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Articles 1 - 30 of 1283

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill May 2022

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


How Are Changes In Temperature And Salinity Impacting Intertidal Mussels?, Casey A. Martin May 2022

How Are Changes In Temperature And Salinity Impacting Intertidal Mussels?, Casey A. Martin

Student Research Symposium

Marine organisms living within the intertidal zones, such as mussels, experience a wide range of environmental conditions every day. Due to Climate change, these environments are transforming in such a way that may impact a mussels ability to successfully reproduce, grow, and live. Previous studies have shown that successful gamete development in freshwater mussels has been linked to temperature and species behavior has been observed to be influenced by salinity levels. In order to test the impact of temperature and salinity on mussel physiology, mussels were exposed to several treatments with varying conditions. Those conditions included a combination of a ...


Assessing The Role Of Biology Undergraduates' Metacognitive Calibration And Neural Activity During Model-Based Reasoning, Mei Grace Behrendt May 2022

Assessing The Role Of Biology Undergraduates' Metacognitive Calibration And Neural Activity During Model-Based Reasoning, Mei Grace Behrendt

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Metacognition refers to the critical awareness of or ability to monitor, regulate, control, and sequence of one's thoughts and performance. There is limited research that examines the relationship between metacognition and (a) academic performance and (b) general cognition among undergraduates. Moreover, there is an even greater paucity of literature that focuses more specifically on undergraduate biology students’ neural activity in relation to their metacognition.

This study aimed to examine the relationship between undergraduate life sciences students' metacognitive calibration, i.e., their capacity to self-evaluate their own performance, and their behavioral performance and brain activity during a biological error reasoning ...


Anxiety And Immunity: Affecting The Body And The Mind, Katelynn Dobbs May 2022

Anxiety And Immunity: Affecting The Body And The Mind, Katelynn Dobbs

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Speculations have been made within the scientific community that there is a link between the underlying mechanisms that impact anxiety disorders and immune system disorders. While many correlations between these disorders have been observed through various immune system disorder studies, this subject is still severely under-explored. In order to examine the potential relationship between anxiety disorders and immune system disorders, a survey was conducted and distributed among the student population at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. This survey collected data by asking a variety of questions that pertained to anxiety and immune system disorders diagnoses within the student population ...


Students Interest And Thoughts On Stem, Chrisitine Girtain Apr 2022

Students Interest And Thoughts On Stem, Chrisitine Girtain

STEM Month

I am Juan Sebastian Bohorquez Mora, I am a sophomore student at Toms River High School North. I am interested in biofuels because I believe they are a good option to replace fossil fuels. I am also interested in duckweed because biofuels are made out of crops, and people need to eat those crops. That’s when duckweed comes in and it can be used as a feedstock for ethanol production which is a biofuel. Bioethanol is a type of biofuel and it is derived from the corn’s starch. Instead of making ethanol from the corn’s starch, we ...


Aeromonas Phage Research And The Public Health Impact Of Antibiotics In Aquaculture Workers, Madelyn Merchant Apr 2022

Aeromonas Phage Research And The Public Health Impact Of Antibiotics In Aquaculture Workers, Madelyn Merchant

Honors Projects

One of the most common fish diseases in aquaculture is Aeromonas infection. The most common way to treat this infection is through antibiotics. The bacteria in the fish can become antibiotic-resistant and perpetuate the disease. The diseases in fish create a huge financial loss and the industry loses $6 billion per year due to diseases in fish. An alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage which causes less environmental degradation and is better for human gut flora. In aquaculture there have been examples of aquaculture workers becoming sick from the water in aquaculture ponds as well as from people eating the fish ...


Familiarity And Its Impacts On Male Mate Preference The Sailfin Molly, Poecilia Latipinna, Abigail Doza, Alyssa Back Apr 2022

Familiarity And Its Impacts On Male Mate Preference The Sailfin Molly, Poecilia Latipinna, Abigail Doza, Alyssa Back

Student Symposium

Mating behaviors are an integral part of the life history and ecology of many species. Male mate preferences are an especially understudied area of research. We examined male mate preference for familiar and unfamiliar female fish in the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna. We hypothesized that males would prefer familiar females as they may have been able to gather additional information concerning the female’s reproductive status. Males were isolated for a minimum of four days and then tested in a choice tank with two females of similar size. After the experiment, each male was randomly assigned to be with one ...


Laurier Biology Departmental Seminars Poster Colouring Book (Vol 1), Tristan A.F. Long Apr 2022

Laurier Biology Departmental Seminars Poster Colouring Book (Vol 1), Tristan A.F. Long

Biology Faculty Publications

Departmental seminar posters are largely utilitarian affairs – who is talking?, when are they speaking?, where is the seminar? (and maybe will there will be refreshments served?). While functional, they often fail to capture the beauty and excitement of their subject matter, and may fail to engage a wider audience. As the organizer of the Wilfrid Laurier University Department of Biology seminar series in 2014, on a lark, I started drawing posters that tried to illustrate our speaker’s research in a non-conventional manner, and hopefully appeal to those that might otherwise find attending a departmental seminar intimidating. Little did I ...


Bci Validation: Yfiler Plus Kit Validation, Chloe Koon Apr 2022

Bci Validation: Yfiler Plus Kit Validation, Chloe Koon

Honors Projects

In order to have access and use the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), it is required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Quality Assurance Standards (FBI-QAS) for Forensic DNA Units to complete comprehensive validation studies on all equipment, materials, and methods used in the process of DNA analysis. This study continues validation previous done within the Ohio Bureau of Criminal Investigation (BCI). YFiler Plus is a DNA amplification kit that is used in cases where it is most useful to examine only male DNA profile(s) within a sample by amplifying loci only on the Y-Chromosome. Components of this ...


Ecological Stressors Impact Soil Biodiversity, Kaleb Frierson, John Carlile Apr 2022

Ecological Stressors Impact Soil Biodiversity, Kaleb Frierson, John Carlile

Transformations: Presentation Slides

Soil biodiversity serves ecologically important roles like nutrient cycling and is used as an indicator of community disturbance. North American forests host a multitude of ecological stressors, including invasive plants, earth worms, and deer abundance. While relationships between deer and invasive species, as well as relationships between macroinvertebrates and worms have been heavily investigated, the effects of invasive plant species like Pale Swallowwort on soil biodiversity are unknown. To test our hypothesis that Pale Swallowwort affects soil biodiversity, we collected leaf litter from three state parks throughout Central New York at sites with and without the invasive plant. Samples were ...


Socio-Economic Factors Of Environmental Problems, Manzura Kamalova, D. Shakenov Mar 2022

Socio-Economic Factors Of Environmental Problems, Manzura Kamalova, D. Shakenov

Karakalpak Scientific Journal

People consciously and intensively rebuild their nature according to their own needs, creating rural and urban areas in which they live. People care about the quality of life in the context of the unity of nature and culture. Social is a relatively new discipline that deals with urban space and environmental issues. One way to imagine what is beneficial to people is to find out what is economically best for the person. The article examines the economic factors that form the attitude towards social ecology in Kazakhstan. The article concludes that society should cooperate to achieve common things, both for ...


Research On Characteristics, Development Trend And Funding Countermeasures Of Biology, Jie Chen, Jing Qu, Zhiyong Lou, Bing Zhu, Le Kang Mar 2022

Research On Characteristics, Development Trend And Funding Countermeasures Of Biology, Jie Chen, Jing Qu, Zhiyong Lou, Bing Zhu, Le Kang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Strengthening the research in biology aimed at national strategic needs and major scientific frontier issues is conducive to giving full play to the strategic supporting role of biological research for national economic development and the promotion of international competitiveness. This article combs the basic characteristics and development trend of biology, summarizes the practical experience of international biological research funding, and analyzes the outstanding problems in biological research in China, such as incomplete layout, lack of sustainable and stable support, and insufficient funding for top talents and teams. By referring to the international practical experience, it puts forward policy suggestions to ...


Bacteriophage That Infect Gordonia Species Show Varying Host Specificity And Infection, Lindsay Birge Mar 2022

Bacteriophage That Infect Gordonia Species Show Varying Host Specificity And Infection, Lindsay Birge

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Bacteriophage (phage) are an incredibly abundant species of virus that infect bacteria. One major characteristic of phage is their small host range- many phage are known to infect only one or a few hosts. This phage and host relationship has led to phage therapy recently becoming highlighted as a possible alternative to traditional antibiotics in light of the growing antibiotic resistance crisis. The study of phage host specificity has risen in line with this concept, as a phage with a more extensive host range can provide more opportunities for use as an antibiotic. Samples of phage previously isolated on a ...


An Exploration Of Trex1 Variants Of Uncertain Significance And Their Potential Impact On Autoimmunity In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus And Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome, Jordan Peters Feb 2022

An Exploration Of Trex1 Variants Of Uncertain Significance And Their Potential Impact On Autoimmunity In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus And Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome, Jordan Peters

JSU Student Symposium 2022

TREX1 is a gene responsible for encoding a 3'-to-5' DNA exonuclease in human cells. Under normal conditions TREX1 removes bases from the free 3' end to enhance DNA damage and prevent DNA end reannealing and rapid repair. Mutations in TREX1, which result in the absence of the 3'-to-5' DNA exonuclease and the intracellular accumulation of unneeded DNA and RNA, have been shown to trigger immune dysfunction leading to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS). The goal of this study is to determine the potential impact of a TREX1 missense mutation with uncertain clinical ...


Genetic Assessment Of Congenital Stationary Night Blindness-Associated Trpm1 Variants Of Uncertain Significance In C. Elegans, Sara Morris Feb 2022

Genetic Assessment Of Congenital Stationary Night Blindness-Associated Trpm1 Variants Of Uncertain Significance In C. Elegans, Sara Morris

JSU Student Symposium 2022

Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a disorder of the eye that impacts the ability to see in low to no light conditions. It occurs in horses and humans. TRPM1 encodes for a member of the transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily of transient receptor potential ion channels. Mutations in TRPM1 have been identified by previous researchers in horses with leopard complex pattern (LCP) suffering also from CSNB. Phenotypic changes in these horses are a loss of spotted coat pattern. An attempt was made to locate variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in TRPM1 that had been previously identified in horses with ...


Effects Of Specific Blocking Buffers On Histone H2b Antibodies, Noha Al-Saadi, Grace Mix, Mardasia Thompson, Elin Zaman Feb 2022

Effects Of Specific Blocking Buffers On Histone H2b Antibodies, Noha Al-Saadi, Grace Mix, Mardasia Thompson, Elin Zaman

JSU Student Symposium 2022

Mammalian histones have been known to be one of the most highly alkaline proteins found in the nuclei. Their main function is to organize DNA into chromosomes and regulate transcription. An example of a histone would be Histone H2B, which this project focuses heavily on. Histone H2B has been seen to bind poorly to antibodies and result in a weak signal. The goal of this project is to test a multitude of blocking buffers, in triplicate, in order to find a blocking buffer that can obtain the strongest signal from the antibodies being tested. Through the use of protein gel ...


Antioxidant Content In Plant-Based Diets Versus Meat-Based Diets, Lia Meadows, Peeper Walker, Reveca Tomas Feb 2022

Antioxidant Content In Plant-Based Diets Versus Meat-Based Diets, Lia Meadows, Peeper Walker, Reveca Tomas

JSU Student Symposium 2022

The result of naturally occurring free radicals in the body are oxidative-stress-related damages to cells, tissues, and biomolecules. Oxidative stress occurs when the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) outnumbers antioxidants, producing negative effects. Antioxidants exist as a natural defense mechanism utilized by the body. This defense exists in two distinct forms: enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Non-enzymatic antioxidants consist of vitamins and bioactive compounds, such as phenols. In previous studies, plant-based diets showed promising results in reducing damage caused by oxidative-stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which antioxidant concentration differs between meat-based diet and ...


Using Ecological Niche Modeling To Predict The Response Of Hydrocotyle Bonariensis To Global Climate Change, Rachel Bonner, Laura K. Dease, Elizabeth A. Hughston Feb 2022

Using Ecological Niche Modeling To Predict The Response Of Hydrocotyle Bonariensis To Global Climate Change, Rachel Bonner, Laura K. Dease, Elizabeth A. Hughston

JSU Student Symposium 2022

Coastal dune habitats provide valuable ecosystem services but are declining globally due to the interacting effects of multiple stressors, including global climate change (GCC). To explore the potential severity of the effects of GCC on dune plant communities of the Northern Gulf of Mexico and surrounding areas, we modeled the fundamental bioclimatic niche of a dune plant species, largeleaf pennywort (Hydrocotyle bonariensis Comm. ex Lam.), in this region. We then projected its niche to estimate habitat suitability under current and future environmental conditions. Occurrence records were mined from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, cleaned, then thinned by spatial filtering, and ...


Diving Into The Unknown: A Genetic Investigation Of Type-2 Diabetes-Associated Insr Variants Of Uncertain Significance, Trinity Elston Feb 2022

Diving Into The Unknown: A Genetic Investigation Of Type-2 Diabetes-Associated Insr Variants Of Uncertain Significance, Trinity Elston

JSU Student Symposium 2022

Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder with interactions between genetic and environmental factors, making it more complicated to understand the clinical implications of identified genetic variants and disease pathology. Many of the diabetes-associated variants are currently classified as VUS and occur within the genes involved in insulin signaling and regulation, so we turned our focus on the human INSR gene. INSR encodes the insulin receptor protein that plays a major role in insulin signaling. Furthermore, C. elegans provides a simple model system to examine the functional consequences of these diabetes-associated VUS. We examined INSR diabetes-associated VUS through the ...


Characterization Of Anti-Microbial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of New World Vultures In Alabama, Bridgette Gray Feb 2022

Characterization Of Anti-Microbial Properties Of Excrement And Functional Microbiome Of New World Vultures In Alabama, Bridgette Gray

JSU Student Symposium 2022

Two distinct species of New World vultures are native to North America and inhabit Alabama, black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura). They are scavengers that consume decaying carcasses or carrion, which helps reduce the spread of disease. Vultures are susceptible to declining population numbers as they have been trapped and killed due to the belief that they spread disease, additionally contact with poisons and habitat destruction have also led to their decline. Currently, these two vultures are one of the seven vulture species with least concern and stable in Alabama and the world. However, it is important ...


Predicting Gene Function Of Unknown Yeast Orfs Through Phylogenetic Comparative Analysis, Lewis Barr Jan 2022

Predicting Gene Function Of Unknown Yeast Orfs Through Phylogenetic Comparative Analysis, Lewis Barr

Graduate Research Posters

Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been an instrumental model system for an extraordinary diverse array of research applications for over a century now. The S. cerevisiae genome was fully sequenced in 1996, and, as a result, 6,753 potential proteins were identified. These putative proteins were established by investigating likely open reading frames within the genome. Over the past few decades, nearly 5,000 open reading frames (ORFs) and their expressed proteins have been described, and the remaining undefined open reading frames are labeled as open reading frames of unknown function (ORFans). To better understand the remaining gaps within the S ...


Can Gdp Be Predictive Of Fertility Rates In Sweden?, Hannah Coleman Jan 2022

Can Gdp Be Predictive Of Fertility Rates In Sweden?, Hannah Coleman

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fertility rates in a country vary and can be influenced by numerous different aspects of an individual’s life and the society in which they live. One aspect that may influence fertility rates at the national level is the gross domestic product (GDP). GDP is an indicator of a country’s economic productivity. Because fertility is linked to both economic development and individual resources, GDP may be a useful indicator of fertility rates. If so, knowing or predicting GDP could be used to project the fertility rates of a population years into the future. To determine if a reasonable connection ...


Patterns And Process Of Sandbar Revegetation On The Missouri National Recreational Rive, Amena Begum Ruma Jan 2022

Patterns And Process Of Sandbar Revegetation On The Missouri National Recreational Rive, Amena Begum Ruma

Dissertations and Theses

Decades of flow regulation have reduced sandbar area and recruitment of cottonwood and willow along the Missouri River. Conflicts exist between managing sandbars for habitat (removing vegetation) for threatened sandbar-nesting birds (i.e., Piping Plover) and allowing natural recruitment of early successional riparian woodland (set-aside bars) that may support other species and ecological values. Recent changes in topography, geomorphology, and vegetation were examined on sandbars that have been “set aside” from management within seven reaches of the Missouri National Recreational River (MNRR) in southeastern South Dakota, USA. An existing time series of maps of sandbar landcover, derived from satellite imagery ...


Impacts Of Plastic Pollution On A Pelagic Marine Mammal, The Northern Elephant Seal, Lauren M. Kashiwabara Jan 2022

Impacts Of Plastic Pollution On A Pelagic Marine Mammal, The Northern Elephant Seal, Lauren M. Kashiwabara

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

As plastic pollution increases, top marine predators such as marine mammals are becoming increasingly susceptible to plastic particles and their additives. Plastic particles have been found in gastrointestinal tracts and scat of many marine mammals, and quantifying plastic pollution in those that are pelagic can provide insight into plastic pollution in mesopelagic ecosystems that are just beginning to be analyzed. Adapting well-developed laboratory techniques for microplastic (MP) isolation (i.e. density separation and chemical digestion), I isolated MPs from the scat of the deepest diving pinniped, the northern elephant seal (NES), and found that100% of scat samples (n=11) contained ...


Inhibition Of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm By Variovorax Paradoxus, Esther Gomez Jan 2022

Inhibition Of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm By Variovorax Paradoxus, Esther Gomez

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of fatal nosocomial infections. Often, S. aureus can grow as a biofilm which protects the population from the surrounding environment. Strains of S. aureus are resistant to virtually all known antibiotics on the market. Variovorax paradoxus is a soil microbe with many unusual metabolic activities. It has been previously observed that, V. paradoxus can inhibit the growth of S. aureus when in co-culture. In this work we report on inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation by V. paradoxus due to a suspected inhibitory soluble factor.


The Transcription Factor Nfe2l2a Is Required For Development Of Hematopoietic Stem Cells In The Zebrafish Embryo, Sivam Bhatt, Teerth Patel, Madeleine Seputro, Anubhav Thapaliya, Erich Damm Jan 2022

The Transcription Factor Nfe2l2a Is Required For Development Of Hematopoietic Stem Cells In The Zebrafish Embryo, Sivam Bhatt, Teerth Patel, Madeleine Seputro, Anubhav Thapaliya, Erich Damm

Undergraduate Research Posters

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are the self-renewing population of cells that generate all erythrocytes and leukocytes over the lifetime of a vertebrate organism. HSCs are also the therapeutic units of curative bone marrow transplants used in the treatment of blood malignancies and in gene therapy for genetic blood disorders. In all vertebrate embryos, HSCs originate from the floor of the embryonic dorsal aorta during the endothelial to hematopoietic transition. Nascent HSCs will bud into the blood vessel and be carried to maturation sites by the embryonic blood flow. Despite the curative potential of HSC transplants in blood disorders, this approach ...


Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (Aeg-1) Deletion Selectively Enhances The Antinociceptive Effects Of Morphine, Apurva Puli, Shivani Patel, Bryan Mckiver, Eda Köseli, Devanand Sarkar Ph.D., M. Imad Damaj Ph.D. Jan 2022

Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (Aeg-1) Deletion Selectively Enhances The Antinociceptive Effects Of Morphine, Apurva Puli, Shivani Patel, Bryan Mckiver, Eda Köseli, Devanand Sarkar Ph.D., M. Imad Damaj Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Posters

Background: Opioids are a class of drugs that are utilized in clinical settings to alleviate acute and chronic pain, but can often lead to development of tolerance, addiction and overdose following prolonged usage. Opioids such as morphine function by activating endogenous µ opioid receptors, which are located in various tissues throughout the body. Astrocyte Elevated Gene-1 (AEG-1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates inflammation, myeloid cell activity and lipid metabolism. Studies have shown interactions and overlaps in cellular signaling between the inflammatory/immune responses and the endogenous opioid system which could suggest a role for AEG-1 in opioids effects. Our ...


Building The Cytokinetic Contractile Ring In An Early Embryo: Initiation As Clusters Of Myosin Ii, Anillin And Septin, And Visualization Of A Septin Filament Network, Chelsea Garno, Zoe H. Irons, Courtney M. Gamache, Quenelle Mckim, Gabriela Reyes, Xufeng Wu, Charles B. Shuster, John Henson Dec 2021

Building The Cytokinetic Contractile Ring In An Early Embryo: Initiation As Clusters Of Myosin Ii, Anillin And Septin, And Visualization Of A Septin Filament Network, Chelsea Garno, Zoe H. Irons, Courtney M. Gamache, Quenelle Mckim, Gabriela Reyes, Xufeng Wu, Charles B. Shuster, John Henson

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

The cytokinetic contractile ring (CR) was first described some 50 years ago, however our understanding of the assembly and structure of the animal cell CR remains incomplete. We recently reported that mature CRs in sea urchin embryos contain myosin II mini-filaments organized into aligned concatenated arrays, and that in early CRs myosin II formed discrete clusters that transformed into the linearized structure over time. The present study extends our previous work by addressing the hypothesis that these myosin II clusters also contain the crucial scaffolding proteins anillin and septin, known to help link actin, myosin II, RhoA, and the membrane ...


Biol 1411- Botany Laboratory Manual, Yolander R. Youngblood Dec 2021

Biol 1411- Botany Laboratory Manual, Yolander R. Youngblood

Open Education Resources

Botany Laboratory Manual By – Yolander R.Youngblood, PhD.

This manual was reviewed by student editors, Ayanna Montegut and Ineceia Carter.

Table of Contents

1. The Plant Cell Lab

2. Mitosis Lab

3. Plant Growth and Development Lab

4. Simple Tissue Lab

5. Leaf Lab

6. Stem Lab

7. Root Lab

8. Evolution of Land Plants Lab

9. Bryophyte Lab

10. Fern Lab

11. Gymnosperm Lab

12. Angiosperm Lab

13. Appendix

a. Writing in the Scientific Notebook

b. How to use the Microscope

c. Plants and Their Structure

d. Additional Video, Lecture, and Lab Resources


Light Pollution Levels On Beaches: How Window Tinting Effects Disorientation Of Sea Turtles On Hilton Head Island, Kathryn (Kate) Hettiger Dec 2021

Light Pollution Levels On Beaches: How Window Tinting Effects Disorientation Of Sea Turtles On Hilton Head Island, Kathryn (Kate) Hettiger

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Loggerhead sea turtles, an endangered species, are decreasing at alarming rates worldwide. Artificial light from beachfront hotels on Hilton Head Island are causing disorientation in Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings affecting their ability to successfully find the ocean. To mitigate this, exterior windows facing the ocean will be tinted using either tinting spray, which will be implemented at the Marriott Grande Ocean, or using tinting film, which will be implemented at the Marriott Westin. During the typical nesting and hatching season (May-October), sea turtle hatchling tracks will be recorded using drones to compare the effects of various levels of light pollution ...