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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs Sep 2018

Dermal Mycobacteriosis And Warming Sea Surface Temperatures Are Associated With Elevated Mortality Of Striped Bass In Chesapeake Bay, Maya L. Groner, John M. Hoenig, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet, Wolfgang K. Vogelbein, David T. Gauthier, Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Temperature is hypothesized to alter disease dynamics, particularly when species are living at or near their thermal limits. When disease occurs in marine systems, this can go undetected, particularly if the disease is chronic and progresses slowly. As a result, population-level impacts of diseases can be grossly underestimated. Complex migratory patterns, stochasticity in recruitment, and data and knowledge gaps can hinder collection and analysis of data on marine diseases. New tools enabling quantification of disease impacts in marine environments include coupled biogeochemical hydrodynamic models (to hindcast key environmental data), and multievent, multistate mark-recapture (MMSMR) (to quantify the effects of environmental ...


Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine Jan 2018

Range Expansion Of Tick Disease Vectors In North America: Implications For Spread Of Tick-Borne Disease, Daniel E. Sonenshine

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance. Here in this review, the geographic ...


Testing Alternative Hypotheses For The Cause Of Population Declines: The Case Of The Red-Headed Woodpecker, Walter D. Koenig, Eric L. Walters, Paul G. Rodewald Jan 2017

Testing Alternative Hypotheses For The Cause Of Population Declines: The Case Of The Red-Headed Woodpecker, Walter D. Koenig, Eric L. Walters, Paul G. Rodewald

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) has experienced strong population declines during the past 3 decades. Using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data, we investigated 4 hypotheses that may explain this decline, including: (1) interspecific competition with native Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) and nonnative European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris); (2) predation by Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) and Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus); (3) climate change; and (4) changes in forested area within their range. In analyses of both the breeding and overwintering periods, our results indicated a role of increased accipiter populations in driving Red-headed ...


Insights From Wildfire Science: A Resource For Fire Policy Discussions, Tania Schoennagel, Penny Morgan, Jennifer Balch, Philip Dennison, Brian Harvey, Richard L. Hutto, Meg Krawchuk, Max A. Moritz, Ray Rasker, Cathy Whitlock Jan 2016

Insights From Wildfire Science: A Resource For Fire Policy Discussions, Tania Schoennagel, Penny Morgan, Jennifer Balch, Philip Dennison, Brian Harvey, Richard L. Hutto, Meg Krawchuk, Max A. Moritz, Ray Rasker, Cathy Whitlock

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Record blazes swept across parts of the US in 2015, burning more than 10 million acres. The four biggest fire seasons since 1960 have all occurred in the last 10 years, leading to fears of a ‘new normal’ for wildfire. Fire fighters and forest managers are overwhelmed, and it is clear that the policy and management approaches of the past will not suffice under this new era of western wildfires. In recent decades, state and federal policymakers, tribes, and others are confronting longer fire seasons (Jolly et al. 2015), more large fires (Dennison et al. 2014), a tripling of homes ...


A Genetically Distinct Hybrid Zone Occurs For Two Globally Invasive Mosquito Fish Species With Striking Phenotypic Resemblance, Rebecca J. Wilk, Lisa Horth Jan 2016

A Genetically Distinct Hybrid Zone Occurs For Two Globally Invasive Mosquito Fish Species With Striking Phenotypic Resemblance, Rebecca J. Wilk, Lisa Horth

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Hybrid zones allow for the investigation of incipient speciation and related evolutionary processes of selection, gene flow, and migration. Interspecific dynamics, like competition, can impact the size, shape, and directional movement of species in hybrid zones. Hybrid zones contribute to a paradox for the biological species concept because interbreeding between species occurs while parental forms remain distinct. A long‐standing zone of intergradation or introgression exists for eastern and western mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki and G. affinis) around Mobile Bay, AL. The region has been studied episodically, over decades, making it perfect for addressing temporal dynamics and for providing a ...


Tick-, Mosquito-, And Rodent-Bourne Parasite Sampling Designs For The National Ecological Observatory Network, Yuri Springer, David Hoekman, Pieter T.J. Johnson, Paul A. Duffy, Rebecca A. Hufft, Holly D. Gaff Jan 2016

Tick-, Mosquito-, And Rodent-Bourne Parasite Sampling Designs For The National Ecological Observatory Network, Yuri Springer, David Hoekman, Pieter T.J. Johnson, Paul A. Duffy, Rebecca A. Hufft, Holly D. Gaff

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Parasites and pathogens are increasingly recognized as significant drivers of ecological and evolutionary change in natural ecosystems. Concurrently, transmission of infectious agents among human, livestock, and wildlife populations represents a growing threat to veterinary and human health. In light of these trends and the scarcity of long-term time series data on infection rates among vectors and reservoirs, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect measurements and samples of a suite of tick-, mosquito-, and rodent-borne parasites through a continental-scale surveillance program. Here, we describe the sampling designs for these efforts, highlighting sampling priorities, field and analytical methods, and the ...


Morphometry And Average Temperature Affect Lake Stratification Responses To Climate Change, Benjamin Kraemer, Orlane Anneville, Sudeep Chandra, Margaret Dix, Esko Kuusisto, David M. Livingstone, Alon Rimmer, S. Geoffrey Schladow, Eugene Silow, Lewis M. Sitoki, Rashid Tamatamah, Yvonne Vadeboncoeur, Peter B. Mcintyre Jun 2015

Morphometry And Average Temperature Affect Lake Stratification Responses To Climate Change, Benjamin Kraemer, Orlane Anneville, Sudeep Chandra, Margaret Dix, Esko Kuusisto, David M. Livingstone, Alon Rimmer, S. Geoffrey Schladow, Eugene Silow, Lewis M. Sitoki, Rashid Tamatamah, Yvonne Vadeboncoeur, Peter B. Mcintyre

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Climate change is affecting lake stratification with consequences for water quality and the benefits that lakes provide to society. Here we use long-term temperature data (1970–2010) from 26 lakes around the world to show that climate change has altered lake stratification globally and that the magnitudes of lake stratification changes are primarily controlled by lake morphometry (mean depth, surface area, and volume) and mean lake temperature. Deep lakes and lakes with high average temperatures have experienced the largest changes in lake stratification even though their surface temperatures tend to be warming more slowly. These results confirm that the nonlinear ...


Climate, Environmental And Socio-Economic Change: Weighing Up The Balance In Vector-Borne Disease Transmission, Paul E. Parham, Joanna Waldock, George K. Christophides, Deborah Hemming, Folashade Agusto, Katherine J. Evans, Nina Fefferman, Holly Gaff, Abba Gumel, Shannon Ladeau Jan 2015

Climate, Environmental And Socio-Economic Change: Weighing Up The Balance In Vector-Borne Disease Transmission, Paul E. Parham, Joanna Waldock, George K. Christophides, Deborah Hemming, Folashade Agusto, Katherine J. Evans, Nina Fefferman, Holly Gaff, Abba Gumel, Shannon Ladeau

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 ...


Quantifying Florida Bay Habitat Suitability For Fishes And Invertebrates Under Climate Change Scenarios, Kelly A. Kearney, Mark J. Butler Iv, Robert Glazer, Christopner R. Kelble, Joseph E. Serafy, Erik Stabenau Jan 2015

Quantifying Florida Bay Habitat Suitability For Fishes And Invertebrates Under Climate Change Scenarios, Kelly A. Kearney, Mark J. Butler Iv, Robert Glazer, Christopner R. Kelble, Joseph E. Serafy, Erik Stabenau

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The Florida Bay ecosystem supports a number of economically important ecosystem services, including several recreational fisheries, which may be affected by changing salinity and temperature due toclimate change. In this paper, we use a combination of physical models and habitat suitability index models to quantify the effects of potential climate change scenarios on a variety of juvenile fish and lobster species in Florida Bay. The climate scenarios include alterations in sea level, evaporation and precipitation rates, coastal runoff, and water temperature. We find that the changes in habitat suitability vary in both magnitude and direction across the scenarios and species ...


Comparison Of Phenology And Pathogen Prevalence, Including Infection With The Ehrlichia Muris-Like (Eml) Agent, Of Ixodes Scapularis Removed From Soldiers In The Midwestern And Northeastern United States Over A 15 Year Period (1997-2012), Ellen Stromdahl, Sarah Hamer, Sarah Jenkins, Lynne Sloan, Phillip Williamson, Erik Foster, Robyn Nadolny, Chad Elkins, Mary Vince, Bobbi Pritt Jan 2014

Comparison Of Phenology And Pathogen Prevalence, Including Infection With The Ehrlichia Muris-Like (Eml) Agent, Of Ixodes Scapularis Removed From Soldiers In The Midwestern And Northeastern United States Over A 15 Year Period (1997-2012), Ellen Stromdahl, Sarah Hamer, Sarah Jenkins, Lynne Sloan, Phillip Williamson, Erik Foster, Robyn Nadolny, Chad Elkins, Mary Vince, Bobbi Pritt

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Since 1997, human-biting ticks submitted to the Department of Defense Human Tick Test Kit Program (HTTKP) of the US Army Public Health Command have been tested for pathogens by PCR. We noted differences in the phenology and infection prevalence among Ixodes scapularis ticks submitted from military installations in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize these observed differences, comparing the phenology and pathogen infection rates of I. scapularis submitted from soldiers at two sites in the upper Midwest ( Camp Ripley, MN, and Ft. McCoy, WI) and one site in the northeastern US (Ft. Indiantown Gap ...


Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Profiles Of Symbiodinium Spp. Unaltered By Heat Stress In A Coral Host, Daniel J. Barshis, Jason T. Ladner, Thomas A. Oliver, Stephen R. Palumbi Jan 2014

Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Profiles Of Symbiodinium Spp. Unaltered By Heat Stress In A Coral Host, Daniel J. Barshis, Jason T. Ladner, Thomas A. Oliver, Stephen R. Palumbi

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium form an endosymbiosis with reef building corals, in which photosynthetically derived nutrients comprise the majority of the coral energy budget. An extraordinary amount of functional and genetic diversity is contained within the coral-associated Symbiodinium, with some phylotypes (i.e., genotypic groupings), conferring enhanced stress tolerance to host corals. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have enabled transcriptome-wide profiling of the stress response of the cnidarian coral host; however, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular response to stress of coral-associated Symbiodinium, as well as differences among physiologically susceptible and tolerant types, remains largely unexplored. Here, we ...


Extinction Risk And Bottlenecks In The Conservation Of Charismatic Marine Species, Loren Mcclenachan, Andrew B. Cooper, Kent E. Carpenter, Nicholas K. Dulvy Jan 2012

Extinction Risk And Bottlenecks In The Conservation Of Charismatic Marine Species, Loren Mcclenachan, Andrew B. Cooper, Kent E. Carpenter, Nicholas K. Dulvy

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The oceans face a biodiversity crisis, but the degree and scale of extinction risk remains poorly characterized. Charismatic species are most likely to gar- ner greatest support for conservation and thus provide a best-case scenario of the status of marine biodiversity. We summarize extinction risk and diagnose impediments to successful conservation for 1,568 species in 16 families of marine animals in the movie Finding Nemo. Sixteen percent (12–34%) of those that have been evaluated are threatened, ranging from 9% (7–28%) of bony fishes to 100% (83–100%) of marine turtles. A lack of scientific knowledge impedes analysis ...


Ancient Dna Analyses Exclude Humans As The Driving Force Behind Late Pleistocene Musk Ox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population Dynamics, Paula F. Campos, Eske Willerslev, Andrei Sher, Ludovic Orlando, Erik Axelsson, Alexei Tikhonov, Kim Aaris-Sorensen, Alex D. Greenwood, Ralf-Dietrich Kahlke, Pavel Kosintsev Jan 2010

Ancient Dna Analyses Exclude Humans As The Driving Force Behind Late Pleistocene Musk Ox (Ovibos Moschatus) Population Dynamics, Paula F. Campos, Eske Willerslev, Andrei Sher, Ludovic Orlando, Erik Axelsson, Alexei Tikhonov, Kim Aaris-Sorensen, Alex D. Greenwood, Ralf-Dietrich Kahlke, Pavel Kosintsev

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. Different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. Although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived to the present. The musk ox has an intermediate story: relatively abundant during the Pleistocene, it is now restricted to Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago. In this study, we use ancient DNA sequences, temporally unbiased summary statistics, and Bayesian analytical techniques to infer musk ox population dynamics throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal ...


The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco Jan 2010

The Impact Of Conservation On The Status Of The World's Vertebrates, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Ariadne Angulo, Monika Böhm, Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Kent E. Carpenter, Janice Chanson, Beth A. Polidoro, Jonnell C. Sanciangco

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year. However, this overall pattern conceals the impact of conservation successes, and we show that the rate of deterioration would have been at least one-fifth again as much in the absence of these. Nonetheless, current conservation efforts remain insufficient to ...


Linking Wildlife Populations With Ecosystem Change: State-Of-The-Art Satellite Ecology For National-Park Science, Mark Hebblewhite Apr 2009

Linking Wildlife Populations With Ecosystem Change: State-Of-The-Art Satellite Ecology For National-Park Science, Mark Hebblewhite

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

As human impacts increase in national parks and the greater ecosystems surrounding them, the National Park Service faces the difficulty of monitoring ecosystem changes and responses of key wildlife indicator species within parks. Responses of bison to trail grooming in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) and control of the animals once they leave the park (Bruggeman et al. 2007), migration of wildlife across park boundaries (Griffith et al. 2002; Berger 2004), effects of restored wolves on vegetation communities through trophic cascades (Hebblewhite et al. 2005), and responses of wildlife to the use of prescribed fires all represent problems ...