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Agronomy Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort Jan 2016

The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort

Agronomy Publications

Photorespiration is essential for C3 plants but operates at the massive expense of fixed carbon dioxide and energy. Photorespiration is initiated when the initial enzyme of photosynthesis, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco), reacts with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and produces a toxic compound that is then recycled by photorespiration. Photorespiration can be modeled at the canopy and regional scales to determine its cost under current and future atmospheres. A regional-scale model reveals that photorespiration currently decreases US soybean and wheat yields by 36% and 20%, respectively, and a 5% decrease in the losses due to photorespiration would be worth ...


Recent Afforestation In The Iowa River And Vorskla River Basins: A Comparative Trends Analysis, Yury G. Chendev, Jason A. Hubbart, Edgar A. Terekhin, Anthony R. Lupo, Tom J. Sauer, C. Lee Burras Jan 2016

Recent Afforestation In The Iowa River And Vorskla River Basins: A Comparative Trends Analysis, Yury G. Chendev, Jason A. Hubbart, Edgar A. Terekhin, Anthony R. Lupo, Tom J. Sauer, C. Lee Burras

Agronomy Publications

Afforestation trends were compared between two continentally-distinct, yet similar ecoregions to characterize similarities or differences in forest advancement due to natural and anthropogenic forcings. Temporal changes in forest cover were analyzed using high resolution aerial and satellite photographs for Southeast Iowa, USA, and satellite photographs for the western Belgorod Oblast, Russia. An increase in forested area was shown to occur over a 44-year period from 1970–2014 in Iowa where afforestation was reflected by the aggregation of smaller forest units. In the Belgorod region the opposite occurred in that there was an increase in the number of smaller forested units ...


Accumulation Of Organic Carbon In Chernozems (Mollisols) Under Shelterbelts In Russia And The United States, Yu. G. Chendev, T. J. Sauer, A. N. Gennadiev, L. L. Novykh, A. N. Petin, V. I. Petina, E. A. Zazdravnykh, C. L. Burras Jan 2015

Accumulation Of Organic Carbon In Chernozems (Mollisols) Under Shelterbelts In Russia And The United States, Yu. G. Chendev, T. J. Sauer, A. N. Gennadiev, L. L. Novykh, A. N. Petin, V. I. Petina, E. A. Zazdravnykh, C. L. Burras

Agronomy Publications

Shelterbelts that were created in place of meadow and meadowsteppe landscapes of the forest steppe zone of northern continents serve as areas of carbon accumulation and participate in the formation of soil organic matter. In the Great Plains of the United States (in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska) and on the Central Russian Upland (Belgorod, Voronezh, and Kursk oblasts), a general tendency toward an increase in the Corg pool in the topsoil (0–30 cm) from the marginal parts of the shelterbelts toward their cen tral parts by about 3.5–10.0 t per each 10 m has ...


Us Food Security And Climate Change: Agricultural Futures, Eugene Takle, David Gustafson, Roger Beachy, Gerald C. Nelson, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Amanda Palazzo Jan 2013

Us Food Security And Climate Change: Agricultural Futures, Eugene Takle, David Gustafson, Roger Beachy, Gerald C. Nelson, Daniel Mason-D’Croz, Amanda Palazzo

Agronomy Publications

Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. Changes in trends of weather conditions projected by global climate models will challenge physiological limits of crops and exacerbate the global food challenge by 2050. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. Our scenarios of the impact of climate change on food security through 2050 for internationally traded crops show that climate change does not threaten near-term US food security due to the availability of ...