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Climate change

Social and Behavioral Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16 Sep 2019

Climate Change, Spring/Summer 2007, Issue 16

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29 Sep 2019

Heat Islands, Fall/Winter 2014, Issue 29

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Farmers And Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison Of Beliefs And Risk Perceptions In High-Income Countries, Linda S. Prokopy, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Andrew P. Barnes, V. R. Haden, Anthony Hogan, Meredith T. Niles, John Tyndall Sep 2019

Farmers And Climate Change: A Cross-National Comparison Of Beliefs And Risk Perceptions In High-Income Countries, Linda S. Prokopy, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Andrew P. Barnes, V. R. Haden, Anthony Hogan, Meredith T. Niles, John Tyndall

J. Gordon Arbuckle

Climate change has serious implications for the agricultural industry—both in terms of the need to adapt to a changing climate and to modify practices to mitigate for the impacts of climate change. In high-income countries where farming tends to be very intensive and large scale, it is important to understand farmers’ beliefs and concerns about climate change in order to develop appropriate policies and communication strategies. Looking across six study sites—Scotland, Midwestern United States, California, Australia, and two locations in New Zealand—this paper finds that over half of farmers in each location believe that climate change is ...


Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather Aug 2019

Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean ...


Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown Aug 2019

Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown

Culum Brown, PhD

Climate change is warming the world’s oceans at an unprecedented rate. Under predicted end-of-century temperatures, many teleosts show impaired development and altered critical behaviors, including behavioral lateralisation. Since laterality is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, changes in the strength and direction of lateralisation suggest that rapid climate warming might impact brain development and function. However, despite the implications for cognitive functions, the potential effects of elevated temperature in lateralisation of elasmobranch fishes are unknown. We incubated and reared Port Jackson sharks at current and projected end-of-century temperatures and measured preferential detour responses to left or right. Sharks incubated ...


Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass Aug 2019

Negative Impacts Of The Beef Industry: Lab-Grown Meat, Stephanie Grass

WRIT: Journal of First-Year Writing

The beef industry is harmful to the environment and human health and alternative solutions must be implemented in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. Water and grain are used in agriculture in abundance despite the negative environmental effects it causes. Cattle are the biggest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in the sector, also contributing to climate change. Antibiotics are used in large quantities without regard to potential future consequences. One potential solution for this problem is lab-grown beef, which demands very little from the consumer and would take pressure off the environmental issues the beef industry creates. Lab-grown ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jul 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Jordan Smith

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...


Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung Jun 2019

Attendance Trends Threaten Future Operations Of America’S State Park Systems, Jordan W. Smith, Emily J. Wilkins, Yu-Fai Leung

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

This research examines how the operating expenditures of America’s state park systems will be affected by a continued growth in attendance consistent with observed trends as well as potential climate futures. We construct a longitudinal panel dataset (1984–2017) describing the operations and characteristics of all 50 state park systems. These data are analyzed with a time-varying stochastic frontier model. Estimates from the model are used to forecast operating expenditures to midcentury under four different scenarios. The first scenario assumes annual attendance within each state park system will continue to grow (or decline) at the same average annual rate ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


The Living Archive In The Anthropocene, Nora Almeida, Jen Hoyer Apr 2019

The Living Archive In The Anthropocene, Nora Almeida, Jen Hoyer

Publications and Research

This paper presents the concept of the living archive as a system which reflects how social behavior and cultural production are part of the Anthropocene. The authors explore how dominant narratives of both the Anthropocene and the archive work to consolidate power and maintain cultural and disciplinary divisions. The authors refute conceptions of the Anthropocene as a purely biophysical phenomenon that is alienated from cultural practice and of the archive as a comprehensive and nostalgic space. They then introduce the living archive as an alternative representational, creative, and reactive space and illustrate how the living archive can intervene in ecological ...


2018 - California Water Plan Update - Public Review Draft Mar 2019

2018 - California Water Plan Update - Public Review Draft

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

California Water Plan Update 2018 provides recommended actions, funding scenarios, and an investment strategy to bolster efforts by water and resource managers, planners, and decision-makers to overcome California’s most pressing water resource challenges. It builds on progress made in California Water Plan Update 2013; reaffirms State government’s unique role and commitment to sustainable, equitable, long-term water resource management; and introduces implementation tools to inform sound decision-making.


2016 - California Land Use And Management - A Resource Management Strategy Of The California Water Plan Mar 2019

2016 - California Land Use And Management - A Resource Management Strategy Of The California Water Plan

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

Land use planning and management cuts across many resource management strategies. More efficient and effective land use is linked to several resource management strategies including watershed, water use efficiency, groundwater quality, flood management, parks and recreation, climate change adaptive management and agricultural lands stewardship. Directly development away from agricultural lands permits multi-objective management of these lands for agricultural preservation, floodplain management, water quality, habitat conservation, and sustainable development. In addition, planning for more compact and sustainable communities, both urban and rural, will assist in reducing reliance on the state-s water supply, and result in more efficient use of California’s ...


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani Jan 2019

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Mark P. Simmonds, OBE

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...


2010 - California Agricultural Vision - Strategies For Sustainability Jan 2019

2010 - California Agricultural Vision - Strategies For Sustainability

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

California is a major contributor to the global food supply and to the national security of the United States. To keep pace with growing demand for food, as the world’s population continues to expand, California agriculture must remain profitable and competitive in a global market by efficiently using resources and controlling production costs. California faces unprecedented challenges to its sustainability in the form of pressures on its profitability and productivity related to water, regulations, labor, invasive species, urbanization and many other factors.


Ecological Considerations And Application Of Urban Tree Selection In Massachusetts, Ashley Mcelhinney Jan 2019

Ecological Considerations And Application Of Urban Tree Selection In Massachusetts, Ashley Mcelhinney

Masters Theses

Trees provide countless environmental, economic, and societal benefits to the urban environment, and may become increasingly important to maintaining environmental quality and human well-being in the face of increasing urbanization and climate change. However, trees in these urban areas are rapidly diminishing across the United States. Much of this loss can be prevented with proper planning and management, focused on selecting tree species that are both well-suited to the area’s growing conditions and able to survive the many stress factors in an urban setting. Choosing which tree species to plant in Massachusetts is especially challenging considering the lack of ...


A Multi-Scale Analysis Of Jaguar (Panthera Onca) And Puma (Puma Concolor) Habitat Selection And Conservation In The Narrowest Section Of Panama., Kimberly A. Craighead Jan 2019

A Multi-Scale Analysis Of Jaguar (Panthera Onca) And Puma (Puma Concolor) Habitat Selection And Conservation In The Narrowest Section Of Panama., Kimberly A. Craighead

Dissertations & Theses

Over the past two centuries, large terrestrial carnivores have suffered extreme population declines and range contractions resulting from the synergistic anthropogenic threats of land-use change and indirect effects of climate change. In Panama, rapid land use conversion coupled with climate change is predicted to negatively impact jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor). This dissertation examined the environmental variables and scales influencing jaguar and puma habitat selection by season (annual, wet, and dry), using multi-scale optimized habitat suitability models and a machine-learning algorithm (Random Forests), in the narrowest section of Panama. The models derived from the data of an intensive ...


2008 - Managing An Uncertain Future - Climate Change Adaptation Strategies For California's Water Dec 2018

2008 - Managing An Uncertain Future - Climate Change Adaptation Strategies For California's Water

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

This report recommends a number of adaptation strategies for California and local water managers to improve their capacity to handle change. Many of the strategies will also help adapt California's water resources to accommodate non-climate demands including a growing population, ecosystem restoration and greater flood protection. Several of the recommendations in this report are ready for immediate adoption, while others need additional public deliberation and development. Some can be implemented using existing resources and authority, while the majority will require new resources, sustained financial investment and significant collaborative effort.


Simulation Code For Intraspecific Variability May Not Compensate For Increasing Climatic Volatility, George P. Malanson Jul 2018

Simulation Code For Intraspecific Variability May Not Compensate For Increasing Climatic Volatility, George P. Malanson

Research Data

The role of intraspecific variability is being examined to improve predictions of responses to climate change or invasions and in research on diversity. Simultaneously, the probability and implications of increased high-frequency climate variability have been raised. An agent based model simulated two species on an environmental gradient representing an alpine treeline; a trend in its volatility was added. The species have different levels of variability, and each individual has further unique heterogeneity. Environmental volatility and individual heterogeneity were based on tree ring data from Pinus albicaulis. Simulations show that increasing volatility leads to population declines, including extinctions, and to sharper ...


Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown Jun 2018

Incubation Under Climatewarming Affects Behavioral Lateralisation In Port Jackson Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Connor Gervais, Joshua Reed, Culum Brown

Laterality Collection

Climate change is warming the world’s oceans at an unprecedented rate. Under predicted end-of-century temperatures, many teleosts show impaired development and altered critical behaviors, including behavioral lateralisation. Since laterality is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, changes in the strength and direction of lateralisation suggest that rapid climate warming might impact brain development and function. However, despite the implications for cognitive functions, the potential effects of elevated temperature in lateralisation of elasmobranch fishes are unknown. We incubated and reared Port Jackson sharks at current and projected end-of-century temperatures and measured preferential detour responses to left or right. Sharks incubated ...


Science, Advocacy, Policy, Planning: Tools For Advancing Transportation Equity, Garrett S. Mcallister May 2018

Science, Advocacy, Policy, Planning: Tools For Advancing Transportation Equity, Garrett S. Mcallister

Graduate Student Portfolios

The theme of this portfolio is how different tools and approaches can be used for advancing transportation equity. Broadly defined, transportation equity is about fairness in transportation. There are a number of ways this fairness can be assessed. The most common way to assess transportation equity is by looking at the fairness of outcomes, distributed geographically, socially, or even by mode of transportation. Equity can also be defined by the fairness of processes. The first half of the portfolio illustrates some of the problems with the current transportation system and how it is unhealthy (Piece 1) and unjust (Piece 2 ...


Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor May 2018

Climate Sensitivity And Potential Vulnerability Of Guatemalan Fir (Abies Guatemalensis) Forests In Totonicapán, Guatemala, Talia G. Anderson, Daniel Griffin, Kevin Anchukaitis, Diego Pons, Matthew Taylor

Journal of Latin American Geography

Despite continued forest loss and extensive demand for wood products throughout Guatemala, the locally managed and protected forests of Totonicapán remain some of the most intact within the country. Here, we study the growth rings of Guatemalan fir (Pinaceae; Abies guatemalensis Rehder; pinabete) at Totonicapán to assess environmental influences on tree growth and the potential vulnerability of these forests to climate change in the western highlands. We find that late summer and dry season precipitation are critical drivers in annual ring-width variability and that tree growth responds negatively to warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific. Considering ...


Maine's State Policy For Solar Farms On Agricultural Land., Elliot James Lee Apr 2018

Maine's State Policy For Solar Farms On Agricultural Land., Elliot James Lee

Student Policy Briefs

A change is coming to the Northeast, and Maine is not prepared to handle it. Across the Northeast, agricultural land is being converted to solar farms, with no policy in place to handle it. Opening Maine up to numerous problems with, permitting, regulations, taxes, best management practices, size of these farms, and lack of infrastructure to name a few. All of which need to be addressed, while dealing with the general instability of policies surrounding green energy and green technology like solar panels. This change is coming quickly, and although we need this policy soon, it cannot be rushed, or ...


Solar Energy On Farmland, Eden Martin Apr 2018

Solar Energy On Farmland, Eden Martin

Student Policy Briefs

The large-scale use of agriculture and land alteration has caused the concentrations of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere to rise in the last 250 years (Janke, 2010). The majority of greenhouse gas emissions is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are a threat when it comes to the health of our planet but they are also abundant and affordable (Janke, 2010). This threat has caused many to start exploring the use of alternative energy sources that are renewable; solar technology, wind power, geothermal, and ocean energy (Janke, 2010). According to Rebecca Hernandez, “solar energy has one of ...


Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter Mar 2018

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter

Neil H. Carter

Information, energy, and materials are flowing over greater distances than in the past, changing the structure and feedbacks within and across coupled human and natural systems worldwide. The telecoupling framework was recently developed to understand the feedbacks and multidirectional flows characterizing social and environmental interactions between distant systems. We extend the application of the telecoupling framework to illustrate how flows in beef affect and are affected by social-ecological processes occurring between distant systems in Africa, and how those dynamics will likely change over the next few decades because of climate-induced shifts in a major bovine disease, trypanosomosis. The disease is ...


Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter Jan 2018

Climate Change, Cattle, And The Challenge Of Sustainability In A Telecoupled System In Africa, Tara S. Easter, Alexander K. Killion, Neil H. Carter

Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

Information, energy, and materials are flowing over greater distances than in the past, changing the structure and feedbacks within and across coupled human and natural systems worldwide. The telecoupling framework was recently developed to understand the feedbacks and multidirectional flows characterizing social and environmental interactions between distant systems. We extend the application of the telecoupling framework to illustrate how flows in beef affect and are affected by social-ecological processes occurring between distant systems in Africa, and how those dynamics will likely change over the next few decades because of climate-induced shifts in a major bovine disease, trypanosomosis. The disease is ...


Climate Change And Wildfire: Implications For Forest Management In The Blue Mountains Of Eastern Oregon, Angela Elaine Boag Jan 2018

Climate Change And Wildfire: Implications For Forest Management In The Blue Mountains Of Eastern Oregon, Angela Elaine Boag

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Shifting climate and wildfire regimes are changing forest structure and function globally. In the western US, future forest structure will be determined by interactions between climate change and disturbance, including increasingly frequent large wildfires, as well as the forest management actions of landowners and managers. While research on the ecological impacts of these changes is rapidly expanding, there is limited focus on how forest vulnerability may vary across land ownerships, which may have varying capacities for climate-adaptive forest management. In this dissertation, I explored how coniferous forests in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon are vulnerable to climate and wildfire ...


Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross Jan 2018

Remote Sensing Methods And Applications For Detecting Change In Forest Ecosystems, David James Gudex-Cross

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Forest ecosystems are being altered by climate change, invasive species, and additional stressors. Our ability to detect these changes and quantify their impacts relies on detailed data across spatial and temporal scales. This dissertation expands the ecological utility of long-term satellite imagery by developing high quality forest mapping products and examining spatiotemporal changes in tree species abundance and phenology across the northeastern United States (US; the ‘Northeast’).

Species/genus-level forest composition maps were developed by integrating field data and Landsat images to model abundance at a sub-pixel scale. These abundance maps were then used to 1) produce a more detailed ...


A Review Of Heat Stress Policies In The Context Of Climate Change And Its Impacts On Outdoor Workers: Evidence From Zimbabwe, Bigboy Ngwenya, Jacques Oosthuizen, Martyn Cross, Kwasi Frimpong, Cynthia N. Chaibva Jan 2018

A Review Of Heat Stress Policies In The Context Of Climate Change And Its Impacts On Outdoor Workers: Evidence From Zimbabwe, Bigboy Ngwenya, Jacques Oosthuizen, Martyn Cross, Kwasi Frimpong, Cynthia N. Chaibva

ECU Publications Post 2013

Record-breaking summer heat events are increasing in frequency in Zimbabwe and 2016 was a particularly hot year with the country experiencing its worst heat wave event in decades. Currently, Zimbabwe has no coordinated public health response to deal with heat wave events and no specific data on heat-related morbidity and mortality. The country has no legislation for protecting workers against environmental heat exposure, particularly those most vulnerable who are employed in the informal sector. These workers are also at risk due to their outdoor work environments. The article outlines the state of climate and heat stresses in Zimbabwe, as benchmarked ...


Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado Nov 2017

Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm May 2017

Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm

Student Honors Theses By Year

Recent research documents climate-induced changes in the algal communities of West Greenland lakes; however, less is known about the response of zooplankton to climate change effects in this region. Zooplankton are predominantly the top predator in these lakes, and thus may be changing due to direct climate effects on physical lake habitat and chemistry or indirect effects on their food source. Cladoceran remains from two lake sediment cores were collected in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwest Greenland: SS1341, located midway between the Greenland ice sheet and the coast, and SS901, close in proximity to the ice sheet. Modern zooplankton data ...