mitigation In Midwest, United States, Paco C. Defrancis

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

The global agriculture sector is responsible for close 20% of the aggregate anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions emitted since the start of the industrial age. Much of these emissions are attributed to the degradation of soils due to land use change when native ecosystems were converted to agricultural fields. Soil organic carbon (SOC) has been found to decrease in temperate soils when the native (such as a forest or grassland) ecosystem is replace by croplands. The aggregate amount of organic carbon stored in soils globally is estimated be 3.3x the size of the atmospheric carbon pool. Further soil degradation ...


A High-Altitude Balloon Platform For Determining Regional Uptake Of Carbon Dioxide Over Agricultural Landscapes, Angela M. Bouche May 2015

A High-Altitude Balloon Platform For Determining Regional Uptake Of Carbon Dioxide Over Agricultural Landscapes, Angela M. Bouche

DePaul Discoveries

Interactions between the biosphere and atmosphere are an important part of the global carbon cycle, and quantifying the carbon dioxide exchanges between them is helpful in predicting the uptake of carbon dioxide from anthropogenic sources by the biosphere in the future. In the Midwestern United States, agricultural systems cover a large part of the landscape, so understanding their role in influencing the global carbon budget is crucial as anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide grow larger. Carbon dioxide exchanges can be measured by eddy covariance at the ecosystem level (bottom-up approach) or regionally by inversion techniques (top-down approach). Here we describe ...


Agriculture In A Water Scarce World, Allison Roberts, Amjad Assi, Bassel Daher, Men Li Jun 2013

Agriculture In A Water Scarce World, Allison Roberts, Amjad Assi, Bassel Daher, Men Li

Student Papers in Public Policy

According to the McKinsey report (2009), the world is facing a water scarcity challenge where agriculture is its predominant consumer. It accounts for approximately 3100 billion m3, or 71 percent of global water withdrawals today, and is expected to increase to 4500 billion m3 by 2030. This increase is due to a number of factors: growing population and the ever growing necessity to cater for its food needs, economic growth, the variability of precipitation trends and increase in global temperatures. In addition to the increase in water scarcity, the agricultural sector faces an enormous challenge of producing almost ...


Assessment Matrix Based Evaluation Of Ecosystem Services In Relation To Land Use Change Scenarios, Gergő Gábor Nagy, Veronika Magyar, Sándor Jombach, László Kollányi, Balázs Duray Jan 2013

Assessment Matrix Based Evaluation Of Ecosystem Services In Relation To Land Use Change Scenarios, Gergő Gábor Nagy, Veronika Magyar, Sándor Jombach, László Kollányi, Balázs Duray

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The ecosystem services are natural assets and services, which are used by humans directly or indirectly over their respective lifetimes (MEA, 2005). Several authors and organizations describe these goods of nature in different ways. Some authors use ecological concepts as the basis for categorization (Norberg, 1999), others concentrate on different human needs (Wallace, 2007), however the most common categories are based on some functional distinction (MEA, 2005; de Groot, 2006; Hein et al., 2006). Authors representing this latter group usually mention the following classification: provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services. The provisioning services like water, wood or timber are used ...


Effects Of Detention For Flooding Mitigation Under Climate Change Scenarios— Implication For Landscape Planning In The Charles River Watershed, Massachusetts, Usa, Chingwen Cheng, Elizabeth A. Brabec, Yi-Chen E. Yang, Robert L. Ryan Jan 2013

Effects Of Detention For Flooding Mitigation Under Climate Change Scenarios— Implication For Landscape Planning In The Charles River Watershed, Massachusetts, Usa, Chingwen Cheng, Elizabeth A. Brabec, Yi-Chen E. Yang, Robert L. Ryan

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Climate change has posed increased risks to environmental hazards (e.g., flooding, droughts, hurricanes) in addition to new challenges under climate change impacts (e.g., early snow melt, sea level rises, heat waves). Floods are omnipresent in almost every city in the United States and account for the most economic losses than any other single geophysical hazard (White and Haas 1975). Previous climate change studies have suggested promising trends of increasing temperature and changing precipitation patterns as well as increased intensity and duration of storm events that are likely to result in more flooding events in the Northeast region. Flooding ...


Current Status Of Lichen Diversity In Iowa, James T. Colbert Jan 2011

Current Status Of Lichen Diversity In Iowa, James T. Colbert

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviorseffects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviors, Connor Harron Jan 2011

Effects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviorseffects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviors, Connor Harron

Occam's Razor

As stated in the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the planet’s climate is warming at an unprecedented rate, and humans are responsible for the large majority of causes creating this situation. If humans are to repair the balance between themselves and nature, then a global environmental movement that includes widespread behavior and attitude reconstruction will have to occur. The current study seeks to build upon past research attempting to promote pro-environmental behavior change in individuals. The author examines the ability of modeling and norms presented in a video format to motivate individuals to ...


Greenways In Strategies Of Mitigation And Adaption To Climate Change: Case Study Of State Of Maryland, Usa, David Myers Jan 2010

Greenways In Strategies Of Mitigation And Adaption To Climate Change: Case Study Of State Of Maryland, Usa, David Myers

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper, using the State of Maryland, USA as a case study, draws connections between greenway contributions to the Greenprint Program in MD and the rapidly expanding work on the use of green infrastructure to address climate change. It focuses on recent initiatives that could support the role of greenways in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Maryland established the Climate Change Commission in April 2007 by executive order to develop a plan for reducing the state’s vulnerability to sea level rise and other impacts of climate change. The Maryland Climate Change Commission's Climate Action Plan documented fortytwo ...


Blueprints For Green Communities: Climate Change Visioning And Participatory Landscape Planning For Resilient Low-Carbon Communities, David N. Flanders, Stephen R.J. Sheppard, Ellen Pond, Sarah Burch, Alison Shaw, Stewart Cohen Jan 2010

Blueprints For Green Communities: Climate Change Visioning And Participatory Landscape Planning For Resilient Low-Carbon Communities, David N. Flanders, Stephen R.J. Sheppard, Ellen Pond, Sarah Burch, Alison Shaw, Stewart Cohen

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Emerging 3D visualization tools and future visioning methods offer new ways to make climate change impacts and potential responses explicit, and accelerate holistic solutions. Previous research at UBC’s Collaborative for Advanced Landscape Planning (CALP) and elsewhere confirms that 4D visioning processes using landscape visualizations of recognizable places under alternative future conditions can improve community engagement and awareness on complex environmental and planning issues (Tress and Tress, 2002; Sheppard and Meitner, 2005; Schroth, 2007). This paper examines a visioning process (Sheppard, 2008) that applies visualization and other landscape planning methods to explore high and low-carbon futures of the affluent, sub-urban ...


Cultural Responses To Climate Change In The Holocene, Richard Prentice Jun 2009

Cultural Responses To Climate Change In The Holocene, Richard Prentice

Anthós

Variable Holocene climate conditions have caused cultures to thrive, adapt or fail. The invention of agriculture and the domestication of plants and animals allowed sedentary societies to develop and are the result of the climate becoming warmer after the last glaciation. The subsequent cooling of the Younger Dryas forced humans to concentrate into geographic areas that had an abundant water supply and ultimately favorable conditions for the use of agriculture and widespread domestication of plants and animals. Population densities would have reached a threshold and forced a return to foraging, however the end of the Younger Dryas at 10,000 ...


Artists' Depictions Of Catsteps In The Loess Hills Of Iowa: Evidence For Mid-Nineteenth Century Climate Change, Kimberly R. Dillon, Steven H. Emerman, Pamela K. Wilcox Jan 2006

Artists' Depictions Of Catsteps In The Loess Hills Of Iowa: Evidence For Mid-Nineteenth Century Climate Change, Kimberly R. Dillon, Steven H. Emerman, Pamela K. Wilcox

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Catsteps are the staircase-like features common on hillslopes of the Loess Hills of western Iowa. The record of artistic depictions of the Loess Hills was examined to determine when catsteps appeared. George Catlin, Karl Bodmer, and John James Audubon traveled up the Missouri River m 1832, 1833 and 1843, respectively, and between them, produced 31 works of art depicting either the Loess Hills or the loess bluffs on the Nebraska side of the river. Only three works by Bodmer of Blackbird Hill on the Nebraska side possibly show catsteps. The Assistant State Geologist, Orestes St. John, produced six sketches of ...


Iowa's Declining Flora And Fauna: A Review Of Changes Since 1980 And An Outlook For The Future, Neil P. Bernstein Jan 1998

Iowa's Declining Flora And Fauna: A Review Of Changes Since 1980 And An Outlook For The Future, Neil P. Bernstein

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

The status of Iowa's biodiversity was first summarized at a 1980 Iowa Academy of Science (IAS) symposium that was published in The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science (Vol. 88, No. 1) in 1981. The 1980 symposium was updated in a recent IAS symposium, and the proceedings from this symposium are published, for the most part, in volume 105 of this journal. Most of the authors noted some positive trends, but, overall, species declines and habitat destruction remained a concern.


A Search For Average, Extremes, And Runs Of Unusual Weather In Iowa, R. E. Carlson, D. P. Todey Jan 1997

A Search For Average, Extremes, And Runs Of Unusual Weather In Iowa, R. E. Carlson, D. P. Todey

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Temperature and precipitation during the past decade have exhibited wide variation throughout Iowa. Is this unusual? An attempt was made to answer this question by computing various statistical parameters that characterize variation in Iowa's long term climatic record. Absolute deviations were used to identify the most and least variable months and years since 1900. Overall, 1936 with a very cold winter and very warm summer was the least normal year. Runs of daily weather showed that heat and cold stress could often persist for more than 1 month. Runs of dry days were much longer than runs of wet ...


Analysis Of An Iowa Aridity Index In Relationship To Climate And Crop Yield, Soumare Harouna, R. E. Carlson Jan 1994

Analysis Of An Iowa Aridity Index In Relationship To Climate And Crop Yield, Soumare Harouna, R. E. Carlson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

An aridity index and its components, temperature and precipitation, for the period from 1900 through April 1993 were defined and characterized. This index describes the anomalous behavior of both temperature and precipitation over time. Our intent was to examine climate variability in Iowa. Moving mean and standard deviations over various lengths of time were calculated from three time series. We found that these indices fluctuate considerably from year to year and from month to month. The lowest aridity index values occurred in the recent summer of 1992, and the highest occurred during the very drought-prone 1930s. The 12-month moving mean ...


Heating Degree Days In Iowa Relative To Home Natural Gas Consumption, Conservation Efforts, And Long-Term Trends, Richard E. Carlson Jan 1991

Heating Degree Days In Iowa Relative To Home Natural Gas Consumption, Conservation Efforts, And Long-Term Trends, Richard E. Carlson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A methodology is presented to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts relative to home heating. Billing period heating degree days and natural gas consumption relationships are established for a typical household for nineteen heating seasons using simple linear regression. Associated correlations (r2 values) were greater than 0. 95 for nineteen different seasons. Regression coefficients (b0 and b1) were found to decrease with time indicating reduced natural gas consumption due to conservation efforts. Procedures are presented to illustrate dollar savings relative to conservation efforts using the regression relationships. Long-term trends for heating degree days at the Ames, Iowa ...


Iowa's Climate As Projected By The Global Climate Model Of The Goddard Institute For Space Studies For A Doubling Of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, E. S. Takle, S. Zhong Jan 1991

Iowa's Climate As Projected By The Global Climate Model Of The Goddard Institute For Space Studies For A Doubling Of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, E. S. Takle, S. Zhong

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Results of a global climate model that simulates climate under a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (estimated to occur by the latter half of the twenty first century) have been interpolated to Iowa. Summer temperatures under such a doubling are projected to rise by 4 to 7°F (2.2 to 3.9°C) and winter temperatures by 10 to 11° (5.6 to 6.1°C). Estimates of space heating and cooling demands from these data suggest a 30 to 35% decrease in space heat demand and a 200 to 300% increase in space cooling demand. Temperature variability is ...


Climate Trends In Iowa, Richard E. Carlson Jan 1990

Climate Trends In Iowa, Richard E. Carlson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Long-term trends for various weather elements are presented for the period 1900-1988. Summer and winter season, and annual air temperature patterns are statistically weak because of large inrerannual variability, but trends are evident. There was a general warming from 1900 until the 40's, with a leveling or slight cooling following. Since the mid-70's, a warming trend seems to be taking place, but this cannot be confirmed. Spring season air temperatures showed no trend except that the most recent 4 years (1985-1988) were decidedly warmer than normal. Winter season air temperatures showed a change in trend in the 30 ...


Climate Change And The Potential Impact On The Soil Resource, J. L. Hatfield Jan 1990

Climate Change And The Potential Impact On The Soil Resource, J. L. Hatfield

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Climatic change will lead to changes in the carbon dioxide C02, temperature, and precipitation. There have been many predictions of the effect of climatic change on plant growth but none on the soil parameters or water use. To fully understand the implications on soil management from climate change the expected changes in soil temperature, water use, and water and nutrient use efficiency need quantification.


Atmospheric Response To 1988 Drought Conditions And Future Climate Implications, Michael D. Mccorcle Jan 1990

Atmospheric Response To 1988 Drought Conditions And Future Climate Implications, Michael D. Mccorcle

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Plentiful precipitation in the central United States is one of the basic components of the successful agricultural industry in the Corn Belt. A combination of moisture, wind, and topographic factors creates an ideal condition for rainfall over most of the region during the late spring and early summer. In 1988, many ingredients necessary for wet weather were absent. The region experienced a drought unequalled since the 1930's. The drought of 1988 demonstrated chat the symptom of drought, namely, dry soils, can exacerbate and even perpetuate drought conditions by decreasing available moisture, altering circulation patterns vital to storm development, and ...