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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler May 2019

Assessing The Mechanisms And Implications Of Altered Carbon Cycling In Arctic And Boreal Lakes, Rachel Fowler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important component of lake ecology, as it contributes to light attenuation and carbon cycling. In recent years, DOC declined in a suite of lakes in Greenland. I performed experiments to test potential mechanisms of DOC loss. The tested mechanisms did not reduce DOC concentration, but DOC composition was affected. I also paired water quality data with meteorological observations to evaluate effects of climate drivers on lake variables. The lake variables were temporally coherent and associated with patterns of mean annual precipitation.

In the northeastern U.S., recovery from acidification and climate change have contributed ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley May 2019

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner May 2019

Ecological And Economic Implications Of Increased Storm Frequency And Severity For Boreal Lakes, Kathryn Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In boreal regions, increased precipitation events have been linked to increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however less is known about the extent and implications of these events on lakes. We assessed the effects of precipitation events on six drinking water lakes in Maine, USA to better understand how DOC concentration and quality change in response to precipitation events. Our results revealed three types of responses: (1) an initial spike in DOC concentrations and quality metrics; (2) a sustained increase in DOC concentrations and quality metrics and; (3) no change during all sampling periods. Lake residence time was a ...


Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner May 2018

Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollutants released by industrialized nations between 1960 and 2004 have been transported northward through atmospheric processes and deposited into glaciated alpine ecosystems. Many of these chemicals retain their original structure and are absorbed into the biota thousands of miles away from where they were originally utilized. With a warming climate increasing the melt of alpine glaciers, these glaciers may be introducing growing amounts of toxins into the watershed. While studies have demonstrated the existence of resident pollutants within glaciated ecosystems, no one has developed a risk assessment to identify sources and quantity of risk posed by these compounds when released ...


Implications Of Body Size And Habitat Distribution Of Carcinus Maenas For Predation On Mytilus Edulis In The Gulf Of Maine, Mckenzie Thompson May 2017

Implications Of Body Size And Habitat Distribution Of Carcinus Maenas For Predation On Mytilus Edulis In The Gulf Of Maine, Mckenzie Thompson

Honors College

The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species along the Gulf of Maine. Its rapid decline in population size over the last forty years has led many researchers to question if the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas, is affecting its distribution. The increase in annual mean water temperature, due to global climate change, has led many to fear an expansion of the green crab’s range and an increase in population density among areas they currently inhabit. The Damariscotta River in Walpole, Maine offers a unique thermal gradient to study the effects of temperature on green crab distribution ...


The Potential Impact Of Climate Change On Blue Whale Migration In The Eastern Pacific, Amanda Shuman May 2017

The Potential Impact Of Climate Change On Blue Whale Migration In The Eastern Pacific, Amanda Shuman

Honors College

Climate change is one of the most pressing problems the world is facing today. Due to human emissions, the amount of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is escalating at a concerning rate. This increase is causing ocean temperatures to rise, pH levels to lower, and altering the habitats of countless species. Balaenoptera musculus, or the blue whale, is a highly migratory species that relies on the stability of its’ habitats for foraging and calving grounds. They rely on the upwelling of nutrients and consistent conditions that allow for substantial prey populations to accumulate. With the effects of climate change altering ...


Linking Rising Pco2 And Temperature To The Larval Development, Physiology And Gene Expression Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Jesica Waller Nov 2016

Linking Rising Pco2 And Temperature To The Larval Development, Physiology And Gene Expression Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Jesica Waller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Anthropogenic warming and ocean acidification are occurring as CO2 continues to accumulate in the atmosphere (OA). Few studies have evaluated the joint effects of elevated temperature and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)on marine organisms. In this study we investigated the interactive effects of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted temperature and pCO2 for the end of the 21st century on key aspects of larval development of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, an otherwise well-studied, iconic, and commercially prominent species in the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada. Our experiments showed that larvae ...


Modeling Spatiotemporal Variability Of The Bioclimate Envelope Of Homarus Americanus In The Coastal Waters Of Maine And New Hampshire, Kisei Tananka, Yong Chen Feb 2016

Modeling Spatiotemporal Variability Of The Bioclimate Envelope Of Homarus Americanus In The Coastal Waters Of Maine And New Hampshire, Kisei Tananka, Yong Chen

Publications

A bioclimate envelope model was developed to evaluate the potential impacts of climate variability on American lobster (Homarus americanus). Bioclimate envelopes were defined by season-, sex-, and stage- specific Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI) based on (1) bottom temperature, (2) bottom salinity, and (3) depth. The species’ association to each of these three environmental attributes was expressed using Suitability Indices (SIs) calibrated by standardized lobster abundance derived from 14 years of fishery independent survey. A regional ocean model (Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model) was integrated with the HSI to hindcast spatiotemporal variability of bioclimate envelopes for American lobster in coastal waters of ...


Collaborative Research: Globec Pan-Regional Synthesis: End-To-End Energy Budgets In Us-Globec Regions, Andrew C. Thomas Aug 2013

Collaborative Research: Globec Pan-Regional Synthesis: End-To-End Energy Budgets In Us-Globec Regions, Andrew C. Thomas

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The research addresses the overarching question: are marine food webs leading to fisheries controlled from the top-down, the bottom up, or a combination of the two? To address this question we will (1) compare end-to-end energy budgets of the 4 US-GLOBEC study regions in the context of top-down v. bottom-up forcing, (2) assess the skills of the regional models in capturing basic material fluxes, (3) extract diagnostics from the regional models that will be used to evaluate the effects of climate change and fishing pressure across GLOBEC regions and (4) develop quantitative methods to compare the diagnostics. The major successes ...


Fisheries Management In A Changing Climate: Lessons From The 2012 Ocean Heat Wave In The Northwest Atlantic., Katherine E. Mills, Andrew Pershing, Curtis J. Brown, Yong Chen, Fu-Sung Chiang, Daniel S. Holland, Sigrid Lehuta, Janet A. Nye, Jenny C. Sun, Andrew C. Thomas, Richard A. Wahle Jun 2013

Fisheries Management In A Changing Climate: Lessons From The 2012 Ocean Heat Wave In The Northwest Atlantic., Katherine E. Mills, Andrew Pershing, Curtis J. Brown, Yong Chen, Fu-Sung Chiang, Daniel S. Holland, Sigrid Lehuta, Janet A. Nye, Jenny C. Sun, Andrew C. Thomas, Richard A. Wahle

Publications

No abstract provided.


Signs Of The Seasons: A New England Phenology Program Field Guide, Esperanza Stancioff, Beth Bisson Jan 2013

Signs Of The Seasons: A New England Phenology Program Field Guide, Esperanza Stancioff, Beth Bisson

Maine Sea Grant Publications

Signs of the Seasons (SOS) is an environmental monitoring and education program for Maine citizens of all ages. Participants contribute to scientists' understanding of the local effects of climate change by observing and recording phenology, the seasonal changes of common plants and animals, in their own backyards and communities. The University of Maine Cooperative Extension and Maine Sea Grant developed the program in 2010, and co-coordinate the program's volunteer services, research collaborations, and public outreach. In 2012, University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension and New Hampshire Sea Grant joined the effort, and have extended the program to volunteers and ...


Collaborative Research: The Response Of Lakes To Disturbance And Climate Change: Calibrating Sedimentary Records To Test The Landscape Position Concept, Jasmine E. Saros Oct 2009

Collaborative Research: The Response Of Lakes To Disturbance And Climate Change: Calibrating Sedimentary Records To Test The Landscape Position Concept, Jasmine E. Saros

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Landscape disturbance and climate change affect lakes in proportion to their contact with ground water, sometimes resulting in different responses in neighboring lakes. This project develops methods for reconstructing past water chemistry and food webs of lakes. The biological and chemical deposits in surface sediment samples will be compared with the water in 62 modern lakes. The resulting relationships will be tested by comparing sediment cores with 24 years of observations from the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research (NTL-LTER) site. The methods will then be used to reconstruct 150 years of history for several lakes, adding perspective to ...


An Overview Of Human Health Issues, Marcella H. Sorg Feb 2009

An Overview Of Human Health Issues, Marcella H. Sorg

Anthropology Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.