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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Atmospheric Change Promotes Increasing Cyanobacteria Dominance In Swedish Lakes, Erika Christiane Freeman Aug 2018

Atmospheric Change Promotes Increasing Cyanobacteria Dominance In Swedish Lakes, Erika Christiane Freeman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The frequency and intensity of cyanobacteria blooms are increasing globally. The interacting effects of environmental drivers, including increased temperature, altered precipitation, reduced acidification-with associated shifts in nutrient limitation- and increased dissolved organic matter loads to lakes are predicted to create favourable environmental conditions for cyanobacteria in northern lakes. This prediction was tested in 28 nutrient-poor Swedish lakes over 16 years (1998-2013). Increases in cyanobacteria abundance were identified in 21% of the study sites, composed mostly of increases in three specific genera: Merismopedia, Chroococcus, and Dolichospermum. Increases in temperature favoured Merismopedia dominance in lakes with low pH and high nitrogen to ...


Elevated Temperature And Co2 Concentrations Affect Carbon Flux In Two Boreal Conifers, Sasha Madhavji Sep 2017

Elevated Temperature And Co2 Concentrations Affect Carbon Flux In Two Boreal Conifers, Sasha Madhavji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elevated temperatures and CO2 will alter carbon flux in two dominant boreal tree species Picea mariana (black spruce) and Larix laricina (tamarack). Trees were grown in three temperature treatments (ambient, ambient +4 °C, and ambient +8 °C) at either 400 ppm or 750 ppm CO2, to simulate climate conditions between now and the year 2100. Spruce acclimated to increasing temperature detractively; warming scenarios reduced spruce net carbon gain. Tamarack maintained comparable levels of net photosynthesis (Anet) across warming treatments and both species acclimated respiration (Rdark) with increasing growth temperature. Elevated CO2-grown spruce suppressed A ...


The Impacts Of Climate Change On Communities Of Fungi In Boreal Peatlands, Asma Asemaninejad Hassankiadeh Dec 2016

The Impacts Of Climate Change On Communities Of Fungi In Boreal Peatlands, Asma Asemaninejad Hassankiadeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Peatlands have an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Climate change is already affecting these ecosystems, including both above- and below- ground communities and their functions. Fungi play a central role in these communities. As a result, there is concern that altered fungal community function may turn peatlands from carbon sinks to carbon sources, greatly exacerbating the impacts of climate change. In order to gain a better insight into effects of climate change on the structure and function of these carbon sequestrating ecosystems, this thesis focuses on diversity and structure of fungal communities in ...


Winter Warming Effects On Overwinter Survival, Energy Use, And Spring Emergence Of Cerotoma Trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Emily A. Berzitis, Heather A. Hager, Brent J Sinclair, Rebecca H. Hallett, Jonathan A. Newman Oct 2016

Winter Warming Effects On Overwinter Survival, Energy Use, And Spring Emergence Of Cerotoma Trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Emily A. Berzitis, Heather A. Hager, Brent J Sinclair, Rebecca H. Hallett, Jonathan A. Newman

Biology Publications

  1. Bean leaf beetle Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a pest of soybean in the U.S.A. and is becoming a concern in Canada. The projected increase in winter temperatures under climate change could affect overwinter survival, timing of spring emergence and, ultimately, the severity of this pest.
  2. We assessed the potential effects of warmer winters in field experiments performed in three consecutive years. Three warming levels were applied: (i) heated approximately 4 °C above ambient; (ii) unheated with snow cover left intact; and (iii) unheated with snow cover removed. Survival and date of emergence were assessed in all ...


Decomposition Dynamics Under Climate Change Conditions In Boreal Peat, Rosa Del Giudice Aug 2016

Decomposition Dynamics Under Climate Change Conditions In Boreal Peat, Rosa Del Giudice

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Boreal peatlands currently act as carbon sinks, but are projected to become carbon sources under climate change. Shifts in plant community composition alongside increased decomposition rates are potential mechanisms precipitating this change. My objective was to determine the decomposition potential of different peatland plant litters (Sphagnum magellanicum (peat moss), Carex magellanica (graminoid) and Chamaedaphne calyculata (woody shrub)) during short-term (48 hour) leaching and microbial decomposition (20 week) phases. The 48-hour leaching experiment measured mass loss and leachate chemistry of litters grown under ambient and elevated CO2, while the 20-week experiment measured heterotrophic respiration and mass loss of litters incubated ...


A Systems Approach To Modelling The Effects Of Climate Change On Agroforestry: A Case Study In Western Tanzania, Elaine M. Samuel May 2016

A Systems Approach To Modelling The Effects Of Climate Change On Agroforestry: A Case Study In Western Tanzania, Elaine M. Samuel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate change is anticipated to have significant effects on agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa as the magnitude of weather events increase in severity. Smallholder farmers in western Tanzania are potentially vulnerable to climate change impact as crops rely on precipitation as the only source of water. It is prudent to evaluate different modes of agricultural adaptations, such as agroforestry, that these farmers can easily adopt to improve their resiliency to the effects of climate change. System dynamics modelling is a cost-effective tool to simulate the long-term behaviour of agroforestry systems under future climate conditions. Water, Nutrient, and Light Capture in ...


Thermal Performance Covaries With Environmental Temperature Across Populations Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Kayla J. Harding Gradil Jun 2015

Thermal Performance Covaries With Environmental Temperature Across Populations Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Kayla J. Harding Gradil

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Global climate change is projected to have widespread effects that could threaten the viability of natural populations. Physiological processes of aquatic ectotherms critically depend on their thermal environment, such that the optima for performance often correspond to environmental temperatures. Given predicted changes in aquatic thermal environments, it is increasingly important to understand organism’s underlying physiological mechanisms utilized to cope with these changes. Here, I show that three populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are narrowly adapted to their native summer temperatures, such that thermal tolerance is optimized near average temperatures and collapses near peak temperatures. Further, I found evidence ...


Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann Dec 2014

Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann

Biology Publications

Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around − 20.5 °C and survived brief exposures ...


The Effects Of Global Climate Change On Canadian Boreal Forest Collembola Communities, Matthew S. Turnbull Sep 2014

The Effects Of Global Climate Change On Canadian Boreal Forest Collembola Communities, Matthew S. Turnbull

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soil fauna are an integral component of terrestrial ecosystem function. The effects of global environmental change on soil biodiversity are poorly studied, particularly interactions among temperature, atmospheric CO2, precipitation intensity, and nutrient loading. Body size distributions can be used to quantify soil community responses to perturbation and consequences for ecosystem function. I quantified top-down and bottom-up effects of environmental change on the abundance, richness, and size distribution of the soil microarthropod group Collembola. I demonstrated negative effects in a lab experiment of increased precipitation on collembolan density and richness across all size groups. I demonstrated positive effects in a ...


The Adaptive Capacity Of Thermal Tolerance In Chinook Salmon, Nicolas Muñoz Jun 2014

The Adaptive Capacity Of Thermal Tolerance In Chinook Salmon, Nicolas Muñoz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the capacity for evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in thermal tolerance is key to our understanding of the biological consequences of climate change. Within quantitative genetic breeding designs and multiple rearing environments, I measured the thermal performance of cardiac function among families of two populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). I found significant indirect genetic, plastic, and additive genetic effects contributing to cardiac performance and thermal tolerance, representing a variety of adaptive mechanisms available to salmon populations faced with climate change. These results enhance our ...


Soil Freezing Effects On A Grass-Dominated Old Field Ecosystem Under Current And Future Rates Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Mat Vankoughnett Nov 2013

Soil Freezing Effects On A Grass-Dominated Old Field Ecosystem Under Current And Future Rates Of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Mat Vankoughnett

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate change is expected to alter the intensity and dynamics of soil freezing as a result of increased air temperatures and reduced snow cover. Soil freezing can influence ecosystem nitrogen (N) cycling by damaging plants and soil microorganisms, but little is known about how soil freezing effects on ecosystem N cycling may combine or interact with increased atmospheric N deposition, which is also expected to exert a strong influence on terrestrial ecosystems in the coming decades. The objective of my thesis was to examine the combined and possibly the interactive effects of climate induced changes in soil freezing and N ...


Thermal Adaptation Of Life History Traits In The Drosophila Melanogaster Group, Christopher James Austin Oct 2013

Thermal Adaptation Of Life History Traits In The Drosophila Melanogaster Group, Christopher James Austin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thermal adaptation is typically detected by examining the tolerance to extreme temperatures in a few populations within a single life stage. However, the extent to which adaptation occurs among many different populations might depend on the tolerance of multiple life stages and the average temperature range that the population experiences. Here, I examined adaptation to local temperature conditions in four species of fruit flies, including a cosmopolitan species, Drosophila melanogaster, and three species with geographically small-sized ranges, D. nepalensis, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. The cosmopolitan species showed adaptation to native temperatures during the larval and adult life stages, but ...