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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao Jun 2019

Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture is one of important topics with respect to climate change. We quantitatively examined the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Northern China using the Cobb–Douglas production function. Utilizing time-series data of agricultural production and meteorological observations from 1981 to 2016, the impacts of climatic factors on wheat production were assessed. It was found that the contribution of climatic factors to winter wheat yield per unit area (WYPA) was 0.762–1.921% in absolute terms. Growing season average temperature (GSAT) had a negative impact on WYPA for the ...


Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang Apr 2019

Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang

Biology Faculty Publications

Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation. Germination characteristics were determined in the laboratory for seeds produced by plants in all increased precipitation treatments. Increased precipitation in spring significantly improved survival ...


Breeding For Resilience To Increasing Temperatures: A Field Trial Assessing Genetic Variation In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell, David Van Sanford Dec 2018

Breeding For Resilience To Increasing Temperatures: A Field Trial Assessing Genetic Variation In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell, David Van Sanford

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Breeding for resilience to climate change is a daunting prospect. Crop and climate models tell us that global wheat yields are likely to decline as the climate warms, causing a significant risk to global food security. High temperatures are known to affect crop development yet breeding for tolerance to heat stress is difficult to achieve in field environments. We conducted an active warming study over two years to quantify the effects of heat stress on genetic variation of soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Forty SRW cultivars and breeding lines were chosen based on marker genotypes at photoperiod ...


Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang Sep 2018

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Wildfire is a primary natural disturbance in boreal forests, and post-fire vegetation recovery rate influences carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere in the region. Seed availability and environmental filtering are two important determinants in regulating post-fire vegetation recovery in boreal forests. Quantifying how these determinants change over time is helpful for understanding post-fire forest successional trajectory. Time series of remote sensing data offer considerable potential in monitoring the trajectory of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics beyond current field surveys about structural attributes, which generally lack a temporal perspective across large burned areas. We used a time series ...


Genotype × Environment × Management: Implications For Selection To Heat Stress Tolerance And Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell Jan 2017

Genotype × Environment × Management: Implications For Selection To Heat Stress Tolerance And Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The complex interaction of genetics, environment and management in determination of crop yields can interfere with selection progress in breeding programs. Specifically, the impact on selection for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under changing climatic conditions can be confounded by these interactions. Temperature increases for the southeastern United States are projected to range from 1-3°C by 2050 with nighttime temperatures increasing more rapidly than day temperatures. High temperatures are known to affect crop development and breeding for tolerance to heat stress is difficult to achieve in field environments. We utilized a multi-environment trial to assess ...


Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan Sep 2016

Methane Emissions From Global Rice Fields: Magnitude, Spatiotemporal Patterns, And Environmental Controls, Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Wei Ren, Bo Tao, Chaoqun Lu, Jia Yang, Kamaljit Banger, Shufen Pan

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Given the importance of the potential positive feedback between methane (CH4) emissions and climate change, it is critical to accurately estimate the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and better understand the underlying determinants governing the emissions. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model in combination with satellite-derived contemporary inundation area to quantify the magnitude and spatiotemporal variation of CH4 emissions from global rice fields and attribute the environmental controls of CH4 emissions during 1901–2010. Our study estimated that CH4 emissions from global rice fields varied from 18.3 ...


Mapping Temperate Vegetation Climate Adaptation Variability Using Normalized Land Surface Phenology, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Xiaoyang Zhang Apr 2016

Mapping Temperate Vegetation Climate Adaptation Variability Using Normalized Land Surface Phenology, Liang Liang, Mark D. Schwartz, Xiaoyang Zhang

Geography Faculty Publications

Climate influences geographic differences of vegetation phenology through both contemporary and historical variability. The latter effect is embodied in vegetation heterogeneity underlain by spatially varied genotype and species compositions tied to climatic adaptation. Such long-term climatic effects are difficult to map and therefore often neglected in evaluating spatially explicit phenological responses to climate change. In this study we demonstrate a way to indirectly infer the portion of land surface phenology variation that is potentially contributed by underlying genotypic differences across space. The method undertaken normalized remotely sensed vegetation start-of-season (or greenup onset) with a cloned plants-based phenological model. As the ...


Effects Of Epichloë Coenophiala−Tall Fescue Symbiosis On Plant-Microbe-Soil Interactions In A Temperate Pasture, Lindsey C. Slaughter Jan 2016

Effects Of Epichloë Coenophiala−Tall Fescue Symbiosis On Plant-Microbe-Soil Interactions In A Temperate Pasture, Lindsey C. Slaughter

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Plants interact in myriad ways with microorganisms to influence ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, which can regulate ecosystem response to global change. One important plant-microbe symbiosis occurs between cool-season grasses and asexual fungal Epichloë endophytes, such as tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and Epichloë coenophiala. Because the common toxic strain of the endophyte (CTE) harms grazing livestock, non-livestock toxic endophyte (NTE) strains have been developed and are increasingly deployed in pastures. Little is known about how these symbioses impact other plant-microbe interactions and microbe-mediated soil processes in grassland ecosystems. I conducted three studies to determine how E. coenophiala presence (+) or ...


Economic Impact Of Net Carbon Payments And Bioenergy Production In Fertilized And Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations, Prativa Shrestha, George A. Stainback, Puneet Dwivedi Sep 2015

Economic Impact Of Net Carbon Payments And Bioenergy Production In Fertilized And Non-Fertilized Loblolly Pine Plantations, Prativa Shrestha, George A. Stainback, Puneet Dwivedi

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Sequestering carbon in forest stands and using woody bioenergy are two potential ways to utilize forests in mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Such forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by carbon and bioenergy markets. This study investigates the impact of both carbon and woody bioenergy markets on land expectation value (LEV) and rotation age of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests in the southeastern United States for two scenarios—one with thinning and no fertilization and the other with thinning and fertilization. Economic analysis was conducted using a modified Hartman model. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 ...


A Long-Term Investigation Of The Federally Threatened Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii) At A Wind Energy Facility In Southern California, Mirza Mickey Agha Jan 2015

A Long-Term Investigation Of The Federally Threatened Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii) At A Wind Energy Facility In Southern California, Mirza Mickey Agha

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development and current climate variation in the desert southwest US, researchers have become increasingly concerned with the reaction of wildlife and critical habitat. Understanding the relationships among monitoring efforts, climate, industrial landscapes and wildlife is critical to effective management. Given the need for information available on how these potential stressors affect terrestrial wildlife, my objective was to determine how climate variation, wind energy facilities (WEF) and monitoring efforts by researchers influence behavior and survivorship in a population of the federally threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Data were collected via surveys, motion-sensor camera ...


Warming Reduces Tall Fescue Abundance But Stimulates Toxic Alkaloid Concentrations In Transition Zone Pastures Of The U.S., Rebecca L. Mcculley, Lowell P. Bush, Anna E. Carlisle, Huihua Ji, Jim A. Nelson Oct 2014

Warming Reduces Tall Fescue Abundance But Stimulates Toxic Alkaloid Concentrations In Transition Zone Pastures Of The U.S., Rebecca L. Mcculley, Lowell P. Bush, Anna E. Carlisle, Huihua Ji, Jim A. Nelson

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte ...


Grassland Sustainability In Kentucky: Case Studies Quantifying The Effects Of Climate Change On Slug Herbivory In Pastures And Different Home Lawn Systems On Turf Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Daniel Adam Weber Jan 2014

Grassland Sustainability In Kentucky: Case Studies Quantifying The Effects Of Climate Change On Slug Herbivory In Pastures And Different Home Lawn Systems On Turf Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Daniel Adam Weber

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Grasslands comprise the greatest biome by land area, are sensitive to environmental factors affected by climate change, and can impact future climate change through their ability to store and release greenhouse gasses (GHGs). I performed two studies: 1) evaluated the effects of increased temperature and precipitation on slug herbivory/abundance and pasture forage production; 2) quantified different homeowner lawn system effects on soil-to-atmosphere GHG emissions. Climate change will likely affect pasture forage production, with implications for slug herbivory and abundance. I found little evidence that slugs have or will have significant effects on pasture production or plant community. Warming altered ...


Climate Change Extension: Presenting The Science Is Necessary But Insufficient, Paul C. Vincelli, Rebecca L. Mcculley Apr 2013

Climate Change Extension: Presenting The Science Is Necessary But Insufficient, Paul C. Vincelli, Rebecca L. Mcculley

Plant Pathology Presentations

Why Should We Consider How to Present Scientific Information?

To engage a wide spectrum of agricultural producers in the discussion of human-induced climate change and its mitigation.

What Did We Do?

Our initial Extension efforts on climate change in Kentucky were based on an information-deficit model, which assumes that citizens fail to accept climate change because they don’t understand the science. However, social science research indicates that this topic has cultural significance for many agricultural producers, suggesting that presentation of sound scientific information alone is likely to be unpersuasive. Based on social science research, we redesigned our outreach efforts ...


Ecophysiological Responses Of Tall Fescue Genotypes To Endophyte Infection And Climate Change, Marie Bourguignon Jan 2013

Ecophysiological Responses Of Tall Fescue Genotypes To Endophyte Infection And Climate Change, Marie Bourguignon

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Tall fescue is a widely used forage grass in the eastern USA and can form a symbiosis with a fungal endophyte, which can be beneficial for the plant but can cause livestock health issues. Little is known regarding the symbiotic response to predicted climate change. To address this knowledge gap, I analyzed tall fescue variety trial data collected throughout the U.S., exploring relationships between climate variables and yield for two different fescue cultivars that were either endophyte-free or infected. This study showed no endophyte or cultivar effect on fescue yield, but identified temperature, precipitation and location as significant predictors ...


Investigation Of Media Ingredients And Water Sources For Algae Co2 Capture At Different Scales To Demonstrate The Correlations Between Lab-Scale And Large-Scale Growth, Tabitha Graham Jan 2013

Investigation Of Media Ingredients And Water Sources For Algae Co2 Capture At Different Scales To Demonstrate The Correlations Between Lab-Scale And Large-Scale Growth, Tabitha Graham

Theses and Dissertations--Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

As energy use increases globally the environmental burdens increase alike. Many accusations have been made that carbon dioxide is a culprit of climate change. The University of Kentucky and Duke Energy Power have partnered to test carbon capture technology in a large scale project. To this end, the objective of this thesis is to investigate potential water media sources and nutrient sources at different volume scales for algae cultivation to help create a more environmentally viable and economically feasible solution. This work will conduct a life cycle assessment of water media sources and the effects of the inputs and outputs ...


Carbon Life-Cycle And Economic Analysis Of Forest Carbon Sequestration And Woody Bioenergy Production, Prativa Shrestha Jan 2013

Carbon Life-Cycle And Economic Analysis Of Forest Carbon Sequestration And Woody Bioenergy Production, Prativa Shrestha

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

Sequestering carbon in standing biomass, using woody bioenergy, and using woody products are the three potential ways to utilize forests in reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and mitigating climate change. These forestry related strategies are, however, greatly influenced by the existing markets and market based policies. This study focuses on the first two forest strategies. It investigates the combined impact of carbon and woody bioenergy markets on two different types of forests in the US – oak dominated mixed hardwood forests in the Central Hardwood Forests Region and loblolly pine forests in the southeastern US. A modification of the Harman model was ...


Soil Microbial Community Response To Climate Change: Results From A Temperate Kentucky Pasture, Lindsey C. Slaughter Jan 2012

Soil Microbial Community Response To Climate Change: Results From A Temperate Kentucky Pasture, Lindsey C. Slaughter

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Climate change is likely to alter plant species composition and interactions between plants and soil microbes that together dictate the quantity and quality of forage produced in pastures, the base of animal production in central Kentucky. This study assessed the seasonal dynamics of soil microbes and their response to increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the mean annual). Total soil microbial biomass, community composition, enzyme activities, potential carbon mineralization, and catabolic responses to selected substrates were measured seasonally in the different climate treatments. In this system, seasonal variability was a dominant driving factor for all ...


Forage News [2011-11], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Nov 2011

Forage News [2011-11], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences

Forage News

  • Brent White is Kentucky Forage Spokesman
  • KFGC Presents Awards
  • KFGC Nominating Committee Report
  • AFGC Coming to Louisville
  • Forages at KCA
  • Selling & Shipping Hay to Texas and Other Southern Tier States
  • Hay Production Changes in Kentucky
  • Climate Change Effects on Forage Quality of Kentucky Hay Fields
  • Be Alert to Health Risks When Grazing Turnips


The Response Of Tall Fescue And Its Fungal Endophyte To Climate Change, Glade Blythe Brosi Jan 2011

The Response Of Tall Fescue And Its Fungal Endophyte To Climate Change, Glade Blythe Brosi

University of Kentucky Master's Theses

Tall fescue is the most common cool-season grass in the eastern USA, with broad economic and ecological importance to the region. Tall fescue is known to associate with a fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, whose presence can decrease biotic and abiotic stress experienced by the plant. This thesis evaluates the response of tall fescue and the fungal endophyte symbiosis to predicted climate change. I participated in two multi-factor climate change projects where I investigated the response of tall fescue tissue chemistry and growth to various climate change factors. Endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue had decreased alkaloid production under elevated CO2 but ...