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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Metabolic Ecology Of Tropical Amphibians Across An Elevational Gradient In The Andes Of Southeastern Peru, Michael R. Britton Feb 2020

The Metabolic Ecology Of Tropical Amphibians Across An Elevational Gradient In The Andes Of Southeastern Peru, Michael R. Britton

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolism is a fundamental biological process that determines the rate at which organisms process energy and materials, and determines the availability of resources for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Metabolic rates scale across levels of organization from cells to whole organisms and affect population, community, and ecosystem processes. Anthropogenic climate change and other environmental changes are predicted to have major impacts on the energetics of organisms that will be mediated through metabolic physiology. Tropical ectotherms, such as amphibians, may be among the most vulnerable to metabolic impacts of climate change as a result of being ectothermic, having high thermal sensitivity, and ...


Heat For The Masses: Thermal Ecology Of The Western Tent Caterpillar, Victoria Dahlhoff Jan 2020

Heat For The Masses: Thermal Ecology Of The Western Tent Caterpillar, Victoria Dahlhoff

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

A unique feature of some gregarious, colonial insects is their ability to create external structures that alter environmental conditions for the entire (often family) group. A combination of physical alteration of local microhabitats and behavioral thermoregulation allows many of these animals to actively control their body temperatures, which allows them to regulate energy use and metabolism in variable thermal environments. Here I describe mechanisms of microhabitat modification and thermal regulation in the western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale. Tent caterpillars build communal silk tents, whose temperatures can rise substantially above ambient air temperature. I experimentally manipulated colony sizes and examined ...


The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev Sep 2019

The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a collective prediction among ecologists that climate change will enhance phytoplankton biomass in temperate lakes. Yet there is noteworthy variation in the structure and regulating functions of lakes to make this statement challengeable and, perhaps, inaccurate. To generate a common understanding on the trophic transition of lakes, I examined the interactive effects of climate change and landscape properties on phytoplankton biomass in 12,644 lakes located in relatively intact forested landscapes. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass. Chl-a concentration was obtained via analyzing Landsat satellite imagery data over a 28-year period (1984-2011) and ...


Diffuse Light And Wetting Differentially Affect Tropical Tree Leaf Photosynthesis, Z. Carter Berry, Gregory R. Goldsmith Aug 2019

Diffuse Light And Wetting Differentially Affect Tropical Tree Leaf Photosynthesis, Z. Carter Berry, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

‐Most ecosystems experience frequent cloud cover resulting in light that is predominantly diffuse rather than direct. Moreover, these cloudy conditions are often accompanied by rain that results in wet leaf surfaces. Despite this, our understanding of photosynthesis is built upon measurements made on dry leaves experiencing direct light.

‐Using a modified gas exchange setup, we measured the effects of diffuse light and leaf wetting on photosynthesis in canopy species from a tropical montane cloud forest.

‐We demonstrate significant variation in species‐level response to light quality independent of light intensity. Some species demonstrated 100% higher rates of photosynthesis in diffuse ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley May 2019

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


The Effects Of Temperature On Maternal Investment Of Ovary Tissue In The Fish Species Danio Rerio, Noah R. Dillon, Alyce Demarais Jan 2019

The Effects Of Temperature On Maternal Investment Of Ovary Tissue In The Fish Species Danio Rerio, Noah R. Dillon, Alyce Demarais

Summer Research

The impact of climate change is predicted to increase water temperatures by 2 °C on average globally within the next century. As ectotherms, fish metabolism is directly connected to ambient water temperature. With a shift in metabolism due to temperature change, physiological processes like maternal investment may be affected. This study is an ecological and developmental investigation of the impacts of shifting environmental temperature conditions on the reproductive traits of the fish species Danio rerio. This study investigated Danio rerio under different temperatures to measure maternal investment. Female Danio rerio were exposed to temperature treatments 20-30 °C. Ovary tissue was ...


Modeling The Abundance And Distribution Of Terrestrial Plants Through Space And Time, Caroline Curtis Nov 2018

Modeling The Abundance And Distribution Of Terrestrial Plants Through Space And Time, Caroline Curtis

Doctoral Dissertations

Anthropogenically-driven changes threaten ecosystems and species over regional to global scales. I addressed several questions related to how species ranges will respond to these changes over large spatial and temporal extents to better understand what determines where a species occurs.

First, I modeled presence and abundance of two widespread invasive plants in the southwest U.S. under current and projected future climatic conditions, from which I inferred impact risk. These results provide more insight than presence modeling alone and highlight the possibility of increased invasion pressure in the future.

Second, I tested the assumption that expert-based climatic tolerance data will ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum May 2018

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee Aug 2017

Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the productivity and resilience of agroecosystems in the Korean Peninsula. Having learned valuable lessons from a Chapman University project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture which concentrated on the semi-arid region of southwestern United States, our joint Korea—Chapman University team has applied similar methodologies to the Korean Peninsula, which is itself an interesting study case in the mid-latitude region. In particular, the Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environments due to differences in political and socioeconomic systems between South Korea and North Korea. Specifically, North Korea has been suffering from food shortages due to natural ...


The Effects Of Anthropogenic Stress On Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities In Temperate And Tropical Soils, George S. Hamaoui Jr. Jul 2017

The Effects Of Anthropogenic Stress On Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities In Temperate And Tropical Soils, George S. Hamaoui Jr.

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation several research studies are discussed that characterize the effects of anthropogenic, or human-induced, stress on both ammonia-oxidizing and total bacterial soil microbial communities. The disturbances of land-use change in tropical, South American rainforests and artificial warming and nitrogen (N) fertilization in temperate, North American forests were investigated as these disturbances represent past and current disturbances caused by human landscape alteration and climate change. Initially, the response of soil ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities to land-use change from primary rainforest to pasture and, finally, back to secondary forest was determined. Next, these analyses of land-use change effects were expanded to ...


Understanding The Complex Relationships Between Climate, Vegetation, And Foraging Behavior Of A Climate-Sensitive Alpine Mammal In Order To Explain Patterns Of Persistence, Evan Cole May 2017

Understanding The Complex Relationships Between Climate, Vegetation, And Foraging Behavior Of A Climate-Sensitive Alpine Mammal In Order To Explain Patterns Of Persistence, Evan Cole

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mountain ecosystems offer substantial ecosystem services but are highly sensitive to climate change. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) serves as an indicator species of climate change and a model organism for studying its impacts on mountain mammals. Certain aspects of plant community composition and structure can function as predictors of pika distribution, but understanding the links between climate, forage quality, and foraging behavior is necessary to identify the mediating mechanism. Pika foraging pressure help shape the local plant community, which can confound modeling efforts and must be considered when evaluating the influence of vegetation on pika persistence. Plant Secondary Metabolites ...


Reimagining Movements: Towards A Queer Ecology And Trans/Black Feminism, Gabriel Benavente Mar 2017

Reimagining Movements: Towards A Queer Ecology And Trans/Black Feminism, Gabriel Benavente

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis seeks to bridge feminist and environmental justice movements through the literature of black women writers. These writers create an archive that contribute towards the liberation of queer, black, and transgender peoples.

In the novel Parable of the Talents, Octavia Butler constructs a world that highlights the pervasive effects of climate change. As climate change expedites poverty, Americans begin to blame others, such as queer people, for the destruction of their country. Butler depicts the dangers of fundamentalism as a response to climate change, highlighting an imperative for a movement that does not romanticize the environment as heteronormative, but ...


Limited Evidence For Co2-Related Growth Enhancement In Northern Rocky Mountain Pinus Contorta Populations: Trends In Growth And Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency Across Climate Gradients, Charlotte C. Reed Jan 2017

Limited Evidence For Co2-Related Growth Enhancement In Northern Rocky Mountain Pinus Contorta Populations: Trends In Growth And Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency Across Climate Gradients, Charlotte C. Reed

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Forests sequester large amounts of carbon annually; however, the degree to which enhanced forest productivity is due to more conducive climate or CO2 fertilization remains uncertain. Increasing atmospheric CO2 may enhance photosynthesis and/or decrease stomatal conductance thereby enhancing intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). While increasing iWUE has been observed in most trees globally, this increase does not necessarily translate into greater growth. This study aims to evaluate whether responses of radial growth and iWUE to increasing CO2 vary across climatic gradients. To investigate interactions between climate and CO2 and their impacts on tree physiology and ...


Effects Of Catastrophic Seagrass Loss And Predation Risk On The Ecological Structure And Resilience Of A Model Seagrass Ecosystem, Robert J. Nowicki Nov 2016

Effects Of Catastrophic Seagrass Loss And Predation Risk On The Ecological Structure And Resilience Of A Model Seagrass Ecosystem, Robert J. Nowicki

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As climate change continues, climactic extremes are predicted to become more frequent and intense, in some cases resulting in dramatic changes to ecosystems. The effects of climate change on ecosystems will be mediated, in part, by biotic interactions in those ecosystems. However, there is still considerable uncertainty about where and how such biotic interactions will be important in the context of ecosystem disturbance and climactic extremes.

Here, I review the role of consumers in seagrass ecosystems and investigate the ecological impacts of an extreme climactic event (marine heat wave) and subsequent widespread seagrass die-off in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Specifically ...


Gyrfalcon Diet During The Brood Rearing Period On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska, In The Context Of A Changing World, Bryce W. Robinson Aug 2016

Gyrfalcon Diet During The Brood Rearing Period On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska, In The Context Of A Changing World, Bryce W. Robinson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

As climate change impacts increase so does our need to understand their effects on ecosystem dynamics. I studied Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) diet during the brood rearing period to improve our knowledge on dietary habits during nesting, and provide necessary information for understanding climate change impacts to Arctic ecosystems. I studied diet over two breeding seasons on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, using two methods: motion-activated cameras and the collection of prey remains. I observed three important dietary shifts: the proportion of ptarmigan in the diet declined significantly throughout the season, the proportion of large prey items declined significantly throughout the season ...


Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann Dec 2014

Cold Hardiness And Deacclimation Of Overwintering Papilio Zelicaon Pupae, Caroline M. Williams, Nicolai Annegret, Brent J. Sinclair, Laura V. Ferguson, Mark A. Bernards, Jessica J. Hellmann

Biology Publications

Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around − 20.5 °C and survived brief exposures ...


Precipitation Variability And Nitrogen Deposition Alter Root Distribution In A Tallgrass Prairie, Emmalyn P. Terracciano, Michael Schuster, Jeffrey Dukes Aug 2014

Precipitation Variability And Nitrogen Deposition Alter Root Distribution In A Tallgrass Prairie, Emmalyn P. Terracciano, Michael Schuster, Jeffrey Dukes

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Climate change and increases in nitrogen deposition impact ecosystems globally. Projected atmospheric warming allows rain to fall in larger events with longer dry periods in between, increasing rainfall variability in many regions. Concurrently, the combustion of fossil fuels and the heavy use of nitrogen fertilizers continue to increase the availability of nitrogen globally. However, not much is known about how these global change factors, increased rainfall variability and nitrogen deposition, interact with each other to affect ecosystem functions, particularly belowground where root production contributes to soil carbon pools- an important component in regulating climate. In order to study these factors ...


Sex Ratio Bias And Extinction Risk In An Isolated Population Of Tuatara (Sphenodon Punctatus), Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Joanne M. Monks, Susan N. Keall, Joanna N. Wilson, Nicola J. Nelson Apr 2014

Sex Ratio Bias And Extinction Risk In An Isolated Population Of Tuatara (Sphenodon Punctatus), Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Joanne M. Monks, Susan N. Keall, Joanna N. Wilson, Nicola J. Nelson

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding the mechanisms underlying population declines is critical for preventing the extinction of endangered populations. Positive feedbacks can hasten the process of collapse and create an ‘extinction vortex,’ particularly in small, isolated populations. We provide a case study of a male-biased sex ratio creating the conditions for extinction in a natural population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on North Brother Island in the Cook Strait of New Zealand. We combine data from long term mark-recapture surveys, updated model estimates of hatchling sex ratio, and population viability modeling to measure the impacts of sex ratio skew. Results from the mark-recapture surveys show ...


Exposure Of U.S. National Parks To Land Use And Climate Change 1900-2100, Andrew J. Hansen, Cory Davis, Jessica Haas, David M. Theobald, John E. Gross, William B. Monahan, Tom Olliff, Steven W. Running Apr 2014

Exposure Of U.S. National Parks To Land Use And Climate Change 1900-2100, Andrew J. Hansen, Cory Davis, Jessica Haas, David M. Theobald, John E. Gross, William B. Monahan, Tom Olliff, Steven W. Running

Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences Faculty Publications

Many protected areas may not be adequately safeguarding biodiversity from human activities on surrounding lands and global change. The magnitude of such change agents and the sensitivity of ecosystems to these agents vary among protected areas. Thus, there is a need to assess vulnerability across networks of protected areas to determine those most at risk and to lay the basis for developing effective adaptation strategies. We conducted an assessment of exposure of U.S. National Parks to climate and land use change and consequences for vegetation communities. We first defined park protected-area centered ecosystems (PACEs) based on ecological principles. We ...


Effects Of Disturbance And Climate Change On Ecosystem Performance In The Yukon River Basin Boreal Forest, Bruce K. Wylie, Matthew Rigge, Brian Brisco, Kevin Murnaghan, Jennifer A. Rover Jan 2014

Effects Of Disturbance And Climate Change On Ecosystem Performance In The Yukon River Basin Boreal Forest, Bruce K. Wylie, Matthew Rigge, Brian Brisco, Kevin Murnaghan, Jennifer A. Rover

Bruce K. Wylie

A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of ...


Grassland Sustainability In Kentucky: Case Studies Quantifying The Effects Of Climate Change On Slug Herbivory In Pastures And Different Home Lawn Systems On Turf Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Daniel Adam Weber Jan 2014

Grassland Sustainability In Kentucky: Case Studies Quantifying The Effects Of Climate Change On Slug Herbivory In Pastures And Different Home Lawn Systems On Turf Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Daniel Adam Weber

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Grasslands comprise the greatest biome by land area, are sensitive to environmental factors affected by climate change, and can impact future climate change through their ability to store and release greenhouse gasses (GHGs). I performed two studies: 1) evaluated the effects of increased temperature and precipitation on slug herbivory/abundance and pasture forage production; 2) quantified different homeowner lawn system effects on soil-to-atmosphere GHG emissions. Climate change will likely affect pasture forage production, with implications for slug herbivory and abundance. I found little evidence that slugs have or will have significant effects on pasture production or plant community. Warming altered ...


Species Distribution Modelling Using Bioclimatic Variables To Determine The Impacts Of A Changing Climate On The Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus Occidentals; Pseudocheiridae), Shaun Molloy, Robert Davis, Eddie Van Etten Dec 2013

Species Distribution Modelling Using Bioclimatic Variables To Determine The Impacts Of A Changing Climate On The Western Ringtail Possum (Pseudocheirus Occidentals; Pseudocheiridae), Shaun Molloy, Robert Davis, Eddie Van Etten

Shaun W Molloy Dr

The ngwayir (western ringtail possum Pseudocheirus occidentalis) is an arboreal species endemic to south-western Australia. The range and population of this species have been significantly reduced through multiple anthropogenic impacts. Classified as vulnerable, the ngwayir is highly susceptible to extremes of temperature and reduced water intake. Ngwayir distribution was determined using three different species distribution models using ngwayir presence records related to a set of 19 bioclimatic variables derived fromhistorical climate data, overlaid with 2050 climate change scenarios.MaxEnt was used to identify core habitat and demonstrate how this habitat may be impacted. A supplementary modelling exercise was also conducted ...


Warming Winters And Changing Habitats: Interactive Effects On Raptor Populations And Implications For Conservation, Neil A. Paprocki Aug 2013

Warming Winters And Changing Habitats: Interactive Effects On Raptor Populations And Implications For Conservation, Neil A. Paprocki

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Studies across multiple spatial and temporal scales will improve understanding of the drivers of global change including habitat degradation, invasive species, and climate change. How global drivers affect the ecology of wintering raptors in western North America and the Great Basin may have important implications for changes in distribution and abundance, and consequently population persistence. I examined the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Count data from 1975-2011 to assess range shifts over time and in relation to temperature. Also, I considered whether population patterns within Bird Conservation Regions (BCR) were best explained by ...


Ant Community Dynamics And The Effects Of Global Warming, Katharine Lisa Stuble May 2013

Ant Community Dynamics And The Effects Of Global Warming, Katharine Lisa Stuble

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to provide an understanding of how species coexist and, further, how climate change may alter communities by acting on the mechanisms that promote coexistence. Specifically, I examined coexistence among ant species in eastern deciduous forests and the effects that warming may have on foraging activity. Through a series of field observations, I sought evidence for the importance of four of the most commonly cited mechanisms for coexistence among ant species: the dominance – discovery tradeoff, the dominance – thermal tolerance tradeoff, spatial segregation, and niche partitioning. In this system, I did not find evidence for any of these mechanisms ...


Ecophysiological Responses Of Tall Fescue Genotypes To Endophyte Infection And Climate Change, Marie Bourguignon Jan 2013

Ecophysiological Responses Of Tall Fescue Genotypes To Endophyte Infection And Climate Change, Marie Bourguignon

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Tall fescue is a widely used forage grass in the eastern USA and can form a symbiosis with a fungal endophyte, which can be beneficial for the plant but can cause livestock health issues. Little is known regarding the symbiotic response to predicted climate change. To address this knowledge gap, I analyzed tall fescue variety trial data collected throughout the U.S., exploring relationships between climate variables and yield for two different fescue cultivars that were either endophyte-free or infected. This study showed no endophyte or cultivar effect on fescue yield, but identified temperature, precipitation and location as significant predictors ...


Microbial Community Structure And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Melissa Ann Cregger Aug 2012

Microbial Community Structure And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Melissa Ann Cregger

Doctoral Dissertations

Understanding the effects climate change will have on the structure and function of global ecosystems is a pressing ecological and social issue. Global change driven changes in atmospheric warming and precipitation régimes have begun to alter the distribution of plants and animals in, as well as the function of, ecosystems. Using two large-scale climate change manipulations, I assessed the effect of changing precipitation and temperature regimes on soil microbial community structure and function. Soil microbial communities regulate decomposition and nutrient cycling rates in ecosystems, thus understanding their response to climatic changes will enable scientists to better predict carbon feedbacks to ...


Physiological Bases Of Plant Shrinkage And Its Demographic Implications, Roberto Salguero-Gomez May 2011

Physiological Bases Of Plant Shrinkage And Its Demographic Implications, Roberto Salguero-Gomez

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Perennial plants are plastic organisms and can vary greatly in size within and between years. While much attention has been paid to the factors that maximize plant growth, plant shrinkage has been bluntly overlooked. Here we study anatomy, physiology, demography and comparative biology to understand how often plants shrink, mechanisms by which plants may internally regulate their architecture to shrink, and shrinkage’s demographic implications. We explored belowground resource uptake, hydraulic transport and demographic contributions of shrinkage of individuals of Cryptantha flava (Boraginaceae) in the Great Basin desert. We used a database with >700 species to explore shrinkage’s frequency ...