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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

What’S Going To Happen To My Pancakes? The Impacts Of Climate Change Upon Blueberries And Sugar Maple, Ashley Kayser May 2020

What’S Going To Happen To My Pancakes? The Impacts Of Climate Change Upon Blueberries And Sugar Maple, Ashley Kayser

Honors College

The United Nations believes that the foremost challenge of the future will be climate change. Because of human use of fossil fuels, greenhouse gases have been released into the atmosphere at unsustainable rates, which have resulted in an altered climate that will impact weather patterns around the globe. There have already been measurable shifts in precipitation and temperature in many regions; in the state of Maine the general trend has been toward higher temperatures and increased precipitation. This is resulting in impacts to agriculture throughout the state. Blueberries and sugar maple are two culturally and economically valuable crops which will ...


Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update, Ivan J. Fernandez, Sean Birkel, Julia Simonson, Bradford Lyon, Andrew Pershing, Esperanza Stancioff, George L. Jacobson, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr. Feb 2020

Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update, Ivan J. Fernandez, Sean Birkel, Julia Simonson, Bradford Lyon, Andrew Pershing, Esperanza Stancioff, George L. Jacobson, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr.

Climate Change Institute Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Physiological Ecology Of Overwintering And Cold-Adapted Arthropods, Leslie Jean Potts Jan 2020

Physiological Ecology Of Overwintering And Cold-Adapted Arthropods, Leslie Jean Potts

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Given their abundance and diversity, arthropods are an excellent system to investigate biological responses to winter. Winter conditions are being majorly impacted by climate change, and therefore understanding the overwintering biology of arthropods is critical for predicting ecological responses to climate change. In Chapters 2 and 3, I investigate the winter biology of a winter-active wolf spider. I show that winter-active spiders can take advantage of periodic prey resources and grown in the winter, which may allow them to get a jumpstart on spring reproduction. I also investigate spiders’ ability to track changes in their environment by quantifying low temperature ...


Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du Dec 2019

Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du

Aspen Bibliography

Since climate change significantly affects global biodiversity, a reasonable assessment of the vulnerability of species in response to climate change is crucial for conservation. Most existing methods estimate the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of species by projecting the change of a species’ distribution range. This single-component evaluation ignores the impact of other components on vulnerability. In this study, Populus davidiana (David’s aspen), a tree species widely used in afforestation projects, was selected as the research subject under four future climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathway (RCP)2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Exposure ...


Importance Of Tree-And Species-Level Interactions With Wildfire, Climate, And Soils In Interior Alaska: Implications For Forest Change Under A Warming Climate, Adrianna C. Foster, Amanda H. Armstrong, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Herman H. Shugart, Brendan M. Rogers, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, K. Jon Ranson Oct 2019

Importance Of Tree-And Species-Level Interactions With Wildfire, Climate, And Soils In Interior Alaska: Implications For Forest Change Under A Warming Climate, Adrianna C. Foster, Amanda H. Armstrong, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Herman H. Shugart, Brendan M. Rogers, Michelle C. Mack, Scott J. Goetz, K. Jon Ranson

Aspen Bibliography

The boreal zone of Alaska is dominated by interactions between disturbances, vegetation, and soils. These interactions are likely to change in the future through increasing permafrost thaw, more frequent and intense wildfires, and vegetation change from drought and competition. We utilize an individual tree-based vegetation model, the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), to estimate current and future forest conditions across sites within interior Alaska. We updated UVAFME for application within interior Alaska, including improved simulation of permafrost dynamics, litter decay, nutrient dynamics, fire mortality, and postfire regrowth. Following these updates, UVAFME output on species-specific biomass and stem density ...


Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar Sep 2019

Modeling Experiments For Evaluating The Effects Of Trees, Increasing Temperature, And Soil Texture On Carbon Stocks In Agroforestry Systems In Kerala, India, Ann E. Russell, B. Mohan Kumar

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Research Highlights: Agroforestry systems in the humid tropics have the potential for high rates of production and large accumulations of carbon in plant biomass and soils and, thus, may play an important role in the global C cycle. Multiple factors can influence C sequestration, making it difficult to discern the effect of a single factor. We used a modeling approach to evaluate the relative effects of individual factors on C stocks in three agricultural systems in Kerala, India. Background and Objectives: Factors such as plant growth form, management, climate warming, and soil texture can drive differences in C storage among ...


A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part Ii. Commissioning, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Yi Sun, Luis F. Rodríguez, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates Aug 2019

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part Ii. Commissioning, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Yi Sun, Luis F. Rodríguez, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates

Brett Ramirez

The Ruminant Emission Measurement System (REMS) supports research on the relationships between bovine nutrition, genetics, and management strategies by measuring eructated CH4 emissions from ruminal activity. Part I of this series provides the description and design evaluation of the newly developed REMS using uncertainty analysis tools. Part II of this series describes REMS commissioning and documents the whole system and subsystem performance. Subsystem assessments included verification of chamber positive pressurization, thermal environmental control performance, and integrity of the gas sampling system. Integrity of the entire system was verified through a steady-state mass recovery percent (SSMRP) analysis, which compared the ...


A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part I. Design Evaluation And Description, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Luis F. Rodríguez, Jacob R. Segers, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates Aug 2019

A Novel Ruminant Emission Measurement System: Part I. Design Evaluation And Description, Guilherme D. N. Maia, Brett C. Ramirez, Angela R. Green, Luis F. Rodríguez, Jacob R. Segers, Daniel W. Shike, Richard S. Gates

Brett Ramirez

Methane (CH4) generated by cattle is both a major source of greenhouse gas emissions and a powerful indicator of feed conversion efficiency; thus, accurate quantification of CH4 production is required for addressing future global food security without neglecting environmental impacts. A newly developed Ruminant Emission Measurement System (REMS) supports research on the relationships between bovine nutrition, genetics, and management strategies by measuring eructated CH4 emissions from ruminal activity. REMS is a substantial improvement and extension of the chamber technique, which is considered the standard method to quantify ruminant CH4 generation. Part I of this two-part series describes the design and ...


Guidelines For Aspen Restoration In Utah With Applicability To The Intermountain West, Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel K. Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary O'Brien, David Tart Jul 2019

Guidelines For Aspen Restoration In Utah With Applicability To The Intermountain West, Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel K. Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary O'Brien, David Tart

Aspen Bibliography

As highly productive and biologically diverse communities, healthy quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides; hereafter aspen) forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services across western North America. Western aspen decline during the last century has been attributed to several causes and their interactions, including altered fire regimes, drought, excessive use by domestic and wild ungulates, and conifer encroachment. Today’s managers need science-based guidance to develop and implement strategies and practices to restore structure, processes, and resilience to the full range of aspen functional types across multiple spatial scales. In these guidelines, we detail a process for making step-by-step decisions about ...


Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee May 2019

Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hydrological changes attributable to global warming increase the severity and frequency of droughts, which in turn affect agriculture. Hence, we proposed the Standardized Agricultural Drought Index (SADI), which is a new drought index specialized for agriculture and crops, and evaluated current and expected droughts in the Korean Peninsula. The SADI applies crop phenology to the hydrological cycle, which is a basic element that assesses drought. The SADI of rice and maize was calculated using representative hydrological variables (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the crop growing season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of SADI, the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index, which ...


A Revised Land Ethic: Sustainable And Spiritual Agriculture, Environmental Studies, Brooke Maitlan Parrett May 2019

A Revised Land Ethic: Sustainable And Spiritual Agriculture, Environmental Studies, Brooke Maitlan Parrett

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper proposes a return to the land and reconnection of spiritual practices through ethical teachings. Such a land ethic would involve answering the woes of industrial agriculture and providing a framework for farmers, consumers, and policymakers based on sustainable and spiritual considerations of the land. I analyze the loss of spiritual literacy and traditional ecological knowledge in the United States and discuss the spiritual history of agriculture in order to analyze contemporary religious perspectives on farming and agricultural ethics and thereby develop my own recommendations. The land ethic I propose combines sustainability and spirituality to develop intrinsic respect for ...


Beaver And Aspen: Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen N. Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers May 2019

Beaver And Aspen: Synergy Among Keystone Species, Stephen N. Bennett, Nicolaas Bouwes, Paul C. Rogers

Aspen Bibliography

In the West, climate change is likely to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought. Restoration of soils and water storage capacity can help create resilient uplands and riverscapes (i.e., streams and the valley bottoms). Over the past two centuries, common land uses, the removal of beaver and wood, straightening of streams, and damage to riparian areas have created simplified, structurally starved, riverscapes. Degraded streams are very efficient at transporting water, sediment, and nutrients downstream. Aspen forests are also biological hotspots that have been degraded by past land uses such as overbrowsing ungulates, land clearing, fire suppression, and ...


The Effect Of Land-Use Change On Soil Ch4 And N2o Fluxes, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Saha, M. G. Dumont, M. Hernández, M. A. Adams Mar 2019

The Effect Of Land-Use Change On Soil Ch4 And N2o Fluxes, Marshall D. Mcdaniel, D. Saha, M. G. Dumont, M. Hernández, M. A. Adams

Agronomy Publications

Land-use change is a prominent feature of the Anthropocene. Transitions between natural and human-managed ecosystems affect biogeochemical cycles in many ways, but soil processes are amongst the least understood. We used a global meta-analysis (62 studies, 1670 paired comparisons) to examine effects of land conversion on soil-atmosphere fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from upland soils, and determine soil and environmental factors driving these effects. Conversion from a natural ecosystem to any anthropogenic land use increased soil CH4 and N2O fluxes by 234 kg CO2-equivalents ha-1 y- 1, on average. Reversion of managed ecosystems to that resembling natural ...


Climate Change, Woodpeckers, And Forests: Current Trends And Future Modeling Needs, Eric S. Walsh, Kerri T. Vierling, Eva Strand, Kristina Bartowitz, Tara W. Hudiburg Feb 2019

Climate Change, Woodpeckers, And Forests: Current Trends And Future Modeling Needs, Eric S. Walsh, Kerri T. Vierling, Eva Strand, Kristina Bartowitz, Tara W. Hudiburg

Aspen Bibliography

The structure and composition of forest ecosystems are expected to shift with climate‐induced changes in precipitation, temperature, fire, carbon mitigation strategies, and biological disturbance. These factors are likely to have biodiversity implications. However, climate‐driven forest ecosystem models used to predict changes to forest structure and composition are not coupled to models used to predict changes to biodiversity. We proposed integrating woodpecker response (biodiversity indicator) with forest ecosystem models. Woodpeckers are a good indicator species of forest ecosystem dynamics, because they are ecologically constrained by landscape‐scale forest components, such as composition, structure, disturbance regimes, and management activities. In ...


Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth Jan 2019

Characterizing Climate Change In The Midwest: Magnitude Of Warming And Plausibility Of Adaptation Strategies For Maize-Based Systems, Lori Jean Abendroth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maize-based agricultural systems dominate the U.S. Midwest landscape and maintaining productive systems in the short- and long-term are high priorities for the agricultural sector. Climate change has and will continue to alter the environment in which farmers produce their crops. Information and recommendations are necessary for understanding the magnitude of warming and adaptation strategies that can mitigate intensified precipitation events, moisture shortages, and increased temperatures. The multi-faceted changes in temperature were aggregated using thermal time as an agro-climate index to describe the warming relevant for producing maize. Across 1054 counties, the change in thermal time since 1950 was disproportionally ...


Local Farmer Knowledge Of Adaptive Management On Diversified Vegetable And Berry Farms In The Northeastern Us, Alissa White Jan 2019

Local Farmer Knowledge Of Adaptive Management On Diversified Vegetable And Berry Farms In The Northeastern Us, Alissa White

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Agricultural adaptation to climate change is notoriously context specific. Recently updated projections for the Northeastern US forecast increasingly severe and erratic precipitation events which pose significant risks to every sector of agricultural production in the region. Vegetable and berry farmers are among the most vulnerable to the risks of severe precipitation and drought due to the intensive soil and crop management strategies which characterize of this kind of production. To successfully adapt to a changing climate, these farmers need information which is tailored for the unique challenges of vegetable and berry production, framed at the level of climate impacts, and ...


Maine's State Policy For Solar Farms On Agricultural Land., Elliot James Lee Apr 2018

Maine's State Policy For Solar Farms On Agricultural Land., Elliot James Lee

Student Policy Briefs

A change is coming to the Northeast, and Maine is not prepared to handle it. Across the Northeast, agricultural land is being converted to solar farms, with no policy in place to handle it. Opening Maine up to numerous problems with, permitting, regulations, taxes, best management practices, size of these farms, and lack of infrastructure to name a few. All of which need to be addressed, while dealing with the general instability of policies surrounding green energy and green technology like solar panels. This change is coming quickly, and although we need this policy soon, it cannot be rushed, or ...


Solar Energy On Farmland, Eden Martin Apr 2018

Solar Energy On Farmland, Eden Martin

Student Policy Briefs

The large-scale use of agriculture and land alteration has caused the concentrations of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere to rise in the last 250 years (Janke, 2010). The majority of greenhouse gas emissions is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are a threat when it comes to the health of our planet but they are also abundant and affordable (Janke, 2010). This threat has caused many to start exploring the use of alternative energy sources that are renewable; solar technology, wind power, geothermal, and ocean energy (Janke, 2010). According to Rebecca Hernandez, “solar energy has one of ...


Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco Jan 2018

Great Basin Forb Restoration: Lupine Response To Altered Precipitation Predicted By Climate Change, Andrea Jo Johnson, Kristin Hulvey, Scott Jensen, Tom Monaco

Research on Capitol Hill

Abundance of native forb species is declining, leading to degraded ecosystems within the Great Basin.

Forbs provide many ecosystem functions, including wildlife habitat for species such as Sage Grouse, increased biodiversity, resistance to erosion, and protection from invasive plant species.

Climate change is predicted to affect timing, frequency, and intensity of precipitation within the Great Basin. During the fall season, precipitation is expected to increase by 30%.

Changes in precipitation will likely affect fall emergence of forbs, which is essential for overwintering and establishment.

Learning how precipitation affects forb emergence could lead to new methods that increase fall emergence and ...


Changing Climatic Averages And Variance: Implications For Mesophication At The Eastern Edge Of North America’S Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan Kutta, Jason A. Hubbart Jan 2018

Changing Climatic Averages And Variance: Implications For Mesophication At The Eastern Edge Of North America’S Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan Kutta, Jason A. Hubbart

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Observed conversion of xerophytic warm genera species to mesophytic cool genera species in North America’s Eastern Deciduous Forest (EDF) suggests species composition is in disequilibrium with recent climatic warming. However, increasing annual average temperatures is an oversimplification of long-term climatic change and the importance of climate variance is often neglected. Seven-year moving averages and standard deviations of annually averaged maximum temperatures, minimum temperatures, daily precipitation, and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) in West Virginia, USA were quantified over a 111-year period of record (1906–2016). Maximum temperatures decreased significantly (−5.3%; p < 0.001), minimum temperatures increased significantly (7.7%; p < 0.001), and precipitation increased (2.2%; p = 0.107). Additionally, maximum temperature variance decreased (−17.4%; p = 0.109), minimum temperature variance decreased significantly (−22.6%; p = 0.042), and precipitation variance increased significantly (26.6%; p = 0.004). Results indicate a reduced diurnal temperature range and significant reductions in estimated VPD (10.3%; p < 0.001) that imply increased relative humidity, cloud cover, and soil moisture that may support increasingly abundant mesophytic cool genera species. Feedback mechanisms associated with extensive changes in land use, fire suppression, and browser population may have exacerbated climatic changes. Long-term assessments of changing climatic averages and variance are needed to ensure sustainability of forest ecosystem services, health, and productivity in a swiftly changing climate across the broader EDF region and similar temperate forest ecosystems globally.


Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado Nov 2017

Climate Change And Food Systems: Assessing Impacts And Opportunities, Meredith T. Niles, Richie Ahuja, Jimena M. Esquivel, Nelson Mango, Mil Duncan, Martin Heller, Cristina Tirado

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee Aug 2017

Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the productivity and resilience of agroecosystems in the Korean Peninsula. Having learned valuable lessons from a Chapman University project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture which concentrated on the semi-arid region of southwestern United States, our joint Korea—Chapman University team has applied similar methodologies to the Korean Peninsula, which is itself an interesting study case in the mid-latitude region. In particular, the Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environments due to differences in political and socioeconomic systems between South Korea and North Korea. Specifically, North Korea has been suffering from food shortages due to natural ...


Trees And Climate Change, Megan Dettenmaier, Michael R. Kuhns, Bethany Unger, Darren Mcavoy Jul 2017

Trees And Climate Change, Megan Dettenmaier, Michael R. Kuhns, Bethany Unger, Darren Mcavoy

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.


Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning Jun 2017

Field Scale Measurement Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Land Applied Swine Manure, Devin Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Kelsey Bruning

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from swine production systems are relatively well researched with the exception of emissions from land application of manure. GHGs inventories are needed for process-based modeling and science-based regulations. Thus, the objective of this observational study was to measure GHG fluxes from land application of swine manure on a typical corn field. Assessment of GHG emissions from deep injected land-applied swine manure, fall and reapplication in the spring, on a typical US Midwestern corn-on-corn farm was completed. Static chambers were used for flux measurement along with gas analysis on a GC-FID-ECD. Measured gas concentrations were used to ...


Precipitation Drivers Of Cropping Frequency In The Brazilian Cerrado: Evidence And Implications For Decision-Making, Keith R. Spangler, Amanda H. Lynch, Stephanie A. Spera Apr 2017

Precipitation Drivers Of Cropping Frequency In The Brazilian Cerrado: Evidence And Implications For Decision-Making, Keith R. Spangler, Amanda H. Lynch, Stephanie A. Spera

Geography and the Environment Faculty Publications

The Amazon basin has been subjected to unprecedented rates of land-use change over the past several decades, primarily as a result of the expansion of agriculture. Enhanced rain forest conservation efforts toward the end of the twentieth century slowed deforestation of the Amazon but, in turn, increased demand for land repurposing in the adjacent Cerrado (savanna) region, where conservation regulations are less strict. To maintain or increase yields while minimizing the need for additional land, agricultural producers adopted a form of intensification in which two rain-fed crops are planted within a single growing season (double cropping). Using 10 years (August ...


The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort Jan 2017

The Costs Of Photorespiration To Food Production Now And In The Future, Berkley J. Walker, Andy Vanloocke, Carl J. Bernacchi, Donald R. Ort

Andy VanLoocke

Photorespiration is essential for C3 plants but operates at the massive expense of fixed carbon dioxide and energy. Photorespiration is initiated when the initial enzyme of photosynthesis, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco), reacts with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide and produces a toxic compound that is then recycled by photorespiration. Photorespiration can be modeled at the canopy and regional scales to determine its cost under current and future atmospheres. A regional-scale model reveals that photorespiration currently decreases US soybean and wheat yields by 36% and 20%, respectively, and a 5% decrease in the losses due to photorespiration would be worth ...


Using Cognitive Dissonance To Communicate With Hypocrites About Water Conservation And Climate Change, Melissa R. Taylor, Alexa J. Lamm, Lisa K. Lundy Jan 2017

Using Cognitive Dissonance To Communicate With Hypocrites About Water Conservation And Climate Change, Melissa R. Taylor, Alexa J. Lamm, Lisa K. Lundy

Journal of Applied Communications

The effects of climate change can be mitigated by altering human behavior related to water conservation; however, many who are aware of climate change are not aligning their behavior to curb the impact. This research sought to explore the relationship between citizens’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding water conservation and their knowledge and beliefs regarding climate change to guide the development of effective communication campaigns focused on water conservation. Using cognitive dissonance theory and an adapted environmental attitudes and behavior quartet, this research focused on individuals who demonstrated high levels of climate change knowledge but did not engage in positive ...


Genotype × Environment × Management: Implications For Selection To Heat Stress Tolerance And Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell Jan 2017

Genotype × Environment × Management: Implications For Selection To Heat Stress Tolerance And Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Kathleen Russell

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The complex interaction of genetics, environment and management in determination of crop yields can interfere with selection progress in breeding programs. Specifically, the impact on selection for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under changing climatic conditions can be confounded by these interactions. Temperature increases for the southeastern United States are projected to range from 1-3°C by 2050 with nighttime temperatures increasing more rapidly than day temperatures. High temperatures are known to affect crop development and breeding for tolerance to heat stress is difficult to achieve in field environments. We utilized a multi-environment trial to assess ...


Rethinking Adaptive Capacity: A Study Of Midwestern U.S. Corn Farmers, Syed Maaz Gardezi Jan 2017

Rethinking Adaptive Capacity: A Study Of Midwestern U.S. Corn Farmers, Syed Maaz Gardezi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change is one of the most significant challenges facing agriculture and society in the 21st century. In the Midwest, the projected trend toward more extreme rainfall has meant that farm-level responses are needed to maintain or increase crop yield and reduce soil erosion. On a local level, farmers are at the forefront of responding to environmental change. Thus, it is critical to understand their ability to take suitable actions for reducing risks and transforming agriculture to a more resilient system. Adaptive capacity is a term that is often used to describe farmers’ ability to access financial and technical ...


Climate Dynamics, Invader Fitness, And Ecosystem Resistance In An Invasion-Factor Framework, Stephen L. Young, David R. Clements, Antonio Ditommaso Jan 2017

Climate Dynamics, Invader Fitness, And Ecosystem Resistance In An Invasion-Factor Framework, Stephen L. Young, David R. Clements, Antonio Ditommaso

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

As researchers and land managers increasingly seek to understand plant invasions and the external (climate) and internal (plant genetics) conditions that govern the process, new insight is helping to answer the elusive question of what makes some invasions successful and others not. Plant invasion success or failure is based on a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Abiotic (e.g., climate) and biotic (e.g., plant competition) conditions in the environment and plant genetics (e.g., fitness) combine in either decreasing or increasing invasion, yet it has proven challenging to know exactly which of these conditions leads to success for ...