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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Spatial And Temporal Variation In Mangrove Distribution (1950-2014) In Tampa, Florida Usa, Carolyn Cheatham Rhodes Jun 2017

Spatial And Temporal Variation In Mangrove Distribution (1950-2014) In Tampa, Florida Usa, Carolyn Cheatham Rhodes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I carried out an observational study of historic high resolution aerial imagery spanning six decades (1950-2014) to identify recent and historic spatial extent of mangrove forests, within the municipal boundaries of the City of Tampa, Florida USA. My objectives were to map mangrove distribution and spatial extent and any change or patterns of change discernable. I observed variable patterns of change and rates of expansion varied between sites spatially as well as within sites between time intervals. I found notable changes in mangrove extent in the Tampa from historic and modern aerial imagery for the ~64-year period between 1950 and ...


Climate Change Drives Outbreaks Of Emerging Infectious Disease And Phenological Shifts, Jeremy Cohen Nov 2016

Climate Change Drives Outbreaks Of Emerging Infectious Disease And Phenological Shifts, Jeremy Cohen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is expected to impact species by altering infectious disease outcomes, modifying community composition, and causing species to shift their phenology, body sizes and range distributions. However, the outcomes of these impacts are often controversial; for example, scientists have debated whether climate change will exacerbate emerging infectious disease and which species are at greatest risk to advance their phenology. There reason for these controversies may be that climate change is impacting diverse processes across a wide range of ecological scales, as the interplay between fine-scale processes and broad-scale dynamics can often cause unpredictable changes to the biosphere. Therefore, it ...


Monitoring And Mitigation Of Elevated Co2 Impacts Using Microalgae, Terry-Rene Wiesner Brown Jul 2016

Monitoring And Mitigation Of Elevated Co2 Impacts Using Microalgae, Terry-Rene Wiesner Brown

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is arguably the greatest environmental and economic challenge of our time. There are considerable documented and projected impacts to both human and natural systems as a result of climate change. These impacts include changes in temperature, sea level, precipitation patterns, and biogeography of ecologically and economically relevant species, including pathogens. One of the main drivers of climate change is elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas. Since pre-industrial times, atmospheric CO2 levels have increased from approximately 280 ppm to over 400 ppm, as a result of fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land ...


Pathogen Removal In Natural Wastewater Treatment And Resource Recovery Systems: Solutions For Small Cities In An Urbanizing World, Matthew Eric Verbyla Nov 2015

Pathogen Removal In Natural Wastewater Treatment And Resource Recovery Systems: Solutions For Small Cities In An Urbanizing World, Matthew Eric Verbyla

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sanitation, renewable energy, and food security are among the most pressing global development needs of the century, especially for small cities with rapid population growth. Currently, 53% of the world’s population either lacks access to improved sanitation or discharges fecal waste to the environment without treatment. Furthermore, 80% of food consumed in developing regions is produced by 500 million small farms, and while many of them are still rain-fed, irrigated agriculture is increasing. The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, recently adopted by the United Nations, include targets to address the water-energy-food nexus. Wastewater reuse in agriculture can be an important ...


The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher Dec 2014

The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The proportion of aerosol iron (Fe) that dissolves in seawater varies greatly and is dependent on aerosol composition and the physicochemical conditions of seawater, which may change depending on location or be altered by global environmental change. Aerosol and surface seawater samples were collected in the Sargasso Sea and used to investigate the impact of these changing conditions on aerosol Fe dissolution in seawater. Our data show that seawater temperature, pH, and oxygen concentration, within the range of current and projected future values, had no significant effect on the dissolution of aerosol Fe. However, the source and composition of aerosols ...


Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana Sep 2014

Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana

Marine Science Faculty Publications

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming ...


Ecological Interactions Influencing Avicennia Germinans Propagule Dispersal And Seedling Establishment At Mangrove-Saltmarsh Boundaries, Jennifer Mcclain Peterson Jan 2013

Ecological Interactions Influencing Avicennia Germinans Propagule Dispersal And Seedling Establishment At Mangrove-Saltmarsh Boundaries, Jennifer Mcclain Peterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mangroves and saltmarshes are ecologically important coastal ecosystems; unfortunately, these low-lying coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to global climate change. As sea-levels rise, mangroves are expected to shift their distribution landward towards higher elevation sites that are occupied by other plants, including saltmarsh taxa. Therefore, mangrove recruits at the leading edge of expansion may interact with diverse assemblages of saltmarsh plants, and these interactions could influence the success of mangrove encroachment into higher tidal-elevation areas. The purpose of the research presented here was to investigate empirically the ecological interactions that may influence the recruitment of the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, into ...


Evaluating Habitat Vulnerability And Sustainability Of Urban Seagrass Resources To Sea Level Rise, Cynthia A. Meyer Jan 2013

Evaluating Habitat Vulnerability And Sustainability Of Urban Seagrass Resources To Sea Level Rise, Cynthia A. Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The seagrass resource provides essential ecosystem functions for many marine species. This research evaluated the vulnerability and sustainability of the seagrass resource in an urbanized area to the effects of sea level rise. The assessment required analysis of information regarding the biogeography of the seagrass resource, and developing a method to model the spatial extent of the suitable habitat for seagrass, and applying the model to predict the implications of simulated sea level rise scenarios on the seagrass resource.

Examining the biogeography of the seagrass resource required the development of a seagrass monitoring and assessment field survey and a comprehensive ...


Assessing The Globally Averaged Sea Level Budget On Seasonal To Interannual Timescales, Josh K. Willis, D. Chambers, R Steven Nerem Jun 2008

Assessing The Globally Averaged Sea Level Budget On Seasonal To Interannual Timescales, Josh K. Willis, D. Chambers, R Steven Nerem

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Analysis of ocean temperature and salinity data from profiling floats along with satellite measurements of sea surface height and the time variable gravity field are used to investigate the causes of global mean sea level rise between mid-2003 and mid-2007. The observed interannual and seasonal fluctuations in sea level can be explained as the sum of a mass component and a steric (or density related) component to within the error bounds of each observing system. During most of 2005, seasonally adjusted sea level was approximately 5 mm higher than in 2004 owing primarily to a sudden increase in ocean mass ...


Antarctic Holocene Climate Change: A Benthic Foraminiferal Stable Isotope Record From Palmer Deep, Amelia E. Shevenell, James P. Kennett May 2002

Antarctic Holocene Climate Change: A Benthic Foraminiferal Stable Isotope Record From Palmer Deep, Amelia E. Shevenell, James P. Kennett

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The first moderate‐ to high‐resolution Holocene marine stable isotope record from the nearshore Antarctic continental shelf (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1098B) suggests sensitivity of the western Antarctic Peninsula hydrography to westerly wind strength and El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO)‐like climate variability. Despite proximity to corrosive Antarctic water masses, sufficient CaCO3 in Palmer Deep sediments exists to provide a high‐quality stable isotopic record (especially in the late Holocene). Coherence of benthic foraminifer δ18O, δ13C, sedimentologic, and CaCO3 fluctuations suggests that rapid (years) Palmer Deep bottom water temperature fluctuations of 1°–1 ...