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Articles 1 - 30 of 1252

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Gene Ontology Resource: Enriching A Gold Mine., Gene Ontology Consortium, Judith A. Blake, Mary E. Dolan, Harold J. Drabkin, David P. Hill Jan 2021

The Gene Ontology Resource: Enriching A Gold Mine., Gene Ontology Consortium, Judith A. Blake, Mary E. Dolan, Harold J. Drabkin, David P. Hill

Faculty Research 2021

The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) provides the most comprehensive resource currently available for computable knowledge regarding the functions of genes and gene products. Here, we report the advances of the consortium over the past two years. The new GO-CAM annotation framework was notably improved, and we formalized the model with a computational schema to check and validate the rapidly increasing repository of 2838 GO-CAMs. In addition, we describe the impacts of several collaborations to refine GO and report a 10% increase in the number of GO annotations, a 25% increase in annotated gene products, and over 9,400 new scientific ...


Mouse Genome Database (Mgd): Knowledgebase For Mouse-Human Comparative Biology., Judith A. Blake, Richard M. Baldarelli, James A. Kadin, Joel E Richardson, Cynthia Smith, Carol J Bult, Mouse Genome Database Group Jan 2021

Mouse Genome Database (Mgd): Knowledgebase For Mouse-Human Comparative Biology., Judith A. Blake, Richard M. Baldarelli, James A. Kadin, Joel E Richardson, Cynthia Smith, Carol J Bult, Mouse Genome Database Group

Faculty Research 2021

The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism knowledgebase for the laboratory mouse, a widely used animal model for comparative studies of the genetic and genomic basis for human health and disease. MGD is the authoritative source for biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and mouse models of human disease. MGD is the primary source for official gene, allele, and mouse strain nomenclature based on the guidelines set by the International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice. MGD's biocuration scientists curate information from the biomedical literature and from ...


Functional Redundancy Of Type I And Type Ii Receptors In The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Growth By Myostatin And Activin A., Se-Jin Lee, Adam Lehar, Yewei Liu, Chi Hai Ly, Quynh-Mai Pham, Michael Michaud, Renata Rydzik, Daniel W Youngstrom, Michael M Shen, Vesa Kaartinen, Emily L Germain-Lee, Thomas A Rando Dec 2020

Functional Redundancy Of Type I And Type Ii Receptors In The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Growth By Myostatin And Activin A., Se-Jin Lee, Adam Lehar, Yewei Liu, Chi Hai Ly, Quynh-Mai Pham, Michael Michaud, Renata Rydzik, Daniel W Youngstrom, Michael M Shen, Vesa Kaartinen, Emily L Germain-Lee, Thomas A Rando

Faculty Research 2020

Myostatin (MSTN) is a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member that normally acts to limit muscle growth. The function of MSTN is partially redundant with that of another TGF-β family member, activin A. MSTN and activin A are capable of signaling through a complex of type II and type I receptors. Here, we investigated the roles of two type II receptors (ACVR2 and ACVR2B) and two type I receptors (ALK4 and ALK5) in the regulation of muscle mass by these ligands by genetically targeting these receptors either alone or in combination specifically in myofibers in mice. We show that targeting ...


Systematic Comparison Of Sea Urchin And Sea Star Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks Explains How Novelty Is Incorporated In Early Development., Gregory A Cary, Brenna S Mccauley, Olga Zueva, Joseph Pattinato, William J R Longabaugh, Veronica F Hinman Dec 2020

Systematic Comparison Of Sea Urchin And Sea Star Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks Explains How Novelty Is Incorporated In Early Development., Gregory A Cary, Brenna S Mccauley, Olga Zueva, Joseph Pattinato, William J R Longabaugh, Veronica F Hinman

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

The extensive array of morphological diversity among animal taxa represents the product of millions of years of evolution. Morphology is the output of development, therefore phenotypic evolution arises from changes to the topology of the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that control the highly coordinated process of embryogenesis. A particular challenge in understanding the origins of animal diversity lies in determining how GRNs incorporate novelty while preserving the overall stability of the network, and hence, embryonic viability. Here we assemble a comprehensive GRN for endomesoderm specification in the sea star from zygote through gastrulation that corresponds to the GRN for sea ...


Genetic Variant Effects On Gene Expression In Human Pancreatic Islets And Their Implications For T2d., Ana Viñuela, Arushi Varshney, Martijn Van De Bunt, Rashmi B Prasad, Olof Asplund, Amanda Bennett, Michael Boehnke, Andrew A Brown, Michael R Erdos, João Fadista, Ola Hansson, Gad Hatem, Cédric Howald, Apoorva K Iyengar, Paul Johnson, Ulrika Krus, Patrick E Macdonald, Anubha Mahajan, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Narisu Narisu, Vibe Nylander, Peter Orchard, Nikolay Oskolkov, Nikolaos I Panousis, Anthony Payne, Michael L. Stitzel, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Ryan Welch, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Anna L Gloyn, Laura J Scott, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Leif Groop, Stephen C J Parker, Mark I Mccarthy Sep 2020

Genetic Variant Effects On Gene Expression In Human Pancreatic Islets And Their Implications For T2d., Ana Viñuela, Arushi Varshney, Martijn Van De Bunt, Rashmi B Prasad, Olof Asplund, Amanda Bennett, Michael Boehnke, Andrew A Brown, Michael R Erdos, João Fadista, Ola Hansson, Gad Hatem, Cédric Howald, Apoorva K Iyengar, Paul Johnson, Ulrika Krus, Patrick E Macdonald, Anubha Mahajan, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Narisu Narisu, Vibe Nylander, Peter Orchard, Nikolay Oskolkov, Nikolaos I Panousis, Anthony Payne, Michael L. Stitzel, Swarooparani Vadlamudi, Ryan Welch, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Anna L Gloyn, Laura J Scott, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Leif Groop, Stephen C J Parker, Mark I Mccarthy

Faculty Research 2020

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in ...


Dual Roles Of Neutrophils In Metastatic Colonization Are Governed By The Host Nk Cell Status., Peishan Li, Mingyang Lu, Jiayuan Shi, Li Hua, Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Leonard D. Shultz, Guangwen Ren Sep 2020

Dual Roles Of Neutrophils In Metastatic Colonization Are Governed By The Host Nk Cell Status., Peishan Li, Mingyang Lu, Jiayuan Shi, Li Hua, Zheng Gong, Qing Li, Leonard D. Shultz, Guangwen Ren

Faculty Research 2020

The role of neutrophils in solid tumor metastasis remains largely controversial. In preclinical models of solid tumors, both pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic effects of neutrophils have been reported. In this study, using mouse models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the metastasis-modulating effects of neutrophils are dictated by the status of host natural killer (NK) cells. In NK cell-deficient mice, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-expanded neutrophils show an inhibitory effect on the metastatic colonization of breast tumor cells in the lung. In contrast, in NK cell-competent mice, neutrophils facilitate metastatic colonization in the same tumor models. In an ex vivo neutrophil-NK cell-tumor cell ...


Npc1 Deficiency Impairs Cerebellar Postnatal Development Of Microglia And Climbing Fiber Refinement In A Mouse Model Of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C., Bridget R Boyle, Sierra E Melli, Ruth S Altreche, Zachary M Padron, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Sarah Kim, Mariella D Vasquez, Dawn M Carone, Benjamin Carone, Ileana Soto Reyes Aug 2020

Npc1 Deficiency Impairs Cerebellar Postnatal Development Of Microglia And Climbing Fiber Refinement In A Mouse Model Of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C., Bridget R Boyle, Sierra E Melli, Ruth S Altreche, Zachary M Padron, Fawad A K Yousufzai, Sarah Kim, Mariella D Vasquez, Dawn M Carone, Benjamin Carone, Ileana Soto Reyes

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Little is known about the effects of NPC1 deficiency in brain development and whether these effects contribute to neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells occurs at an earlier stage and to a greater extent in NPC; therefore, we analyzed the effect of NPC1 deficiency on microglia and on climbing fiber synaptic refinement during cerebellar postnatal development using the


Genetic And Metabolomic Architecture Of Variation In Diet Restriction-Mediated Lifespan Extension In Drosophila., Kelly Jin, Kenneth A. Wilson, Jennifer N. Beck, Christopher S. Nelson, George W. Brownridge Iii, Benjamin R. Harrison, Danijel Djukovic, Daniel Raftery, Rachel B. Brem, Shiqing Yu, Mathias Drton, Ali Shojaie, Pankaj Kapahi, Daniel Promislow Jul 2020

Genetic And Metabolomic Architecture Of Variation In Diet Restriction-Mediated Lifespan Extension In Drosophila., Kelly Jin, Kenneth A. Wilson, Jennifer N. Beck, Christopher S. Nelson, George W. Brownridge Iii, Benjamin R. Harrison, Danijel Djukovic, Daniel Raftery, Rachel B. Brem, Shiqing Yu, Mathias Drton, Ali Shojaie, Pankaj Kapahi, Daniel Promislow

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Student Professional Publications

In most organisms, dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan. However, several studies have found that genotypes within the same species vary widely in how they respond to DR. To explore the mechanisms underlying this variation, we exposed 178 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines to a DR or ad libitum (AL) diet, and measured a panel of 105 metabolites under both diets. Twenty four out of 105 metabolites were associated with the magnitude of the lifespan response. These included proteinogenic amino acids and metabolites involved in α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)/glutamine metabolism. We confirm the role of α-KG/glutamine synthesis pathways in the DR response ...


Facial Shape And Allometry Quantitative Trait Locus Intervals In The Diversity Outbred Mouse Are Enriched For Known Skeletal And Facial Development Genes., David C Katz, J David Aponte, Wei Liu, Rebecca M Green, Jessica M Mayeux, K Michael Pollard, Daniel Pomp, Steven C. Munger, Stephen A Murray, Charles C Roseman, Christopher J Percival, James Cheverud, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson Jun 2020

Facial Shape And Allometry Quantitative Trait Locus Intervals In The Diversity Outbred Mouse Are Enriched For Known Skeletal And Facial Development Genes., David C Katz, J David Aponte, Wei Liu, Rebecca M Green, Jessica M Mayeux, K Michael Pollard, Daniel Pomp, Steven C. Munger, Stephen A Murray, Charles C Roseman, Christopher J Percival, James Cheverud, Ralph S Marcucio, Benedikt Hallgrímsson

Faculty Research 2020

The biology of how faces are built and come to differ from one another is complex. Discovering normal variants that contribute to differences in facial morphology is one key to untangling this complexity, with important implications for medicine and evolutionary biology. This study maps quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal facial shape using Diversity Outbred (DO) mice. The DO is a randomly outcrossed population with high heterozygosity that captures the allelic diversity of eight inbred mouse lines from three subspecies. The study uses a sample of 1147 DO animals (the largest sample yet employed for a shape QTL study in ...


Covid-19 Preclinical Models: Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Transgenic Mice., Cathleen Lutz, Leigh Maher, Charles Lee, Wonyoung Kang Jun 2020

Covid-19 Preclinical Models: Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Transgenic Mice., Cathleen Lutz, Leigh Maher, Charles Lee, Wonyoung Kang

Faculty Research 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared pandemic that is spreading all over the world at a dreadfully fast rate. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of COVID-19, infects the human body using angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor identical to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic that occurred in 2002-2003. SARS-CoV-2 has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than to that of other species. Animal models that mimic the human disease are highly essential to develop therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we review transgenic mice that express human ACE2 in the airway and ...


The Figure Of The Animal In Modern And Contemporary Poetry By Michael Malay, Brian Bartlett Mar 2020

The Figure Of The Animal In Modern And Contemporary Poetry By Michael Malay, Brian Bartlett

The Goose

Review of Michael Malay's The Figure of the Animal in Modern and Contemporary Poetry


Detedit: A Graphical User Interface For Annotating And Editing Events Detected In Long-Term Acoustic Monitoring Data, Alba Solsona-Berga, Kaitlin E. Frasier, Simone Baumann-Pickering, Sean M. Wiggins, John A. Hildebrand Jan 2020

Detedit: A Graphical User Interface For Annotating And Editing Events Detected In Long-Term Acoustic Monitoring Data, Alba Solsona-Berga, Kaitlin E. Frasier, Simone Baumann-Pickering, Sean M. Wiggins, John A. Hildebrand

C-IMAGE Publications

Passive acoustic monitoring has become an important data collection method, yielding massive datasets replete with biological, environmental and anthropogenic information. Automated signal detectors and classifiers are needed to identify events within these datasets, such as the presence of species-specific sounds or anthropogenic noise. These automated methods, however, are rarely a complete substitute for expert analyst review. The ability to visualize and annotate acoustic events efficiently can enhance scientific insights from large, previously intractable datasets. A MATLAB-based graphical user interface, called DetEdit, was developed to accelerate the editing and annotating of automated detections from extensive acoustic datasets. This tool is highly-configurable ...


Natural Sources And Bioactivities Of 2,4-Di-Tert-Butylphenol And Its Analogs, Fuqiang Zhao, Ping Wang, Rima D. Lucardi, Zushang Su, Shiyou Li Jan 2020

Natural Sources And Bioactivities Of 2,4-Di-Tert-Butylphenol And Its Analogs, Fuqiang Zhao, Ping Wang, Rima D. Lucardi, Zushang Su, Shiyou Li

NCPC Publications and Patents

2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol or 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol (2,4-DTBP) is a common toxic secondary metabolite produced by various groups of organisms. The biosources and bioactivities of 2,4-DTBP have been well investigated, but the phenol has not been systematically reviewed. This article provides a comprehensive review of 2,4-DTBP and its analogs with emphasis on natural sources and bioactivities. 2,4-DTBP has been found in at least 169 species of bacteria (16 species, 10 families), fungi (11 species, eight families), diatom (one species, one family), liverwort (one species, one family), pteridiphyta (two species, two families), gymnosperms (four species, one ...


Chronic Muscle Weakness And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In The Absence Of Sustained Atrophy In A Preclinical Sepsis Model, Allison M. Owen, Samir P. Patel, Jeffrey D. Smith, Beverly K. Balasuriya, Stephanie F. Mori, Gregory S. Hawk, Arnold J. Stromberg, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Timothy A. Butterfield, Karyn A. Esser, Charlotte A. Peterson, Marlene E. Starr, Hiroshi Saito Dec 2019

Chronic Muscle Weakness And Mitochondrial Dysfunction In The Absence Of Sustained Atrophy In A Preclinical Sepsis Model, Allison M. Owen, Samir P. Patel, Jeffrey D. Smith, Beverly K. Balasuriya, Stephanie F. Mori, Gregory S. Hawk, Arnold J. Stromberg, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki, Alexander G. Rabchevsky, Timothy A. Butterfield, Karyn A. Esser, Charlotte A. Peterson, Marlene E. Starr, Hiroshi Saito

Physiology Faculty Publications

Chronic critical illness is a global clinical issue affecting millions of sepsis survivors annually. Survivors report chronic skeletal muscle weakness and development of new functional limitations that persist for years. To delineate mechanisms of sepsis-induced chronic weakness, we first surpassed a critical barrier by establishing a murine model of sepsis with ICU-like interventions that allows for the study of survivors. We show that sepsis survivors have profound weakness for at least 1 month, even after recovery of muscle mass. Abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure, impaired respiration and electron transport chain activities, and persistent protein oxidative damage were evident in the muscle of ...


Hepatobiliary Analyses Suggest Chronic Pah Exposure In Hakes (Urophycis Spp.) Following The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Rachel E. Struch, Erin Pulster, Andrea D. Schreier, Steven A. Murawski Dec 2019

Hepatobiliary Analyses Suggest Chronic Pah Exposure In Hakes (Urophycis Spp.) Following The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Rachel E. Struch, Erin Pulster, Andrea D. Schreier, Steven A. Murawski

C-IMAGE Publications

Prior to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we lacked a comprehensive baseline of oil contamination in the Gulf of Mexico's sediments, water column, and biota. Gaps in prespill knowledge limit our ability to determine the aftereffects of the Deepwater Horizon blowout or prepare to mitigate similar impacts during future oil spill disasters. We examined spatiotemporal differences in exposure to and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2 hake species (Urophycis spp.) to establish a current baseline for these ecologically important, abundant, and at-risk demersal fishes. Gulf hake (Urophycis cirrata) and southern hake (Urophycis floridana) were collected throughout the ...


Embryonic Origin And Genetic Basis Of Cave Associated Phenotypes In The Isopod Crustacean Asellus Aquaticus., Hafasa Mojaddidi, Franco E Fernandez, Priscilla A Erickson, Meredith E. Protas Nov 2019

Embryonic Origin And Genetic Basis Of Cave Associated Phenotypes In The Isopod Crustacean Asellus Aquaticus., Hafasa Mojaddidi, Franco E Fernandez, Priscilla A Erickson, Meredith E. Protas

Meredith Protas

Characteristics common to animals living in subterranean environments include the reduction or absence of eyes, lessened pigmentation and enhanced sensory systems. How these characteristics have evolved is poorly understood for the majority of cave dwelling species. In order to understand the evolution of these changes, this study uses an invertebrate model system, the freshwater isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, to examine whether adult differences between cave and surface dwelling individuals first appear during embryonic development. We hypothesized that antennal elaboration, as well as eye reduction and pigment loss, would be apparent during embryonic development. We found that differences in pigmentation, eye ...


Identification Of Lipid Droplet Structure-Like/Resident Proteins In Caenorhabditis Elegans., Huimin Na, Peng Zhang, Yong Chen, Xiaotong Zhu, Yi Liu, Yangli Liu, Kang Xie, Ningyi Xu, Fuquan Yang, Yong Yu, Simon Cichello, Ho Yi Mak, Meng C Wang, Hong Zhang, Pingsheng Liu Sep 2019

Identification Of Lipid Droplet Structure-Like/Resident Proteins In Caenorhabditis Elegans., Huimin Na, Peng Zhang, Yong Chen, Xiaotong Zhu, Yi Liu, Yangli Liu, Kang Xie, Ningyi Xu, Fuquan Yang, Yong Yu, Simon Cichello, Ho Yi Mak, Meng C Wang, Hong Zhang, Pingsheng Liu

Yong Chen

The lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids in cells and has been linked with metabolic disorders. Caenorhabditis elegans has many characteristics which make it an excellent animal model for studying LDs. However, unlike in mammalian cells, no LD structure-like/resident proteins have been identified in C. elegans, which has limited the utility of this model for the study of lipid storage and metabolism. Herein based on three lines of evidence, we identified that MDT-28 and DHS-3 previously identified in C. elegans LD proteome were two LD structure-like/resident proteins. First, MDT-28 and DHS-3 were found ...


The Proteomics Of Lipid Droplets: Structure, Dynamics, And Functions Of The Organelle Conserved From Bacteria To Humans., Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Yong Chen, Shuyan Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Yang Wang, Jinhai Yu, Peng Zhang, Huimin Na, Huina Zhang, Yanbin Ma, Pingsheng Liu Sep 2019

The Proteomics Of Lipid Droplets: Structure, Dynamics, And Functions Of The Organelle Conserved From Bacteria To Humans., Li Yang, Yunfeng Ding, Yong Chen, Shuyan Zhang, Chaoxing Huo, Yang Wang, Jinhai Yu, Peng Zhang, Huimin Na, Huina Zhang, Yanbin Ma, Pingsheng Liu

Yong Chen

Lipid droplets are cellular organelles that consists of a neutral lipid core covered by a monolayer of phospholipids and many proteins. They are thought to function in the storage, transport, and metabolism of lipids, in signaling, and as a specialized microenvironment for metabolism in most types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic organisms. Lipid droplets have received a lot of attention in the last 10 years as they are linked to the progression of many metabolic diseases and hold great potential for the development of neutral lipid-derived products, such as biofuels, food supplements, hormones, and medicines. Proteomic analysis of lipid ...


In Situ Capture Of Chromatin Interactions By Biotinylated Dcas9., Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Yong Chen, Mushan Li, Feng Zhou, Kailong Li, Hui Cao, Min Ni, Yuxuan Liu, Zhimin Gu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Shiqi Xie, Gary C Hon, Zhenyu Xuan, Michael Q Zhang, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu Sep 2019

In Situ Capture Of Chromatin Interactions By Biotinylated Dcas9., Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Yong Chen, Mushan Li, Feng Zhou, Kailong Li, Hui Cao, Min Ni, Yuxuan Liu, Zhimin Gu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Shiqi Xie, Gary C Hon, Zhenyu Xuan, Michael Q Zhang, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu

Yong Chen

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are commonly recognized by correlative chromatin features, yet the molecular composition of the vast majority of CREs in chromatin remains unknown. Here, we describe a CRISPR affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements (CAPTURE) approach to unbiasedly identify locus-specific chromatin-regulating protein complexes and long-range DNA interactions. Using an in vivo biotinylated nuclease-deficient Cas9 protein and sequence-specific guide RNAs, we show high-resolution and selective isolation of chromatin interactions at a single-copy genomic locus. Purification of human telomeres using CAPTURE identifies known and new telomeric factors. In situ capture of individual constituents of the enhancer cluster controlling human β-globin ...


Fgf-Signaling Is Compartmentalized Within The Mesenchyme And Controls Proliferation During Salamander Limb Development, Sruthi Purushothaman, Ahmed Elewa, Ashley W. Seifert Sep 2019

Fgf-Signaling Is Compartmentalized Within The Mesenchyme And Controls Proliferation During Salamander Limb Development, Sruthi Purushothaman, Ahmed Elewa, Ashley W. Seifert

Biology Faculty Publications

Although decades of studies have produced a generalized model for tetrapod limb development, urodeles deviate from anurans and amniotes in at least two key respects: their limbs exhibit preaxial skeletal differentiation and do not develop an apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Here, we investigated how Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling regulate limb development in the axolotl. We found that Shh-expressing cells contributed to the most posterior digit, and that inhibiting Shh-signaling inhibited Fgf8 expression, anteroposterior patterning, and distal cell proliferation. In addition to lack of a morphological AER, we found that salamander limbs also lack a ...


Genetic Control Of A Central Pattern Generator: Rhythmic Oromotor Movement In Mice Is Controlled By A Major Locus Near Atp1a2, Steven J. St. John, John D. Boughter Jr, Megan K. Mulligan, Kenichi Tokita, Lu Lu, Detlef H. Heck, Robert W. Williams Sep 2019

Genetic Control Of A Central Pattern Generator: Rhythmic Oromotor Movement In Mice Is Controlled By A Major Locus Near Atp1a2, Steven J. St. John, John D. Boughter Jr, Megan K. Mulligan, Kenichi Tokita, Lu Lu, Detlef H. Heck, Robert W. Williams

Lu Lu

calreticulin, Animals, Chromosome Mapping, Mammalian Chromosomes, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Linkage, Genome-Wide Association Study. Inbred C57BL Mice, Inbred DBA Mice, Quantitative Trait Loci, Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics, Atp1a2 protein, Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase, feeding behavior, drinking behavior, mice, central pattern generator, genetic control


Altered Gating Of KV1.4 In The Nucleus Accumbens Suppresses Motivation For Reward, Bernadette O'Donovan, Adewale Adeluyi, Erin L Anderson, Robert D. Cole, Jill R. Turner, Pavel I. Ortinski Sep 2019

Altered Gating Of KV1.4 In The Nucleus Accumbens Suppresses Motivation For Reward, Bernadette O'Donovan, Adewale Adeluyi, Erin L Anderson, Robert D. Cole, Jill R. Turner, Pavel I. Ortinski

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Deficient motivation contributes to numerous psychiatric disorders, including withdrawal from drug use, depression, schizophrenia, and others. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in motivated behavior, but it remains unclear whether motivational drive is linked to discrete neurobiological mechanisms within the NAc. To examine this, we profiled cohorts of Sprague-Dawley rats in a test of motivation to consume sucrose. We found that substantial variability in willingness to exert effort for reward was not associated with operant responding under low-effort conditions or stress levels. Instead, effort-based motivation was mirrored by a divergent NAc shell transcriptome with differential regulation at potassium and dopamine ...


Advances In Gene Ontology Utilization Improve Statistical Power Of Annotation Enrichment, Eugene Waverly Hinderer Iii, Robert M. Flight, Rashmi Dubey, James N. Macleod, Hunter N. B. Moseley Aug 2019

Advances In Gene Ontology Utilization Improve Statistical Power Of Annotation Enrichment, Eugene Waverly Hinderer Iii, Robert M. Flight, Rashmi Dubey, James N. Macleod, Hunter N. B. Moseley

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Gene-annotation enrichment is a common method for utilizing ontology-based annotations in gene and gene-product centric knowledgebases. Effective utilization of these annotations requires inferring semantic linkages by tracing paths through edges in the ontological graph, referred to as relations. However, some relations are semantically problematic with respect to scope, necessitating their omission or modification lest erroneous term mappings occur. To address these issues, we created the Gene Ontology Categorization Suite, or GOcats—a novel tool that organizes the Gene Ontology into subgraphs representing user-defined concepts, while ensuring that all appropriate relations are congruent with respect to scoping semantics. Here, we demonstrate ...


Equine Arteritis Virus Long-Term Persistence Is Orchestrated By Cd8+ T Lymphocyte Transcription Factors, Inhibitory Receptors, And The Cxcl16/Cxcr6 Axis, Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, Alan T. Loynachan, Igor F. Canisso, R. Frank Cook, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya Jul 2019

Equine Arteritis Virus Long-Term Persistence Is Orchestrated By Cd8+ T Lymphocyte Transcription Factors, Inhibitory Receptors, And The Cxcl16/Cxcr6 Axis, Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, Alan T. Loynachan, Igor F. Canisso, R. Frank Cook, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the unique ability to establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and be sexually transmitted. Previous studies showed that long-term persistent infection is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene (CXCL16S) and that persistence is maintained despite the presence of local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we performed transcriptomic analysis of the ampullae, the primary site of EAV persistence in long-term EAV carrier stallions, to understand the molecular signatures of viral persistence. We demonstrated that the local CD8+ T lymphocyte response is predominantly orchestrated by the transcription ...


A Novel Rapamycin Analog Is Highly Selective For Mtorc1 In Vivo., Katherine H. Schreiber, Sebastian I. Arriola Apelo, Deyang Yu, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Michael C Velarde, Faizan A Syed, Chen-Yu Liao, Emma L. Baar, Kathryn A. Carbajal, Dawn S. Sherman, Denise Ortiz, Regina Brunauer, Shany E. Yang, Stelios T Tzannis, Brian K Kennedy, Dudley W Lamming Jul 2019

A Novel Rapamycin Analog Is Highly Selective For Mtorc1 In Vivo., Katherine H. Schreiber, Sebastian I. Arriola Apelo, Deyang Yu, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Michael C Velarde, Faizan A Syed, Chen-Yu Liao, Emma L. Baar, Kathryn A. Carbajal, Dawn S. Sherman, Denise Ortiz, Regina Brunauer, Shany E. Yang, Stelios T Tzannis, Brian K Kennedy, Dudley W Lamming

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Student Professional Publications

Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), extends lifespan and shows strong potential for the treatment of age-related diseases. However, rapamycin exerts metabolic and immunological side effects mediated by off-target inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTOR complex 2. Here, we report the identification of DL001, a FKBP12-dependent rapamycin analog 40x more selective for mTORC1 than rapamycin. DL001 inhibits mTORC1 in cell culture lines and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice, in which DL001 inhibits mTORC1 signaling without impairing glucose homeostasis and with substantially reduced or no side effects on lipid metabolism and the immune system ...


Phospholipases D: Making Sense Of Redundancy And Duplication, Andrew J. Morris Jun 2019

Phospholipases D: Making Sense Of Redundancy And Duplication, Andrew J. Morris

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Why have two genes when one would suffice? Evolutionary pressure means that biology, unlike government, is generally intolerant of wasted effort. Therefore, when multiple genes exist presumably they are there to provide some benefit to the organism even if that benefit is not immediately obvious to us scientists. A recent report from Raghu and colleagues (Biosci. Rep. (2018) 38, pii: BSR20181690) [1] sheds some light on one possible reason for the existence of two Phospholipases D genes in chordates when only one is present in invertebrates.


Preoperative Stimulation Of Resolution And Inflammation Blockade Eradicates Micrometastases., Dipak Panigrahy, Allison Gartung, Jun Yang, Haixia Yang, Molly M Gilligan, Megan L Sulciner, Swati S Bhasin, Diane R Bielenberg, Jaimie Chang, Birgitta A Schmidt, Julia Piwowarski, Anna Fishbein, Dulce Soler-Ferran, Matthew A Sparks, Steven J Staffa, Vidula Sukhatme, Bruce D Hammock, Mark W Kieran, Sui Huang, Manoj Bhasin, Charles N Serhan, Vikas P Sukhatme Jun 2019

Preoperative Stimulation Of Resolution And Inflammation Blockade Eradicates Micrometastases., Dipak Panigrahy, Allison Gartung, Jun Yang, Haixia Yang, Molly M Gilligan, Megan L Sulciner, Swati S Bhasin, Diane R Bielenberg, Jaimie Chang, Birgitta A Schmidt, Julia Piwowarski, Anna Fishbein, Dulce Soler-Ferran, Matthew A Sparks, Steven J Staffa, Vidula Sukhatme, Bruce D Hammock, Mark W Kieran, Sui Huang, Manoj Bhasin, Charles N Serhan, Vikas P Sukhatme

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Cancer therapy is a double-edged sword, as surgery and chemotherapy can induce an inflammatory/immunosuppressive injury response that promotes dormancy escape and tumor recurrence. We hypothesized that these events could be altered by early blockade of the inflammatory cascade and/or by accelerating the resolution of inflammation. Preoperative, but not postoperative, administration of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketorolac and/or resolvins, a family of specialized proresolving autacoid mediators, eliminated micrometastases in multiple tumor-resection models, resulting in long-term survival. Ketorolac unleashed anticancer T cell immunity that was augmented by immune checkpoint blockade, negated by adjuvant chemotherapy, and dependent on inhibition of ...


Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis Jun 2019

Xx Sex Chromosome Complement Promotes Atherosclerosis In Mice, Yasir Alsiraj, Xuqi Chen, Sean E. Thatcher, Ryan E. Temel, Lei Cai, Eric M. Blalock, Wendy Katz, Heba M. Ali, Michael C. Petriello, Pan Deng, Andrew J. Morris, Xuping Wang, Aldons J. Lusis, Arthur P. Arnold, Karen Reue, Katherine L. Thompson, Patrick Tso, Lisa A. Cassis

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating ...


Cyclin C Regulated Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcriptome In Mus Musculus Embryonic Fibroblasts, David C Stieg, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich Jun 2019

Cyclin C Regulated Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcriptome In Mus Musculus Embryonic Fibroblasts, David C Stieg, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The transcriptional changes that occur in response to oxidative stress help direct the decision to maintain cell viability or enter a cell death pathway. Cyclin C-Cdk8 is a conserved kinase that associates with the RNA polymerase II Mediator complex that stimulates or represses transcription depending on the locus. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, displays partial translocation into the cytoplasm. These findings open the possibility that cyclin C relocalization is a regulatory mechanism governing oxidative stress-induced transcriptional changes. In the present study, the cyclin C-dependent transcriptome was determined and compared to transcriptional changes occurring in oxidatively ...


Systematic Review Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Horses From Australia, Muhammad A. Saeed, Ian Beveridge, Ghazanfar Abbas, Anne Beasley, Jenni Bauquier, Edwina Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Kris J. Hughes, Charles El-Hage, Ryan O'Handley, John Hurley, Lucy Cudmore, Peter Carrigan, Lisa Walter, Brett Tennent-Brown, Martin K. Nielsen, Abdul Jabbar Apr 2019

Systematic Review Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Horses From Australia, Muhammad A. Saeed, Ian Beveridge, Ghazanfar Abbas, Anne Beasley, Jenni Bauquier, Edwina Wilkes, Caroline Jacobson, Kris J. Hughes, Charles El-Hage, Ryan O'Handley, John Hurley, Lucy Cudmore, Peter Carrigan, Lisa Walter, Brett Tennent-Brown, Martin K. Nielsen, Abdul Jabbar

Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Equine gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) have been the subject of intermittent studies in Australia over the past few decades. However, comprehensive information on the epidemiology of equine GINs, the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in Australasia is lacking. Herein, we have systematically reviewed existing knowledge on the horse GINs recorded in Australia, and main aspects of their pathogeneses, epidemiology, diagnoses, treatment and control.

Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for publications on GINs of Australian horses that met our inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Subsets of publications were subjected to review epidemiology ...