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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16 Sep 2019

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29 Sep 2019

Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor May 2018

Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor

Journal of Latin American Geography

Despite continued forest loss and extensive demand for wood products throughout Guatemala, the locally managed and protected forests of Totonicapán remain some of the most intact within the country. Here, we study the growth rings of Guatemalan fir (Pinaceae; Abies guatemalensis Rehder; pinabete) at Totonicapán to assess environmental influences on tree growth and the potential vulnerability of these forests to climate change in the western highlands. We find that late summer and dry season precipitation are critical drivers in annual ring-width variability and that tree growth responds negatively to warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. Considering ...


Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole Jul 2016

Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole

DePaul Discoveries

Isoprene, the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. Its reactions with NOx lead to the formation of ozone in the lower troposphere, which is harmful to plants and detrimental to human health. As air temperatures and CO2 concentrations increase with climate change, it is uncertain how isoprene emissions from plants will respond. We hypothesized that isoprene emissions will increase with the combination of increasing temperature and CO­2 concentrations. We predict that oaks grown at a higher temperature will exhibit an increase in isoprene emissions with combined short-term increases in temperature ...


Renewable Energy Consumption: Initiatives In Colorado And Washington, Robin K. Doroff Jan 2016

Renewable Energy Consumption: Initiatives In Colorado And Washington, Robin K. Doroff

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

This paper examines the use of policy mechanisms to increase renewable energy consumption within the United States. In order to effectively measure the change of renewable energy consumption, I analyze two initiatives that promote energy consumption from renewable sources and overall increases in energy conservation. Colorado and Washington had approved initiatives in the years 2004 and 2006, respectively. Although the results are not entirely statistically significant, I find that the initiatives lead to increases in total renewable energy consumption and decreases in total energy use.


Converting Croplands To Grassland: A Spatial Analysis Of The Economic Feasibility Of Soil Greenhouse Gas Mitigation In Midwest, United States, Paco C. Defrancis Aug 2015

Converting Croplands To Grassland: A Spatial Analysis Of The Economic Feasibility Of Soil Greenhouse Gas Mitigation In Midwest, United States, Paco C. Defrancis

Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics at Colby

The global agriculture sector is responsible for close 20% of the aggregate anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions emitted since the start of the industrial age. Much of these emissions are attributed to the degradation of soils due to land use change when native ecosystems were converted to agricultural fields. Soil organic carbon (SOC) has been found to decrease in temperate soils when the native (such as a forest or grassland) ecosystem is replace by croplands. The aggregate amount of organic carbon stored in soils globally is estimated be 3.3x the size of the atmospheric carbon pool. Further soil degradation ...


A High-Altitude Balloon Platform For Determining Regional Uptake Of Carbon Dioxide Over Agricultural Landscapes, Angela M. Bouche May 2015

A High-Altitude Balloon Platform For Determining Regional Uptake Of Carbon Dioxide Over Agricultural Landscapes, Angela M. Bouche

DePaul Discoveries

Interactions between the biosphere and atmosphere are an important part of the global carbon cycle, and quantifying the carbon dioxide exchanges between them is helpful in predicting the uptake of carbon dioxide from anthropogenic sources by the biosphere in the future. In the Midwestern United States, agricultural systems cover a large part of the landscape, so understanding their role in influencing the global carbon budget is crucial as anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide grow larger. Carbon dioxide exchanges can be measured by eddy covariance at the ecosystem level (bottom-up approach) or regionally by inversion techniques (top-down approach). Here we describe ...


The Influences Of Poultry Litter Biochar And Water Source On Radish Growth And Nutrition, Julia Allen, David E. Longer, Edward E. Gbur, Lichen Hao Jan 2014

The Influences Of Poultry Litter Biochar And Water Source On Radish Growth And Nutrition, Julia Allen, David E. Longer, Edward E. Gbur, Lichen Hao

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Many row-crop fields today have declined in soil fertility due to poor management practices and overuse of pesticides. Under these conditions, plant nutrient uptake can be sub-optimal. There are several soil amendments that can be used to improve soil quality and plant growth. This study focused on the addition of biochar to the soil and the use of structured water to enhance plant growth. Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of organic feedstocks. Previous studies which focused on biochar have shown an increase in plant yield, nutrient availability in the soil, and soil water holding capacity. Structured water is the liquid ...


Agriculture In A Water Scarce World, Allison Roberts, Amjad Assi, Bassel Daher, Men Li Jun 2013

Agriculture In A Water Scarce World, Allison Roberts, Amjad Assi, Bassel Daher, Men Li

Student Papers in Public Policy

According to the McKinsey report (2009), the world is facing a water scarcity challenge where agriculture is its predominant consumer. It accounts for approximately 3100 billion m3, or 71 percent of global water withdrawals today, and is expected to increase to 4500 billion m3 by 2030. This increase is due to a number of factors: growing population and the ever growing necessity to cater for its food needs, economic growth, the variability of precipitation trends and increase in global temperatures. In addition to the increase in water scarcity, the agricultural sector faces an enormous challenge of producing almost ...


Third Annual Environmental Law And Justice Symposium Issue: Introduction, Randall S. Abate, Richard D. Schulterbrandt Gragg Iii Jan 2013

Third Annual Environmental Law And Justice Symposium Issue: Introduction, Randall S. Abate, Richard D. Schulterbrandt Gragg Iii

Florida A & M University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Vitals Rates And Seasonal Movements Of Two Isolated Greater Sage-Grouse Populations In Utah's West Desert, Jason D. Robinson, Terry A. Messmer Jan 2013

Vitals Rates And Seasonal Movements Of Two Isolated Greater Sage-Grouse Populations In Utah's West Desert, Jason D. Robinson, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations in Utah over the last century parallel range-wide trends. However, little is known about the ecology of sage-grouse populations that inhabit Utah’s naturally fragmented habitats. Utah’s West Desert sage-grouse populations occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats that are geographically separated by the Great Salt Lake, and largely confined to the Sheeprock and Deep Creek watersheds. From 2005 to 2006, we monitored sage-grouse that were radio-collared in each watershed to determine the factors affecting the vital rates in these isolated populations. Livestock grazing by domestic cattle was the dominate land use ...


Current Status Of Lichen Diversity In Iowa, James T. Colbert Jan 2011

Current Status Of Lichen Diversity In Iowa, James T. Colbert

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviorseffects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviors, Connor Harron Jan 2011

Effects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviorseffects Of Normative Messages On Pro-Environmental Attitudes And Behaviors, Connor Harron

Occam's Razor

As stated in the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the planet’s climate is warming at an unprecedented rate, and humans are responsible for the large majority of causes creating this situation. If humans are to repair the balance between themselves and nature, then a global environmental movement that includes widespread behavior and attitude reconstruction will have to occur. The current study seeks to build upon past research attempting to promote pro-environmental behavior change in individuals. The author examines the ability of modeling and norms presented in a video format to motivate individuals to ...


Artists' Depictions Of Catsteps In The Loess Hills Of Iowa: Evidence For Mid-Nineteenth Century Climate Change, Kimberly R. Dillon, Steven H. Emerman, Pamela K. Wilcox Jan 2006

Artists' Depictions Of Catsteps In The Loess Hills Of Iowa: Evidence For Mid-Nineteenth Century Climate Change, Kimberly R. Dillon, Steven H. Emerman, Pamela K. Wilcox

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Catsteps are the staircase-like features common on hillslopes of the Loess Hills of western Iowa. The record of artistic depictions of the Loess Hills was examined to determine when catsteps appeared. George Catlin, Karl Bodmer, and John James Audubon traveled up the Missouri River m 1832, 1833 and 1843, respectively, and between them, produced 31 works of art depicting either the Loess Hills or the loess bluffs on the Nebraska side of the river. Only three works by Bodmer of Blackbird Hill on the Nebraska side possibly show catsteps. The Assistant State Geologist, Orestes St. John, produced six sketches of ...


Iowa's Declining Flora And Fauna: A Review Of Changes Since 1980 And An Outlook For The Future, Neil P. Bernstein Jan 1998

Iowa's Declining Flora And Fauna: A Review Of Changes Since 1980 And An Outlook For The Future, Neil P. Bernstein

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

The status of Iowa's biodiversity was first summarized at a 1980 Iowa Academy of Science (IAS) symposium that was published in The Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science (Vol. 88, No. 1) in 1981. The 1980 symposium was updated in a recent IAS symposium, and the proceedings from this symposium are published, for the most part, in volume 105 of this journal. Most of the authors noted some positive trends, but, overall, species declines and habitat destruction remained a concern.


A Search For Average, Extremes, And Runs Of Unusual Weather In Iowa, R. E. Carlson, D. P. Todey Jan 1997

A Search For Average, Extremes, And Runs Of Unusual Weather In Iowa, R. E. Carlson, D. P. Todey

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Temperature and precipitation during the past decade have exhibited wide variation throughout Iowa. Is this unusual? An attempt was made to answer this question by computing various statistical parameters that characterize variation in Iowa's long term climatic record. Absolute deviations were used to identify the most and least variable months and years since 1900. Overall, 1936 with a very cold winter and very warm summer was the least normal year. Runs of daily weather showed that heat and cold stress could often persist for more than 1 month. Runs of dry days were much longer than runs of wet ...


Analysis Of An Iowa Aridity Index In Relationship To Climate And Crop Yield, Soumare Harouna, R. E. Carlson Jan 1994

Analysis Of An Iowa Aridity Index In Relationship To Climate And Crop Yield, Soumare Harouna, R. E. Carlson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

An aridity index and its components, temperature and precipitation, for the period from 1900 through April 1993 were defined and characterized. This index describes the anomalous behavior of both temperature and precipitation over time. Our intent was to examine climate variability in Iowa. Moving mean and standard deviations over various lengths of time were calculated from three time series. We found that these indices fluctuate considerably from year to year and from month to month. The lowest aridity index values occurred in the recent summer of 1992, and the highest occurred during the very drought-prone 1930s. The 12-month moving mean ...


Heating Degree Days In Iowa Relative To Home Natural Gas Consumption, Conservation Efforts, And Long-Term Trends, Richard E. Carlson Jan 1991

Heating Degree Days In Iowa Relative To Home Natural Gas Consumption, Conservation Efforts, And Long-Term Trends, Richard E. Carlson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

A methodology is presented to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts relative to home heating. Billing period heating degree days and natural gas consumption relationships are established for a typical household for nineteen heating seasons using simple linear regression. Associated correlations (r2 values) were greater than 0. 95 for nineteen different seasons. Regression coefficients (b0 and b1) were found to decrease with time indicating reduced natural gas consumption due to conservation efforts. Procedures are presented to illustrate dollar savings relative to conservation efforts using the regression relationships. Long-term trends for heating degree days at the Ames, Iowa ...


Iowa's Climate As Projected By The Global Climate Model Of The Goddard Institute For Space Studies For A Doubling Of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, E. S. Takle, S. Zhong Jan 1991

Iowa's Climate As Projected By The Global Climate Model Of The Goddard Institute For Space Studies For A Doubling Of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, E. S. Takle, S. Zhong

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Results of a global climate model that simulates climate under a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (estimated to occur by the latter half of the twenty first century) have been interpolated to Iowa. Summer temperatures under such a doubling are projected to rise by 4 to 7°F (2.2 to 3.9°C) and winter temperatures by 10 to 11° (5.6 to 6.1°C). Estimates of space heating and cooling demands from these data suggest a 30 to 35% decrease in space heat demand and a 200 to 300% increase in space cooling demand. Temperature variability is ...


Climate Trends In Iowa, Richard E. Carlson Jan 1990

Climate Trends In Iowa, Richard E. Carlson

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Long-term trends for various weather elements are presented for the period 1900-1988. Summer and winter season, and annual air temperature patterns are statistically weak because of large inrerannual variability, but trends are evident. There was a general warming from 1900 until the 40's, with a leveling or slight cooling following. Since the mid-70's, a warming trend seems to be taking place, but this cannot be confirmed. Spring season air temperatures showed no trend except that the most recent 4 years (1985-1988) were decidedly warmer than normal. Winter season air temperatures showed a change in trend in the 30 ...


Climate Change And The Potential Impact On The Soil Resource, J. L. Hatfield Jan 1990

Climate Change And The Potential Impact On The Soil Resource, J. L. Hatfield

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Climatic change will lead to changes in the carbon dioxide C02, temperature, and precipitation. There have been many predictions of the effect of climatic change on plant growth but none on the soil parameters or water use. To fully understand the implications on soil management from climate change the expected changes in soil temperature, water use, and water and nutrient use efficiency need quantification.


Atmospheric Response To 1988 Drought Conditions And Future Climate Implications, Michael D. Mccorcle Jan 1990

Atmospheric Response To 1988 Drought Conditions And Future Climate Implications, Michael D. Mccorcle

Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science: JIAS

Plentiful precipitation in the central United States is one of the basic components of the successful agricultural industry in the Corn Belt. A combination of moisture, wind, and topographic factors creates an ideal condition for rainfall over most of the region during the late spring and early summer. In 1988, many ingredients necessary for wet weather were absent. The region experienced a drought unequalled since the 1930's. The drought of 1988 demonstrated chat the symptom of drought, namely, dry soils, can exacerbate and even perpetuate drought conditions by decreasing available moisture, altering circulation patterns vital to storm development, and ...