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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Internet Of Things For Sustainable Forestry, Abdul Salam Jan 2020

Internet Of Things For Sustainable Forestry, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Forests and grasslands play an important role in water and air purification, prevention of the soil erosion, and in provision of habitat to wildlife. Internet of Things has a tremendous potential to play a vital role in the forest ecosystem management and stability. The conservation of species and habitats, timber production, prevention of forest soil degradation, forest fire prediction, mitigation, and control can be attained through forest management using Internet of Things. The use and adoption of IoT in forest ecosystem management is challenging due to many factors. Vast geographical areas and limited resources in terms of budget and equipment ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. Jan 2020

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Diffuse Light And Wetting Differentially Affect Tropical Tree Leaf Photosynthesis, Z. Carter Berry, Gregory R. Goldsmith Aug 2019

Diffuse Light And Wetting Differentially Affect Tropical Tree Leaf Photosynthesis, Z. Carter Berry, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

‐Most ecosystems experience frequent cloud cover resulting in light that is predominantly diffuse rather than direct. Moreover, these cloudy conditions are often accompanied by rain that results in wet leaf surfaces. Despite this, our understanding of photosynthesis is built upon measurements made on dry leaves experiencing direct light.

‐Using a modified gas exchange setup, we measured the effects of diffuse light and leaf wetting on photosynthesis in canopy species from a tropical montane cloud forest.

‐We demonstrate significant variation in species‐level response to light quality independent of light intensity. Some species demonstrated 100% higher rates of photosynthesis in diffuse ...


Tamm Review: Reforestation For Resilience In Dry Western U.S. Forests, Malcolm P. North, Jens T. Stevens, David F. Greene, Michelle Coppoletta, Eric E. Knapp, Andrew M. Latimer, Christina M. Restaino, Ryan E. Tompkins, Kevin R. Welch, Rob A. York, Derek J.N. Young, Jodi N. Axelson, Tom N. Buckley, Becky L. Estes, Rachel N. Hager, Jonathan W. Long, Marc D. Meyer, Steven M. Ostoja, Hugh D. Safford, Kristen L. Shive, Carmen L. Tubbesing, Dana Walsh, Chhaya M. Werner, Peter Wyrsch, Heather Vice Sep 2018

Tamm Review: Reforestation For Resilience In Dry Western U.S. Forests, Malcolm P. North, Jens T. Stevens, David F. Greene, Michelle Coppoletta, Eric E. Knapp, Andrew M. Latimer, Christina M. Restaino, Ryan E. Tompkins, Kevin R. Welch, Rob A. York, Derek J.N. Young, Jodi N. Axelson, Tom N. Buckley, Becky L. Estes, Rachel N. Hager, Jonathan W. Long, Marc D. Meyer, Steven M. Ostoja, Hugh D. Safford, Kristen L. Shive, Carmen L. Tubbesing, Dana Walsh, Chhaya M. Werner, Peter Wyrsch, Heather Vice

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

The increasing frequency and severity of fire and drought events have negatively impacted the capacity and success of reforestation efforts in many dry, western U.S. forests. Challenges to reforestation include the cost and safety concerns of replanting large areas of standing dead trees, and high seedling and sapling mortality rates due to water stress, competing vegetation, and repeat fires that burn young plantations. Standard reforestation practices have emphasized establishing dense conifer cover with gridded planting, sometimes called 'pines in lines', followed by shrub control and pre-commercial thinning. Resources for such intensive management are increasingly limited, reducing the capacity for ...


Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang Sep 2018

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Wildfire is a primary natural disturbance in boreal forests, and post-fire vegetation recovery rate influences carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere in the region. Seed availability and environmental filtering are two important determinants in regulating post-fire vegetation recovery in boreal forests. Quantifying how these determinants change over time is helpful for understanding post-fire forest successional trajectory. Time series of remote sensing data offer considerable potential in monitoring the trajectory of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics beyond current field surveys about structural attributes, which generally lack a temporal perspective across large burned areas. We used a time series ...


Contributing Factors For Drought In United States Forest Ecosystems Under Projected Future Climates And Their Uncertainty, Charles H. Luce, James M. Vose, Neil Pederson, John Campbell, Connie Millar, Patrick Kormos, Ross Woods Jan 2016

Contributing Factors For Drought In United States Forest Ecosystems Under Projected Future Climates And Their Uncertainty, Charles H. Luce, James M. Vose, Neil Pederson, John Campbell, Connie Millar, Patrick Kormos, Ross Woods

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Observations of increasing global forest die-off related to drought are leading to more questions about potential increases in drought occurrence, severity, and ecological consequence in the future. Dry soils and warm temperatures interact to affect trees during drought; so understanding shifting risks requires some understanding of changes in both temperature and precipitation. Unfortunately, strong precipitation uncertainties in climate models yield substantial uncertainty in projections of drought occurrence. We argue that disambiguation of drought effects into temperature and precipitation-mediated processes can alleviate some of the implied uncertainty. In particular, the disambiguation can clarify geographic diversity in forest sensitivity to multifarious drivers ...


Riparian Trees And Aridland Streams Of The Southwestern United States: An Assessment Of The Past, Present, And Future, D. Max Smith, Deborah M. Finch Jan 2016

Riparian Trees And Aridland Streams Of The Southwestern United States: An Assessment Of The Past, Present, And Future, D. Max Smith, Deborah M. Finch

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Riparian ecosystems are vital components of aridlands within the southwestern United States. Historically, surface flows influenced population dynamics of native riparian trees. Many southwestern streams has been altered by regulation, however, and will be further affected by greenhouse warming. Our analysis of stream gage data revealed that decreases in volume of annual discharge and mean peak discharge and a shift to earlier peak discharge will occur in the Southern Rockies region of Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. These changes will likely decrease rates of reproduction and survival of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii), Goodding's willow (Salix ...


A Forest Vulnerability Index Based On Drought And High Temperatures, David Mildrexler, Zhiqiang Yang, Warren B. Cohen, David M. Bell Jan 2016

A Forest Vulnerability Index Based On Drought And High Temperatures, David Mildrexler, Zhiqiang Yang, Warren B. Cohen, David M. Bell

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

Increasing forest stress and tree mortality has been directly linked to combinations of drought and high temperatures. The climatic changes expected during the next decades – large increases in mean temperature, increased heat waves, and significant long-term regional drying in the western USA – will likely increase chronic forest stress and mortality. The aim of this research is to develop and apply a new forest vulnerability index (FVI) associated with drought and high temperatures across the Pacific Northwest region (PNW; Oregon and Washington) of the USA during the MODIS Aqua era (since 2003). Our technique incorporates the alterations to canopy water and ...


Climate-Suitable Planting As A Strategy For Maintaining Forest Productivity And Functional Diversity, Matthew Joshua Duveneck, Robert M. Scheller Sep 2015

Climate-Suitable Planting As A Strategy For Maintaining Forest Productivity And Functional Diversity, Matthew Joshua Duveneck, Robert M. Scheller

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Within the time frame of the longevity of tree species, climate change will change faster than the ability of natural tree migration. Migration lags may result in reduced productivity and reduced diversity in forests under current management and climate change. We evaluated the efficacy of planting climate-suitable tree species (CSP), those tree species with current or historic distributions immediately south of a focal landscape, to maintain or increase aboveground biomass, productivity, and species and functional diversity. We modeled forest change with the LANDIS-II forest simulation model for 100 years (2000–2100) at a 2-ha cell resolution and five-year time steps ...


Effects Of Drought On Forests And Rangelands In The United States: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis, James M. Vose, James S. Clark, Charles H. Luce, Toral Patel-Weynand Jan 2015

Effects Of Drought On Forests And Rangelands In The United States: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis, James M. Vose, James S. Clark, Charles H. Luce, Toral Patel-Weynand

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

This assessment provides input to the reauthorized National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) and the National Climate Assessment (NCA), and it establishes the scientific foundation needed to manage for drought resilience and adaptation. Focal areas include drought characterization; drought impacts on forest processes and disturbances such as insect outbreaks and wildfire; and consequences on forest and rangeland values. Drought can be a severe natural disaster with substantial social and economic consequences. Drought becomes most obvious when large-scale changes are observed; however, even moderate drought can have long-lasting impacts on the structure and function of forests and rangelands without these obvious ...


On Underestimation Of Global Vulnerability To Tree Mortality And Forest Die-Off From Hotter Drought In The Anthropocene, Craig D. Allen, David D. Breshears, Nate G. Mcdowell Jan 2015

On Underestimation Of Global Vulnerability To Tree Mortality And Forest Die-Off From Hotter Drought In The Anthropocene, Craig D. Allen, David D. Breshears, Nate G. Mcdowell

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Patterns, mechanisms, projections, and consequences of tree mortality and associated broadscale forest die-off due to drought accompanied by warmer temperatures—‘‘hotter drought’’, an emerging characteristic of the Anthropocene—are the focus of rapidly expanding literature. Despite recent observational, experimental, and modeling studies suggesting increased vulnerability of trees to hotter drought and associated pests and pathogens, substantial debate remains among research, management and policy-making communities regarding future tree mortality risks. We summarize key mortalityrelevant findings, differentiating between those implying lesser versus greater levels of vulnerability. Evidence suggesting lesser vulnerability includes forest benefits of elevated [CO2] and increased water-use efficiency; observed and ...


Climate Change On The Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming: A Synthesis Of Past Climate, Climate Projections, And Ecosystem Implications, Janine Rice, Andrew Tredennick, Linda A. Joyce Jan 2012

Climate Change On The Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming: A Synthesis Of Past Climate, Climate Projections, And Ecosystem Implications, Janine Rice, Andrew Tredennick, Linda A. Joyce

USDA Forest Service / UNL Faculty Publications

The Shoshone National Forest (Shoshone) covers 2.4 million acres of mountainous topography in northwest Wyoming and is a vital ecosystem that provides clean water, wildlife habitat, timber, grazing, recreational opportunities, and aesthetic value. The Shoshone has experienced and adapted to changes in climate for many millennia, and is currently experiencing a warming trend that is expected to accelerate in the next century. Climate change directly and indirectly affects the Shoshone’s high-elevation, mountainous terrain that supports unique and sometimes rare ecological components. Several vulnerable and very responsive resources and processes on the Shoshone could interact to produce unforeseeable or ...


Evaluating The Influence Of Disturbance And Climate On Red Spruce (Picea Rubens Sarg.) Community Dynamics At Its Southern Range Margin, Relena R. Ribbons Jan 2011

Evaluating The Influence Of Disturbance And Climate On Red Spruce (Picea Rubens Sarg.) Community Dynamics At Its Southern Range Margin, Relena R. Ribbons

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Picea rubens(red spruce) populations experienced a synchronous rangewide decline in growth and vigor starting in the 1960’s, which was likely caused by climate change or environmental disturbances (e.g., acid deposition); However, it is yet unknown if populations continue to decline or have recovered. In the context of global warming, red spruce is a species of concern because it is at its southern continuous range margin in Massachusetts. This study uses tree-ring data coupled with population data from permanent plots to quantify the status of red spruce in Massachusetts. Tree cores were extracted from red spruce and used ...


Environmental Stress Effects On Vigor, Mortality, And Growth In Northern Hardwood Forests Along A Pollution-Climate Gradient, Neil W. Macdonald, John A. Witter, David R. Reed, Andrew J. Burton, Kurt S. Pregitzer, Hal O. Liechty Jan 1998

Environmental Stress Effects On Vigor, Mortality, And Growth In Northern Hardwood Forests Along A Pollution-Climate Gradient, Neil W. Macdonald, John A. Witter, David R. Reed, Andrew J. Burton, Kurt S. Pregitzer, Hal O. Liechty

Peer Reviewed Publications

Concern exists over the effects of interacting environmental stresses on the ecological integrity of temperate forests. Coincidence of sensitivity to drought, increasing occurrence of defoliation, and elevated pollutant deposition has produced speculation that northern hardwood forests may be susceptible to the increased climatic stresses projected for the Great Lakes region. The objective of our study was to examine relationships among environmental stress factors, vigor, mortality, and growth in northern hardwood forests located along a pollution-climate gradient in the Great Lakes region. Between 1987 and 1993, we quantified climatic variables, pollutant deposition, insect defoliation, and tree vigor and growth at five ...


Global Trends And The Future Of National Forests, Nels C. Johnson Sep 1996

Global Trends And The Future Of National Forests, Nels C. Johnson

The National Forest Management Act in a Changing Society, 1976-1996: How Well Has It Worked in the Past 20 Years?: Will It Work in the 21st Century? (September 16-18)

23 pages.

Contains 3 pages of references.