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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evolutionary Potential Of A Dispersal-Restricted Species In Response To Climate Change, Lorena Torres Martinez Aug 2016

Evolutionary Potential Of A Dispersal-Restricted Species In Response To Climate Change, Lorena Torres Martinez

Open Access Dissertations

Habitat replacement and fragmentation associated with projected climate change pose a critical threat to global biodiversity. Edaphically limited plant species with restricted dispersal abilities will be especially handicapped to track their optimal climate spatially. Instead, the persistence of these species will depend on their capacity to adapt in situ to novel climate regimes. Here I evaluated the evolutionary potential of Lasthenia fremontii, an annual plant species restricted to ephemeral wetlands called vernal pools in California to adapt to the projected patterns of climate change. Across L. fremontii distribution there is a latitudinal gradient in precipitation which, combined with reduced gene ...


Irrigation Adoption, Groundwater Demand And Policy In The U.S. Corn Belt, 2040-2070, Molly A. Van Dop Aug 2016

Irrigation Adoption, Groundwater Demand And Policy In The U.S. Corn Belt, 2040-2070, Molly A. Van Dop

Open Access Theses

Climate change across the U.S. Corn Belt will significantly increase precipitation variability and temperatures by midcentury. Corn and soybean producers will seek to find strategies that may help to mitigate the potentially negative effects on yield. The adoption of irrigation technology has increased over the last several decades to improve yields in areas with insufficient rainfall, and is currently being adopted by producers who are choosing to minimize risk due to weather variability. To see if this trend in irrigation adoption has the potential to expand in the wake of climate change, this study uses weather data from four ...


The Effect Of Climate Change On The Economics Of Conservation Tillage: A Study Based On Field Experiments In Indiana, Whitney Hodde Aug 2016

The Effect Of Climate Change On The Economics Of Conservation Tillage: A Study Based On Field Experiments In Indiana, Whitney Hodde

Open Access Theses

This study evaluates the economics of conservation tillage (chisel till and no till) and examines how climate change will likely affect it. We use data from long-term experimental plots in Indiana to estimate how corn and soybean yields respond to weather patterns under alternative tillage practices. Yield functions are coupled with random draws of weather variables to construct distributions describing the probability that conservation tillage will result in higher profits than more intensive tillage, under current and future climatic regimes. Results suggest that, in our study area, projected climate change will make conservation tillage more attractive.


Precipitation Variability And Nitrogen Deposition Alter Root Distribution In A Tallgrass Prairie, Emmalyn P. Terracciano, Michael Schuster, Jeffrey Dukes Aug 2014

Precipitation Variability And Nitrogen Deposition Alter Root Distribution In A Tallgrass Prairie, Emmalyn P. Terracciano, Michael Schuster, Jeffrey Dukes

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Climate change and increases in nitrogen deposition impact ecosystems globally. Projected atmospheric warming allows rain to fall in larger events with longer dry periods in between, increasing rainfall variability in many regions. Concurrently, the combustion of fossil fuels and the heavy use of nitrogen fertilizers continue to increase the availability of nitrogen globally. However, not much is known about how these global change factors, increased rainfall variability and nitrogen deposition, interact with each other to affect ecosystem functions, particularly belowground where root production contributes to soil carbon pools- an important component in regulating climate. In order to study these factors ...


Quantifying Crop Yield, Bioenergy Production And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cropland And Marginal Land Using A Model-Data Fusion Approach, Zhangcai Qin Oct 2013

Quantifying Crop Yield, Bioenergy Production And Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cropland And Marginal Land Using A Model-Data Fusion Approach, Zhangcai Qin

Open Access Dissertations

Bioenergy is becoming increasingly attractive to many countries, but has sparked an intensive debate regarding energy, economy, society and environment. Biofuels provide alternative energy to conventional fossil fuels. However, the environmental impact of producing and using biofuel is a major concern to our society. This study is dedicated to quantifying and evaluating biofuel production and potential climate change mitigation due to potential large-scale bioenergy expansion in the conterminous United States, using model-data fusion approaches.

Biofuel made from conventional (e.g., maize (Zea mays L.)) and cellulosic crops (e.g., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus)) provides alternative energy ...


Agriculture In A Water Scarce World, Allison Roberts, Amjad Assi, Bassel Daher, Men Li Jun 2013

Agriculture In A Water Scarce World, Allison Roberts, Amjad Assi, Bassel Daher, Men Li

Student Papers in Public Policy

According to the McKinsey report (2009), the world is facing a water scarcity challenge where agriculture is its predominant consumer. It accounts for approximately 3100 billion m3, or 71 percent of global water withdrawals today, and is expected to increase to 4500 billion m3 by 2030. This increase is due to a number of factors: growing population and the ever growing necessity to cater for its food needs, economic growth, the variability of precipitation trends and increase in global temperatures. In addition to the increase in water scarcity, the agricultural sector faces an enormous challenge of producing almost ...


Green Technology: Think Globally, Act Locally, Arden L. Bement Jr. Oct 2010

Green Technology: Think Globally, Act Locally, Arden L. Bement Jr.

PPRI Digital Library

No abstract provided.