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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon Feb 2020

Rain, Rain, Gone Away. Decreased Growing Season Rainfall For The Dryland Cropping Region Of South-Western Australia, Tim Scanlon, Greg Doncon

Journal articles

The shift in Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in 1976 led to a change in rainfall for the broad-scale winter annual grain cropping and pasture region in the south-west of Western Australia (the WA wheatbelt). Agriculture in the eastern part the WA Wheatbelt was particularly sensitive to the change in rainfall because it is a marginal area for agronomic production, with low rainfall before changes in sea surface temperature. A second shift in sea surface temperature occurred in 2000, but there has been no analysis of the resulting impact on rainfall in the eastern WA wheatbelt. An analysis of rainfall ...


Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman Jan 2020

Metabolic Profiling Reveals Biochemical Pathways Responsible For Eelgrass Response To Elevated Co2 And Temperature, Carmen C. Zayas-Santiago, Albert Rivas-Ubach, Li-Jung Kuo, Nicholas D. Ward, Richard C. Zimmerman

OEAS Faculty Publications

As CO2 levels in Earth’s atmosphere and oceans steadily rise, varying organismal responses may produce ecological losers and winners. Increased ocean CO2 can enhance seagrass productivity and thermal tolerance, providing some compensation for climate warming. However, the metabolic shifts driving the positive response to elevated CO2 by these important ecosystem engineers remain unknown. We analyzed whole-plant performance and metabolic profiles of two geographically distinct eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) populations in response to CO2 enrichment. In addition to enhancing overall plant size, growth and survival, CO2 enrichment increased the abundance of Calvin Cycle and nitrogen ...


Standardized Short-Term Acute Heat Stress Assays Resolve Historical Differences In Coral Thermotolerance Across Microhabitat Reef Sites, Christian R. Voolstra, Carol Buitrago-López, Gabriela Perna, Anny Cárdenas, Benjamin C. C. Hume, Nils Rädecker, Daniel J. Barshis Jan 2020

Standardized Short-Term Acute Heat Stress Assays Resolve Historical Differences In Coral Thermotolerance Across Microhabitat Reef Sites, Christian R. Voolstra, Carol Buitrago-López, Gabriela Perna, Anny Cárdenas, Benjamin C. C. Hume, Nils Rädecker, Daniel J. Barshis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral bleaching is one of the main drivers of reef degradation. Most corals bleach and suffer mortality at just 1–2°C above their maximum monthly mean temperatures, but some species and genotypes resist or recover better than others. Here, we conducted a series of 18‐hr short‐term acute heat stress assays side‐by‐side with a 21‐day long‐term heat stress experiment to assess the ability of both approaches to resolve coral thermotolerance differences reflective of in situ reef temperature thresholds. Using a suite of physiological parameters (photosynthetic efficiency, coral whitening, chlorophyll a , host protein, algal symbiont ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. Jan 2020

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Gulf Coast Marine Laboratories Past, Present And Future, Donald F. Boesch Jan 2020

Gulf Coast Marine Laboratories Past, Present And Future, Donald F. Boesch

Gulf and Caribbean Research

I spent my nearly 50—year career in marine science working at marine laboratories, most of that as a chief executive officer. So, it is appropriate that my reflections are about marine laboratories, rather than my own science. After relating my career course, I turn my attention to the history and development of marine laboratories along the U.S. coast of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Surprisingly, the region’s first laboratory was actually constructed in 1903 at Cameron, LA, but operated less than a decade before closing. It was not until after World War II that the university—affiliated ...


The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev Sep 2019

The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a collective prediction among ecologists that climate change will enhance phytoplankton biomass in temperate lakes. Yet there is noteworthy variation in the structure and regulating functions of lakes to make this statement challengeable and, perhaps, inaccurate. To generate a common understanding on the trophic transition of lakes, I examined the interactive effects of climate change and landscape properties on phytoplankton biomass in 12,644 lakes located in relatively intact forested landscapes. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass. Chl-a concentration was obtained via analyzing Landsat satellite imagery data over a 28-year period (1984-2011) and ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather Aug 2019

Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather

Jennifer Mather, PhD

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean ...


A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part Ii. Commissioning, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Yi Sun, Luis F. Rodríguez, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates Aug 2019

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part Ii. Commissioning, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Yi Sun, Luis F. Rodríguez, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates

Brett Ramirez

The Ruminant Emission Measurement System (REMS) supports research on the relationships between bovine nutrition, genetics, and management strategies by measuring eructated CH4 emissions from ruminal activity. Part I of this series provides the description and design evaluation of the newly developed REMS using uncertainty analysis tools. Part II of this series describes REMS commissioning and documents the whole system and subsystem performance. Subsystem assessments included verification of chamber positive pressurization, thermal environmental control performance, and integrity of the gas sampling system. Integrity of the entire system was verified through a steady-state mass recovery percent (SSMRP) analysis, which compared the ...


A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part I. Design Evaluation And Description, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Luis F. Rodríguez, Jacob R. Segers, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates Aug 2019

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part I. Design Evaluation And Description, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Luis F. Rodríguez, Jacob R. Segers, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates

Brett Ramirez

Methane (CH4) generated by cattle is both a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and a powerful indicator of feed conversion efficiency; thus, accurate quantification of CH4 production is required for addressing future global food security without neglecting environmental impacts. A newly developed Ruminant Emission Measurement System (REMS) supports research on the relationships between bovine nutrition, genetics, and management strategies by measuring eructated CH4 emissions from ruminal activity. REMS is a substantial improvement and extension of the chamber technique, which is considered the standard method to quantify ruminant CH4 generation. Part I of this two-part series describes the design and ...


Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao Jun 2019

Climate Change Impacts On Winter Wheat Yield In Northern China, Xiu Geng, Fang Wang, Wei Ren, Zhixin Hao

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Exploring the impacts of climate change on agriculture is one of important topics with respect to climate change. We quantitatively examined the impacts of climate change on winter wheat yield in Northern China using the Cobb–Douglas production function. Utilizing time-series data of agricultural production and meteorological observations from 1981 to 2016, the impacts of climatic factors on wheat production were assessed. It was found that the contribution of climatic factors to winter wheat yield per unit area (WYPA) was 0.762–1.921% in absolute terms. Growing season average temperature (GSAT) had a negative impact on WYPA for the ...


Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee May 2019

Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hydrological changes attributable to global warming increase the severity and frequency of droughts, which in turn affect agriculture. Hence, we proposed the Standardized Agricultural Drought Index (SADI), which is a new drought index specialized for agriculture and crops, and evaluated current and expected droughts in the Korean Peninsula. The SADI applies crop phenology to the hydrological cycle, which is a basic element that assesses drought. The SADI of rice and maize was calculated using representative hydrological variables (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the crop growing season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of SADI, the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index, which ...


Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias May 2019

Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes Scapularis) Distribution In Maine, Usa, As Related To Climate Change, White-Tailed Deer, And The Landscape, Susan P. Elias

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lyme disease is caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick (Ixodes scapularis). Geographic invasion of I. scapularis in North America has been attributed to causes including 20th century reforestation and suburbanization, burgeoning populations of the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) which is the primary reproductive host of I. scapularis, tick-associated non-native plant invasions, and climate change. Maine, USA, is a high Lyme disease incidence state, with a history of increasing I. scapularis abundance and northward range expansion. This thesis addresses the question: “To what extent has the range expansion ...


Fine-Scale Microclimatic Controls On Soil Carbon Dioxide Fluxes In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Will Saunders May 2019

Fine-Scale Microclimatic Controls On Soil Carbon Dioxide Fluxes In A Northern Hardwood Forest, Will Saunders

Dissertations and Theses

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil are typically the largest carbon flux from forest ecosystems to the atmosphere, representing a significant biogenic source of greenhouse gases. Although the temperature and moisture sensitivities of the respiration processes underlying soil CO2 fluxes are well studied, the impacts of a changing climate on these abiotic controls and the resulting soil flux responses are unresolved. Using in-situ continuous measurements of soil microclimate at sites with contrasting hydrology, this study assessed the temperature and moisture dependence of soil CO2 fluxes within hardwood forests of the Adirondack Mountains in northern New York State (USA). During the ...


Iceland's Migratory Birds In Changing Environmental Conditions: An Interactive Synthesis, Frances J. Duncan Apr 2019

Iceland's Migratory Birds In Changing Environmental Conditions: An Interactive Synthesis, Frances J. Duncan

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Human-driven changes to environmental conditions alter the habitats, behaviors, and migration patterns of migratory species. Changes in temperature, vegetation, and precipitation are just some of the factors contributing to shifts in phenology, demography, and distribution of migratory birds. These changes are driven by anthropogenic climate change and amplified by human land-use change, and are especially intense at high latitudes. This project creatively communicates the effects of environmental changes on three species of migratory birds in Iceland—the northern wheatear, the Greenland white-fronted goose, and the black-tailed godwit—using principles of storytelling and game design. The resulting interactive product is a ...


Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang Apr 2019

Effects Of Increased Precipitation On The Life History Of Spring- And Autumn-Germinated Plants Of The Cold Desert Annual Erodium Oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae), Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang

Biology Faculty Publications

Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation. Germination characteristics were determined in the laboratory for seeds produced by plants in all increased precipitation treatments. Increased precipitation in spring significantly improved survival ...


Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack Jan 2019

Creative Citizen Science Illuminates Complex Ecological Responses To Climate Change, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing, Amanda S. Gallinat, Richard B. Primack

Biology Faculty Publications

Climate change is causing the timing of key behaviors (i.e., phenology) to shift differently across trophic levels and among some interacting organisms (e.g., plants and pollinators, predators and prey), suggesting that interactions among species are being disrupted (1, 2). Studying the phenology of interactions, however, is difficult, which has limited researchers’ ability to zero in on changes in specific interactions or on the consequences of mismatches. In PNAS, Hassall et al. (3) use a combination of citizen science techniques to investigate the effects of climate change on dozens of specific interactions. They focus on a Batesian mimicry complex ...


Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth Jan 2019

Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maize-based agricultural systems dominate the U.S. Midwest landscape and maintaining productive systems in the short- and long-term are high priorities for the agricultural sector. Climate change has and will continue to alter the environment in which farmers produce their crops. Information and recommendations are necessary for understanding the magnitude of warming and adaptation strategies that can mitigate intensified precipitation events, moisture shortages, and increased temperatures. The multi-faceted changes in temperature were aggregated using thermal time as an agro-climate index to describe the warming relevant for producing maize. Across 1054 counties, the change in thermal time since 1950 was disproportionally ...


Deciduous Shrub Encroachment Effects On Tundra Soil Properties, Daniela Aguirre Jan 2019

Deciduous Shrub Encroachment Effects On Tundra Soil Properties, Daniela Aguirre

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Deciduous shrub abundance is increasing in tundra ecosystems as an effect of rising temperatures which may change tundra physical properties and, in turn, microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. Two mechanisms through which shrub presence may affect tundra ecosystems were examined in this study; the physical presence of the shrubs and effects of increasing shrub litter inputs. In a sub-arctic alpine tundra ecosystem, dominated by the deciduous shrub Betula glandulosa, both shrub presence (shrub present and removed) and litter quantity (no litter/litter removed, ambient litter, and twice ambient litter) were manipulated; multiple ecosystem properties where measured within the treatment plots ...


The Revolution Of Crossdating In Marine Palaeoecology And Palaeoclimatology, Bryan A. Black, Carin Andersson, Paul G. Butler, Michael L. Carroll, Kristine L. Delong, David J. Reynolds, Bernd R. Schöne, James Scourse, Peter Van Der Sleen, Alan D. Wanamaker, Rob Witbaard Jan 2019

The Revolution Of Crossdating In Marine Palaeoecology And Palaeoclimatology, Bryan A. Black, Carin Andersson, Paul G. Butler, Michael L. Carroll, Kristine L. Delong, David J. Reynolds, Bernd R. Schöne, James Scourse, Peter Van Der Sleen, Alan D. Wanamaker, Rob Witbaard

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Over the past century, the dendrochronology technique of crossdating has been widely used to generate a global network of tree-ring chronologies that serves as a leading indicator of environmental variability and change. Only recently, however, has this same approach been applied to growth increments in calcified structures of bivalves, fish, and corals in the world’s oceans. As in trees, these crossdated marine chronologies are well replicated, annually resolved and absolutely dated, providing uninterrupted multi-decadal to millennial histories of ocean paleoclimatic and paleoecological processes. Moreover, they span an extensive geographic range, multiple trophic levels, habitats, and functional types, and can ...


Breeding For Resilience To Increasing Temperatures: A Field Trial Assessing Genetic Variation In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell, David Van Sanford Dec 2018

Breeding For Resilience To Increasing Temperatures: A Field Trial Assessing Genetic Variation In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell, David Van Sanford

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Breeding for resilience to climate change is a daunting prospect. Crop and climate models tell us that global wheat yields are likely to decline as the climate warms, causing a significant risk to global food security. High temperatures are known to affect crop development yet breeding for tolerance to heat stress is difficult to achieve in field environments. We conducted an active warming study over two years to quantify the effects of heat stress on genetic variation of soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Forty SRW cultivars and breeding lines were chosen based on marker genotypes at photoperiod ...


Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang Sep 2018

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Wildfire is a primary natural disturbance in boreal forests, and post-fire vegetation recovery rate influences carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere in the region. Seed availability and environmental filtering are two important determinants in regulating post-fire vegetation recovery in boreal forests. Quantifying how these determinants change over time is helpful for understanding post-fire forest successional trajectory. Time series of remote sensing data offer considerable potential in monitoring the trajectory of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics beyond current field surveys about structural attributes, which generally lack a temporal perspective across large burned areas. We used a time series ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter Dec 2017

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann Sep 2017

A Synergistic Approach For Evaluating Climate Model Output For Ecological Applications, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Eugene J. Murphy, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, John Turner, Cheryl A. Knowland, Stuart P. Corney, Walker O. Smith Jr., Claire M. Waluda, Nadine M. Johnston, Richard G. J. Bellerby, Eileen E. Hofmann

CCPO Publications

Increasing concern about the impacts of climate change on ecosystems is prompting ecologists and ecosystem managers to seek reliable projections of physical drivers of change. The use of global climate models in ecology is growing, although drawing ecologically meaningful conclusions can be problematic. The expertise required to access and interpret output from climate and earth system models is hampering progress in utilizing them most effectively to determine the wider implications of climate change. To address this issue, we present a joint approach between climate scientists and ecologists that explores key challenges and opportunities for progress. As an exemplar, our focus ...


Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm May 2017

Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm

Student Honors Theses By Year

Recent research documents climate-induced changes in the algal communities of West Greenland lakes; however, less is known about the response of zooplankton to climate change effects in this region. Zooplankton are predominantly the top predator in these lakes, and thus may be changing due to direct climate effects on physical lake habitat and chemistry or indirect effects on their food source. Cladoceran remains from two lake sediment cores were collected in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwest Greenland: SS1341, located midway between the Greenland ice sheet and the coast, and SS901, close in proximity to the ice sheet. Modern zooplankton data ...


Using Regional Climate Projections To Guide Grassland Community Restoration In The Face Of Climate Change, Kristin Kane, Diane M. Debinski, Chris Anderson, John D. Scasta, David M. Engle, James R. Miller May 2017

Using Regional Climate Projections To Guide Grassland Community Restoration In The Face Of Climate Change, Kristin Kane, Diane M. Debinski, Chris Anderson, John D. Scasta, David M. Engle, James R. Miller

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Grassland loss has been extensive worldwide, endangering the associated biodiversity and human well-being that are both dependent on these ecosystems. Ecologists have developed approaches to restore grassland communities and many have been successful, particularly where soils are rich, precipitation is abundant, and seeds of native plant species can be obtained. However, climate change adds a new filter needed in planning grassland restoration efforts. Potential responses of species to future climate conditions must also be considered in planning for long-term resilience. We demonstrate this methodology using a site-specific model and a maximum entropy approach to predict changes in habitat suitability for ...


Effects Of Experimentally Reduced Snowpack And Passive Warming On Montane Meadow Plant Phenology And Floral Resources, J. A. Sherwood, D. M. Debinski, P. C. Caragea, M. J. Germino Mar 2017

Effects Of Experimentally Reduced Snowpack And Passive Warming On Montane Meadow Plant Phenology And Floral Resources, J. A. Sherwood, D. M. Debinski, P. C. Caragea, M. J. Germino

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Climate change can have a broad range of effects on ecosystems and organisms, and early responses may include shifts in vegetation phenology and productivity that may not coincide with the energetics and forage timing of higher trophic levels. We evaluated phenology, annual height growth, and foliar frost responses of forbs to a factorial experiment of snow removal (SR) and warming in a high‐elevation meadow over two years in the Rocky Mountains, United States. Species included arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata , early‐season emergence and flowering) and buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum, semi‐woody and late‐season flowering), key forbs for pollinator and ...


The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort Jan 2017

The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort

Andy VanLoocke

Photorespiration is essential for C3 plants but operates at the massive expense of fixed carbon dioxide and energy. Photorespiration is initiated when the initial enzyme of photosynthesis, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco), reacts with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and produces a toxic compound that is then recycled by photorespiration. Photorespiration can be modeled at the canopy and regional scales to determine its cost under current and future atmospheres. A regional-scale model reveals that photorespiration currently decreases US soybean and wheat yields by 36% and 20%, respectively, and a 5% decrease in the losses due to photorespiration would be worth ...


Twenty-First Century Climate Change And Submerged Aquatic Vegetation In A Temperate Estuary: The Case Of Chesapeake Bay, Thomas M. Arnold, Richard C. Zimmerman, Katharina A.M. Engelhardt, J. Court Stevenson Jan 2017

Twenty-First Century Climate Change And Submerged Aquatic Vegetation In A Temperate Estuary: The Case Of Chesapeake Bay, Thomas M. Arnold, Richard C. Zimmerman, Katharina A.M. Engelhardt, J. Court Stevenson

OEAS Faculty Publications

Introduction: The Chesapeake Bay was once renowned for expansive meadows of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). However, only 10% of the original meadows survive. Future restoration effortswill be complicated by accelerating climate change, including physiological stressors such as a predicted mean temperature increase of 2-6°C and a 50-160% increase in CO2 concentrations.

Outcomes: As the Chesapeake Bay begins to exhibit characteristics of a subtropical estuary, summer heat waves will become more frequent and severe. Warming alone would eventually eliminate eelgrass (Zostera marina) from the region. It will favor native heat-tolerant species such as widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) while facilitating colonization ...


Quantifying Tree Response To Alterations In Pollution Deposition And Climate Change In The Northeastern Us, Alexandra M. Kosiba Jan 2017

Quantifying Tree Response To Alterations In Pollution Deposition And Climate Change In The Northeastern Us, Alexandra M. Kosiba

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Understanding tree physiological responses to climate change is critical for quantifying forest carbon, predicting species' range change, and forecasting growth trajectories. Continued increases in temperature could push trees into conditions to which they are ill adapted -- such as decreased depth of winter snow cover, altered water regimes, and a lengthened effective growing season. A complicating factor is that in the northeastern United States, climate change is occurring on a backdrop of acid deposition and land-use change. In this dissertation, I used three studies to investigate the spatiotemporal nuances of resultant tree and sapling physiology to environmental change.

First, I compared ...