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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Single Mechanism Of Biogenesis, Initiated And Directed By Piwi Proteins, Explains Pirna Production In Most Animals, Phillip D. Zamore, Ildar Gainetdinov, Cansu Colpan, Katharine Cecchini Apr 2018

A Single Mechanism Of Biogenesis, Initiated And Directed By Piwi Proteins, Explains Pirna Production In Most Animals, Phillip D. Zamore, Ildar Gainetdinov, Cansu Colpan, Katharine Cecchini

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In animals, piRNAs guide PIWI-proteins to silence transposons and regulate gene expression. The mechanisms for making piRNAs have been proposed to differ among cell types, tissues, and animals. Our data instead suggest a single model that explains piRNA production in most animals. piRNAs initiate piRNA production by guiding PIWI proteins to slice precursor transcripts. Next, PIWI proteins direct the stepwise fragmentation of the sliced precursor transcripts, yielding tail-to-head strings of phased pre-piRNAs. Our analyses detect evidence for this piRNA biogenesis strategy across an evolutionarily broad range of animals including humans. Thus, PIWI proteins initiate and sustain piRNA biogenesis by the ...


Helping Farmers And Reducing Car Crashes: The Surprising Benefits Of Predators, Christopher O'Bryan, Eve Mcdonald-Madden, James Watson, Neil Carter Apr 2018

Helping Farmers And Reducing Car Crashes: The Surprising Benefits Of Predators, Christopher O'Bryan, Eve Mcdonald-Madden, James Watson, Neil Carter

Human-Environment Systems Research Center Faculty Publications and Presentations

Humans may be Earth’s apex predator, but the fleeting shadow of a vulture or the glimpse of a big cat can cause instinctive fear and disdain. But new evidence suggests that predators and scavengers are much more beneficial to humans than commonly believed, and that their loss may have greater consequences than we have imagined.


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Systematic Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis Of Candida Albicans Transcription Factors: Tools And Applications To Virulence-Associated Phenotypes, Virginia E. Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A. Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J. Krysan Mar 2018

Systematic Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis Of Candida Albicans Transcription Factors: Tools And Applications To Virulence-Associated Phenotypes, Virginia E. Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A. Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J. Krysan

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Genetic interaction analysis is a powerful approach to the study of complex biological processes that are dependent on multiple genes. Because of the largely diploid nature of the human fungal pathogen


Advancing Behavioural Genomics By Considering Timescale, Clare C. Rittschof, Kimberly A. Hughes Feb 2018

Advancing Behavioural Genomics By Considering Timescale, Clare C. Rittschof, Kimberly A. Hughes

Entomology Faculty Publications

Animal behavioural traits often covary with gene expression, pointing towards a genomic constraint on organismal responses to environmental cues. This pattern highlights a gap in our understanding of the time course of environmentally responsive gene expression, and moreover, how these dynamics are regulated. Advances in behavioural genomics explore how gene expression dynamics are correlated with behavioural traits that range from stable to highly labile. We consider the idea that certain genomic regulatory mechanisms may predict the timescale of an environmental effect on behaviour. This temporally minded approach could inform both organismal and evolutionary questions ranging from the remediation of early ...


Selection Of Housekeeping Genes And Demonstration Of Rnai In Cotton Leafhopper, Amrasca Biguttula Biguttula (Ishida), Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli Jan 2018

Selection Of Housekeeping Genes And Demonstration Of Rnai In Cotton Leafhopper, Amrasca Biguttula Biguttula (Ishida), Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) commonly known as cotton leafhopper is a severe pest of cotton and okra. Not much is known on this insect at molecular level due to lack of genomic and transcriptomic data. To prepare for functional genomic studies in this insect, we evaluated 15 common housekeeping genes (Tub, B-Tub, EF alpha, GADPH, UbiCF, RP13, Ubiq, G3PD, VATPase, Actin, 18s, 28s, TATA, ETF, SOD and Cytolytic actin) during different developmental stages and under starvation stress. We selected early (1st and 2nd), late (3rd and 4th) stage nymphs and adults for identification of stable housekeeping ...


Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley Jan 2018

Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley

Animal Sentience

Peña-Guzmán’s depiction of the opponent of animal suicide as a conservative is a straw man. It is possible to accept that animals are self-conscious and reflexive yet still reject the view that they have the mental wherewithal to commit run-of-the-mill suicide. That animal behaviour can be positioned on a continuum of self-destructive behaviour does not establish that animals can intentionally kill themselves.


Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields Dec 2017

Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Development of approaches to genetically manipulate Chlamydia is fostering important advances in understanding pathogenesis. Fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) now enables the complete deletion of specific genes in C. trachomatis L2. We have leveraged this technology to delete the coding sequences for a known type III effector. The evidence provided here indicates that CT694/CTL0063 is a virulence protein involved in chlamydial invasion. Based on our findings, we designate the gene product corresponding to ct694-ctl0063 translocated membrane-associated effector A (TmeA). Deletion of tmeA did not impact development of intracellular chlamydiae. However, the absence of TmeA manifested as a decrease in ...


The Toxicity Of Nanoparticles Depends On Multiple Molecular And Physicochemical Mechanisms, Yue-Wern Huang, Melissa Cambre, Han-Jung Lee Dec 2017

The Toxicity Of Nanoparticles Depends On Multiple Molecular And Physicochemical Mechanisms, Yue-Wern Huang, Melissa Cambre, Han-Jung Lee

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic biological principles. In this review, we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and ...


Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe Nov 2017

Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe

Journal Articles and Abstracts

BACKGROUND: While age and the APOE ε4 allele are major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a small percentage of individuals with these risk factors exhibit AD resilience by living well beyond 75 years of age without any clinical symptoms of cognitive decline.

METHODS: We used over 200 "AD resilient" individuals and an innovative, pedigree-based approach to identify genetic variants that segregate with AD resilience. First, we performed linkage analyses in pedigrees with resilient individuals and a statistical excess of AD deaths. Second, we used whole genome sequences to identify candidate SNPs in significant linkage regions. Third, we replicated ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy Oct 2017

The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding ...


The Effect Of The "Onco-Mouse" Decisions On The Exception To Patentability For "Animal Varieties" Under The European Patent Convention, Katrina Mcclatchey Sep 2017

The Effect Of The "Onco-Mouse" Decisions On The Exception To Patentability For "Animal Varieties" Under The European Patent Convention, Katrina Mcclatchey

Oklahoma Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Pituitary Genomic Expression Profiles Of Steers Are Altered By Grazing Of High Vs. Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Forages, Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J. Bridges, James C. Matthews Sep 2017

Pituitary Genomic Expression Profiles Of Steers Are Altered By Grazing Of High Vs. Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Forages, Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J. Bridges, James C. Matthews

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Consumption of ergot alkaloid-containing tall fescue grass impairs several metabolic, vascular, growth, and reproductive processes in cattle, collectively producing a clinical condition known as “fescue toxicosis.” Despite the apparent association between pituitary function and these physiological parameters, including depressed serum prolactin; no reports describe the effect of fescue toxicosis on pituitary genomic expression profiles. To identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, we compared the global and selected targeted mRNA expression patterns of pituitaries collected from beef steers that had been randomly assigned to undergo summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a high-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ...


Investigation Of The Safety Of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening In A Natural Canine Model Of Aging, Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony P. Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen Aug 2017

Investigation Of The Safety Of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening In A Natural Canine Model Of Aging, Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony P. Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Rationale: Ultrasound-mediated opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier(BBB) has shown exciting potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Studies in transgenic mouse models have shown that this approach can reduce plaque pathology and improve spatial memory. Before clinical translation can occur the safety of the method needs to be tested in a larger brain that allows lower frequencies be used to treat larger tissue volumes, simulating clinical situations. Here we investigate the safety of opening the BBB in half of the brain in a large aged animal model with naturally occurring amyloid deposits.

Methods: Aged dogs naturally accumulate ...


Phytoplasma Infection Of A Tropical Root Crop Triggers Bottom-Up Cascades By Favoring Generalist Over Specialist Herbivores, Kris A. G. Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter Aug 2017

Phytoplasma Infection Of A Tropical Root Crop Triggers Bottom-Up Cascades By Favoring Generalist Over Specialist Herbivores, Kris A. G. Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter

Entomology Faculty Publications

Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches’ broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans. We conducted observational studies in cassava fields in eastern Cambodia to assess the ...


Genetic Divergence Of Influenza A(H3n2) Amino Acid Substitutions Mark The Beginning Of The 2016-2017 Winter Season In Israel, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Yaron Drori, Sharon Beni, Nehemya Friedman, Rakefet Pando, Hanna Sefty, Ilana Tal, John Mccauley, Galia Rahav, Nathan Keller, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim Aug 2017

Genetic Divergence Of Influenza A(H3n2) Amino Acid Substitutions Mark The Beginning Of The 2016-2017 Winter Season In Israel, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Yaron Drori, Sharon Beni, Nehemya Friedman, Rakefet Pando, Hanna Sefty, Ilana Tal, John Mccauley, Galia Rahav, Nathan Keller, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim

NYMC Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine composition is reevaluated each year due to the frequency and accumulation of genetic changes that influenza viruses undergo. The beginning of the 2016-2017 influenza surveillance period in Israel has been marked by the dominance of influenza A(H3N2).

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the type, subtype, genetic evolution and amino acid substitutions of influenza A(H3N2) viruses detected among community patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with respiratory illness in the first weeks of the 2016-2017 influenza season.

STUDY DESIGN: Respiratory samples from community patients with influenza-like illness and from hospitalized patients underwent identification, subtyping and molecular ...


Consequences Of Severe Habitat Fragmentation On Density, Genetics, And Spatial Capture-Recapture Analysis Of A Small Bear Population, Sean Mccarthy Murphy, Ben C. Augustine, Wade Allen Ulrey, Joseph Maddox Guthrie, Brian K Scheick, J. Walter Mccown, John J. Cox Jul 2017

Consequences Of Severe Habitat Fragmentation On Density, Genetics, And Spatial Capture-Recapture Analysis Of A Small Bear Population, Sean Mccarthy Murphy, Ben C. Augustine, Wade Allen Ulrey, Joseph Maddox Guthrie, Brian K Scheick, J. Walter Mccown, John J. Cox

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats caused by human land uses have subdivided several formerly contiguous large carnivore populations into multiple small and often isolated subpopulations, which can reduce genetic variation and lead to precipitous population declines. Substantial habitat loss and fragmentation from urban development and agriculture expansion relegated the Highlands-Glades subpopulation (HGS) of Florida, USA, black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) to prolonged isolation; increasing human land development is projected to cause ≥ 50% loss of remaining natural habitats occupied by the HGS in coming decades. We conducted a noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture study to quantitatively describe the degree of contemporary ...


Nlrp9b Inflammasome Restricts Rotavirus Infection In Intestinal Epithelial Cells, Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah Palm, Richard Flavell Jun 2017

Nlrp9b Inflammasome Restricts Rotavirus Infection In Intestinal Epithelial Cells, Shu Zhu, Siyuan Ding, Penghua Wang, Zheng Wei, Wen Pan, Noah Palm, Richard Flavell

NYMC Faculty Publications

Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection ...


Cib2 Interacts With Tmc1 And Tmc2 And Is Essential For Mechanotransduction In Auditory Hair Cells, Arnaud P. J. Giese, Yi-Quan Tang, Ghanshyam P. Sinha, Michael R. Bowl, Adam C. Goldring, Andrew Parker, Mary J. Freeman, Steve D. M. Brown, Saima Riazuddin, Robert Fettiplace, William R. Schafer, Gregory I. Frolenkov, Zubair M. Ahmed Jun 2017

Cib2 Interacts With Tmc1 And Tmc2 And Is Essential For Mechanotransduction In Auditory Hair Cells, Arnaud P. J. Giese, Yi-Quan Tang, Ghanshyam P. Sinha, Michael R. Bowl, Adam C. Goldring, Andrew Parker, Mary J. Freeman, Steve D. M. Brown, Saima Riazuddin, Robert Fettiplace, William R. Schafer, Gregory I. Frolenkov, Zubair M. Ahmed

Physiology Faculty Publications

Inner ear hair cells detect sound through deflection of stereocilia, the microvilli-like projections that are arranged in rows of graded heights. Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 is essential for hearing and localizes to stereocilia, but its exact function is unknown. Here, we have characterized two mutant mouse lines, one lacking calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 and one carrying a human deafness-related Cib2 mutation, and show that both are deaf and exhibit no mechanotransduction in auditory hair cells, despite the presence of tip links that gate the mechanotransducer channels. In addition, mechanotransducing shorter row stereocilia overgrow in hair cell bundles of ...


The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg Jun 2017

The Glia Response After Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Comparison Between Schwann Cells And Olfactory Ensheathing Cells And Their Uses For Neural Regenerative Therapies, Matthew J Barton, James St John, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg

Jenny Ekberg

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS. There are two key types of PNS glia: olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), which populate the olfactory ...


Bcl11b And Combinatorial Resolution Of Cell Fate In The T-Cell Gene Regulatory Network., William J R Longabaugh, Weihua Zeng, Jingli A Zhang, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Camden S Jansen, Long Li, Maile Romero-Wolf, Pentao Liu, Hao Yuan Kueh, Ali Mortazavi, Ellen V Rothenberg Jun 2017

Bcl11b And Combinatorial Resolution Of Cell Fate In The T-Cell Gene Regulatory Network., William J R Longabaugh, Weihua Zeng, Jingli A Zhang, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Camden S Jansen, Long Li, Maile Romero-Wolf, Pentao Liu, Hao Yuan Kueh, Ali Mortazavi, Ellen V Rothenberg

Journal Articles and Abstracts

T-cell development from hematopoietic progenitors depends on multiple transcription factors, mobilized and modulated by intrathymic Notch signaling. Key aspects of T-cell specification network architecture have been illuminated through recent reports defining roles of transcription factors PU.1, GATA-3, and E2A, their interactions with Notch signaling, and roles of Runx1, TCF-1, and Hes1, providing bases for a comprehensively updated model of the T-cell specification gene regulatory network presented herein. However, the role of lineage commitment factor Bcl11b has been unclear. We use self-organizing maps on 63 RNA-seq datasets from normal and perturbed T-cell development to identify functional targets of Bcl11b during ...


Variation In Dna Methylation Is Not Consistently Reflected By Sociality In Hymenoptera, Karl M. Glastad, Samuel V. Arsenault, Kim L. Vertacnik, Scott M. Geib, Sasha Kay, Bryan N. Danforth, Sandra M. Rehan, Catherine R. Linnen, Sarah D. Kocher, Brendan G. Hunt Jun 2017

Variation In Dna Methylation Is Not Consistently Reflected By Sociality In Hymenoptera, Karl M. Glastad, Samuel V. Arsenault, Kim L. Vertacnik, Scott M. Geib, Sasha Kay, Bryan N. Danforth, Sandra M. Rehan, Catherine R. Linnen, Sarah D. Kocher, Brendan G. Hunt

Biology Faculty Publications

Changes in gene regulation that underlie phenotypic evolution can be encoded directly in the DNA sequence or mediated by chromatin modifications such as DNA methylation. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of eusocial division of labor is associated with enhanced gene regulatory potential, which may include expansions in DNA methylation in the genomes of Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, and sawflies). Recently, this hypothesis garnered support from analyses of a commonly used metric to estimate DNA methylation in silico, CpG content. Here, we test this hypothesis using direct, nucleotide-level measures of DNA methylation across nine species of Hymenoptera. In doing ...


A Comparison Of Nucleosome Organization In Drosophila Cell Lines, Rebecca L. Martin, John Maiorano, Greg J. Beitel, John F. Marko, Graham Mcvicker, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf Jun 2017

A Comparison Of Nucleosome Organization In Drosophila Cell Lines, Rebecca L. Martin, John Maiorano, Greg J. Beitel, John F. Marko, Graham Mcvicker, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Changes in the distribution of nucleosomes along the genome influence chromatin structure and impact gene expression by modulating the accessibility of DNA to transcriptional machinery. However, the role of genome-wide nucleosome positioning in gene expression and in maintaining differentiated cell states remains poorly understood. Drosophila melanogastercell lines represent distinct tissue types and exhibit cell-type specific gene expression profiles. They thus could provide a useful tool for investigating cell-type specific nucleosome organization of an organism’s genome. To evaluate this possibility, we compared genome-wide nucleosome positioning and occupancy in five different Drosophila tissue-specific cell lines, and in reconstituted chromatin, and ...


Single-Trait And Multi-Trait Genome-Wide Association Analyses Identify Novel Loci For Blood Pressure In African-Ancestry Populations, Jingjing Liang, Thu H. Le, Digna R. Velez Edwards, Bamidele O. Tayo, Kyle J. Gaulton, Jennifer A. Smith, Yingchang Lu, Richard A. Jensen, Guanjie Chen, Lisa R. Yanek, Karen Schwander, Salman M. Tajuddin, Tamar Sofer, Wonji Kim, James Kayima, Colin A. Mckenzie, Ervin Fox, Michael A. Nalls, J. Hunter Young, Yan V. Sun, Jacqueline M. Lane, Sylvia Cechova, Jie Zhou, Hua Tang, Myriam Fornage, Solomon K. Musani, Heming Wang, Juyoung Lee, Adebowale Adeyemo, Albert W. Dreisbach, Donna K. Arnett May 2017

Single-Trait And Multi-Trait Genome-Wide Association Analyses Identify Novel Loci For Blood Pressure In African-Ancestry Populations, Jingjing Liang, Thu H. Le, Digna R. Velez Edwards, Bamidele O. Tayo, Kyle J. Gaulton, Jennifer A. Smith, Yingchang Lu, Richard A. Jensen, Guanjie Chen, Lisa R. Yanek, Karen Schwander, Salman M. Tajuddin, Tamar Sofer, Wonji Kim, James Kayima, Colin A. Mckenzie, Ervin Fox, Michael A. Nalls, J. Hunter Young, Yan V. Sun, Jacqueline M. Lane, Sylvia Cechova, Jie Zhou, Hua Tang, Myriam Fornage, Solomon K. Musani, Heming Wang, Juyoung Lee, Adebowale Adeyemo, Albert W. Dreisbach, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10−8) for either systolic ...


Impact Of Sublethal Exposure To A Pyrethroid-Neonicotinoid Insecticide On Mating, Fecundity And Development In The Bed Bug Cimex Lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), Sydney E. Crawley, Jennifer R. Gordon, Katelyn A. Kowles, Michael F. Potter, Kenneth F. Haynes May 2017

Impact Of Sublethal Exposure To A Pyrethroid-Neonicotinoid Insecticide On Mating, Fecundity And Development In The Bed Bug Cimex Lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), Sydney E. Crawley, Jennifer R. Gordon, Katelyn A. Kowles, Michael F. Potter, Kenneth F. Haynes

Entomology Faculty Publications

Sublethal exposure to an insecticide may alter insect feeding, mating, oviposition, fecundity, development, and many other life history parameters. Such effects may have population-level consequences that are not apparent in traditional dose-mortality evaluations. Earlier, we found that a routinely used combination insecticide that includes a pyrethroid and a neonicotinoid (Temprid® SC) had deleterious effects on multiple bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that sublethal exposure impacts physiology and reproduction as well. We report that sublethal exposure to Temprid SC has variable aberrant effects on bed bugs depending on the strain, including: a reduction in male mating success ...


Hibernator And Non-Hibernator Responses To Acute Changes In Water Intake, Sydni S. Andruskiewicz May 2017

Hibernator And Non-Hibernator Responses To Acute Changes In Water Intake, Sydni S. Andruskiewicz

All College Thesis Program, 2016-present

Hibernating animals undergo dramatic changes in metabolic rates during torpor. One of most notable changes in these animals is the ability to maintain blood pressure and perfuse certain organs. Consequentially, blood perfusion to the kidneys is greatly decreased and the ability to concentrate urine halts. However, about once a week, torpor is interrupted and the animal becomes active to rewarm itself about once a week. This activity induces rapid regeneration of the extracellular osmotic gradient of the kidney, and allows urine to be concentrated. Nonetheless, regaining the extracellular osmotic gradient creates a potentially fatal consequence to the kidney cells. To ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporters In The Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci, Lixia Tian, Tianxue Song, Rongjun He, Yang Zeng, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang Apr 2017

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporters In The Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci, Lixia Tian, Tianxue Song, Rongjun He, Yang Zeng, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang

Entomology Faculty Publications

Background: ABC transporter superfamily is one of the largest and ubiquitous groups of proteins. Because of their role in detoxification, insect ABC transporters have gained more attention in recent years. In this study, we annotated ABC transporters from a newly sequenced sweetpotato whitefly genome. Bemisia tabaci Q biotype is an emerging global invasive species that has caused extensive damages to field crops as well as ornamental plants.

Results: A total of 55 ABC transporters containing all eight described subfamilies (A to H) were identified in the B. tabaci Q genome, including 8 ABCAs, 3 ABCBs, 6 ABCCs, 2 ABCDs, 1 ...


Constitutive Activation Of Kappa Opioid Receptors At Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibitory Synapses Following Acute Stress., Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Rudy W Chen, Paige M Dingess, Nicholas M Graziane, Travis E Brown, Julie A Kauer Apr 2017

Constitutive Activation Of Kappa Opioid Receptors At Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibitory Synapses Following Acute Stress., Abigail M Polter, Kelsey Barcomb, Rudy W Chen, Paige M Dingess, Nicholas M Graziane, Travis E Brown, Julie A Kauer

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Stressful experiences potently activate kappa opioid receptors (κORs). κORs in the ventral tegmental area regulate multiple aspects of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cell function. Here we show that at GABAergic synapses on rat VTA dopamine neurons, a single exposure to a brief cold-water swim stress induces prolonged activation of κORs. This is mediated by activation of the receptor during the stressor followed by a persistent, ligand-independent constitutive activation of the κOR itself. This lasting change in function is not seen at κORs at neighboring excitatory synapses, suggesting distinct time courses and mechanisms of regulation of different subsets of κORs. We also ...


Retention Of Normal Glia Function By An Isoform-Selective Protein Kinase Inhibitor Drug Candidate That Modulates Cytokine Production And Cognitive Outcomes, Zhengqiu Zhou, Adam D. Bachstetter, Claudia B. Späni, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Linda J. Van Eldik Apr 2017

Retention Of Normal Glia Function By An Isoform-Selective Protein Kinase Inhibitor Drug Candidate That Modulates Cytokine Production And Cognitive Outcomes, Zhengqiu Zhou, Adam D. Bachstetter, Claudia B. Späni, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Linda J. Van Eldik

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Background: Brain p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a potential therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunction based on the neuroinflammation-synaptic dysfunction cycle of pathophysiology progression, offers an innovative pharmacological strategy via inhibiting the same activated target in both glia and neurons, thereby enhancing the possibility for efficacy. The highly selective, brain-penetrant p38αMAPK inhibitor MW150 attenuates cognitive dysfunction in two distinct Alzheimer's disease (AD)-relevant models and avoids the problems encountered with previous mixed-kinase inhibitor drug candidates. Therefore, it is essential that the glial effects of this CNS-active kinase inhibitor be addressed in order to anticipate future use in clinical investigations.

Methods ...