Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animals

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1123

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Lineage Marker Synchrony In Hematopoietic Genealogies Refutes The Pu.1/Gata1 Toggle Switch Paradigm., Michael K Strasser, Philipp S Hoppe, Dirk Loeffler, Konstantinos D Kokkaliaris, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr Jul 2018

Lineage Marker Synchrony In Hematopoietic Genealogies Refutes The Pu.1/Gata1 Toggle Switch Paradigm., Michael K Strasser, Philipp S Hoppe, Dirk Loeffler, Konstantinos D Kokkaliaris, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Molecular regulation of cell fate decisions underlies health and disease. To identify molecules that are active or regulated during a decision, and not before or after, the decision time point is crucial. However, cell fate markers are usually delayed and the time of decision therefore unknown. Fortunately, dividing cells induce temporal correlations in their progeny, which allow for retrospective inference of the decision time point. We present a computational method to infer decision time points from correlated marker signals in genealogies and apply it to differentiating hematopoietic stem cells. We find that myeloid lineage decisions happen generations before lineage marker ...


Molecular Gut Content Analysis Of Different Spider Body Parts, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Kacie J. Athey, Vanina Tonzo, Owen S. Wangensteen, Miquel Arnedo, James D Harwood May 2018

Molecular Gut Content Analysis Of Different Spider Body Parts, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Kacie J. Athey, Vanina Tonzo, Owen S. Wangensteen, Miquel Arnedo, James D Harwood

Entomology Faculty Publications

Molecular gut-content analysis has revolutionized the study of food webs and feeding interactions, allowing the detection of prey DNA within the gut of many organisms. However, successful prey detection is a challenging procedure in which many factors affect every step, starting from the DNA extraction process. Spiders are liquid feeders with branched gut diverticula extending into their legs and throughout the prosoma, thus digestion takes places in different parts of the body and simple gut dissection is not possible. In this study, we investigated differences in prey detectability in DNA extracts from different parts of the spider´s body: legs ...


In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian May 2018

In Vivo And In Vitro Studies Of Cry5b And Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist Anthelmintics Reveal A Powerful And Unique Combination Therapy Against Intestinal Nematode Parasites, Yan Hu, Melanie Miller, Bo Zhang, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Martin K. Nielsen, Raffi V. Aroian

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs) or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms) infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define ...


Expression, Purification, And Inhibition Profile Of Dihydrofolate Reductase From The Filarial Nematode Wuchereria Bancrofti, Andrew M. Tobias, Dea Toska, Keith Lange, Tyler Eck, Rohit Bhat, Cheryl A. Janson, David P. Rotella, Ueli Gubler, Nina M. Goodey May 2018

Expression, Purification, And Inhibition Profile Of Dihydrofolate Reductase From The Filarial Nematode Wuchereria Bancrofti, Andrew M. Tobias, Dea Toska, Keith Lange, Tyler Eck, Rohit Bhat, Cheryl A. Janson, David P. Rotella, Ueli Gubler, Nina M. Goodey

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Filariasis is a tropical disease caused by the parasitic nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Known inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) have been previously shown to kill Brugia malayi nematodes and to inhibit Brugia malayi DHFR (BmDHFR) at nanomolar concentrations. These data suggest that BmDHFR is a potential target for the treatment of filariasis. Here, protocols for cloning, expression and purification of Wuchereria bancrofti DHFR (WbDHFR) were developed. The Uniprot entry J9F199-1 predicts a 172 amino acid protein for WbDHFR but alignment of this sequence to the previously described BmDHFR shows that this WbDHFR sequence lacks a crucial, conserved 13 ...


A Single Mechanism Of Biogenesis, Initiated And Directed By Piwi Proteins, Explains Pirna Production In Most Animals, Phillip D. Zamore, Ildar Gainetdinov, Cansu Colpan, Katharine Cecchini Apr 2018

A Single Mechanism Of Biogenesis, Initiated And Directed By Piwi Proteins, Explains Pirna Production In Most Animals, Phillip D. Zamore, Ildar Gainetdinov, Cansu Colpan, Katharine Cecchini

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In animals, piRNAs guide PIWI-proteins to silence transposons and regulate gene expression. The mechanisms for making piRNAs have been proposed to differ among cell types, tissues, and animals. Our data instead suggest a single model that explains piRNA production in most animals. piRNAs initiate piRNA production by guiding PIWI proteins to slice precursor transcripts. Next, PIWI proteins direct the stepwise fragmentation of the sliced precursor transcripts, yielding tail-to-head strings of phased pre-piRNAs. Our analyses detect evidence for this piRNA biogenesis strategy across an evolutionarily broad range of animals including humans. Thus, PIWI proteins initiate and sustain piRNA biogenesis by the ...


Helping Farmers And Reducing Car Crashes: The Surprising Benefits Of Predators, Christopher O'Bryan, Eve Mcdonald-Madden, James Watson, Neil Carter Apr 2018

Helping Farmers And Reducing Car Crashes: The Surprising Benefits Of Predators, Christopher O'Bryan, Eve Mcdonald-Madden, James Watson, Neil Carter

Human-Environment Systems Research Center Faculty Publications and Presentations

Humans may be Earth’s apex predator, but the fleeting shadow of a vulture or the glimpse of a big cat can cause instinctive fear and disdain. But new evidence suggests that predators and scavengers are much more beneficial to humans than commonly believed, and that their loss may have greater consequences than we have imagined.


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Bilateral Carotid Artery Stenosis Causes Unexpected Early Changes In Brain Extracellular Matrix And Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In Mice, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Gregory J. Bix Apr 2018

Bilateral Carotid Artery Stenosis Causes Unexpected Early Changes In Brain Extracellular Matrix And Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity In Mice, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Gregory J. Bix

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) is one experimental model of vascular dementia thought to preferentially impact brain white matter. Indeed, few studies report hippocampal and cortical pathology prior to 30 days post-stenosis; though it is unclear whether those studies examined regions outside the white matter. Since changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability precede more overt brain pathology in various diseases, we hypothesized that changes within the BBB and/or BBB-associated extracellular matrix (ECM) could occur earlier after BCAS in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum and be a precursor of longer term pathology. Here, C57Bl/6 mice underwent BCAS or ...


Systematic Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis Of Candida Albicans Transcription Factors: Tools And Applications To Virulence-Associated Phenotypes, Virginia E. Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A. Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J. Krysan Mar 2018

Systematic Complex Haploinsufficiency-Based Genetic Analysis Of Candida Albicans Transcription Factors: Tools And Applications To Virulence-Associated Phenotypes, Virginia E. Glazier, Thomas Murante, Kristy Koselny, Daniel Murante, Marisol Esqueda, Gina A. Wall, Melanie Wellington, Chiung-Yu Hung, Anuj Kumar, Damian J. Krysan

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Genetic interaction analysis is a powerful approach to the study of complex biological processes that are dependent on multiple genes. Because of the largely diploid nature of the human fungal pathogen


Morphogenetic Defects Underlie Superior Coloboma, A Newly Identified Closure Disorder Of The Dorsal Eye, Jennifer C. Hocking, Jakub K. Famulski, Kevin H. Yoon, Sonya A. Widen, Cassidy S. Bernstein, Sophie Koch, Omri Weiss, Forge Canada Consortium, Canada, Seema Agarwala, Adi Inbal, Ordan J. Lehmann, Andrew J. Waskiewicz Mar 2018

Morphogenetic Defects Underlie Superior Coloboma, A Newly Identified Closure Disorder Of The Dorsal Eye, Jennifer C. Hocking, Jakub K. Famulski, Kevin H. Yoon, Sonya A. Widen, Cassidy S. Bernstein, Sophie Koch, Omri Weiss, Forge Canada Consortium, Canada, Seema Agarwala, Adi Inbal, Ordan J. Lehmann, Andrew J. Waskiewicz

Biology Faculty Publications

The eye primordium arises as a lateral outgrowth of the forebrain, with a transient fissure on the inferior side of the optic cup providing an entry point for developing blood vessels. Incomplete closure of the inferior ocular fissure results in coloboma, a disease characterized by gaps in the inferior eye and recognized as a significant cause of pediatric blindness. Here, we identify eight patients with defects in tissues of the superior eye, a congenital disorder that we term superior coloboma. The embryonic origin of superior coloboma could not be explained by conventional models of eye development, leading us to reanalyze ...


Protection Effect Of Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 On The Kidney Injury In Vascular Calcification Rats, Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu Mar 2018

Protection Effect Of Exogenous Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 On The Kidney Injury In Vascular Calcification Rats, Yu-Chen Shi, Wei-Wei Lu, Yue-Long Hou, Kun Fu, Feng Gan, Shu-Juan Cheng, Shao-Ping Wang, Yong-Fen Qi, Jing-Hua Liu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is closely related to the cardiovascular events in vascular calcification (VC). However, little has known about the characteristics of kidney injury caused by VC. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine factor, which takes part in various metabolic actions with the potential to alleviate metabolic disorder diseases. Even FGF21 has been regarded as a biomarker in CKD, the role of FGF21 in CKD remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the FGF21 on the kidney injury in VC rats.

Methods: The male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: (1) control group, (2 ...


Advancing Behavioural Genomics By Considering Timescale, Clare C. Rittschof, Kimberly A. Hughes Feb 2018

Advancing Behavioural Genomics By Considering Timescale, Clare C. Rittschof, Kimberly A. Hughes

Entomology Faculty Publications

Animal behavioural traits often covary with gene expression, pointing towards a genomic constraint on organismal responses to environmental cues. This pattern highlights a gap in our understanding of the time course of environmentally responsive gene expression, and moreover, how these dynamics are regulated. Advances in behavioural genomics explore how gene expression dynamics are correlated with behavioural traits that range from stable to highly labile. We consider the idea that certain genomic regulatory mechanisms may predict the timescale of an environmental effect on behaviour. This temporally minded approach could inform both organismal and evolutionary questions ranging from the remediation of early ...


Effects Of Six Common Dietary Nutrients On Murine Intestinal Organoid Growth, Tenson Cai, Yijun Qi, Albert Jergens, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence A. Barrett, Qun Wang Feb 2018

Effects Of Six Common Dietary Nutrients On Murine Intestinal Organoid Growth, Tenson Cai, Yijun Qi, Albert Jergens, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence A. Barrett, Qun Wang

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

The intestinal epithelium of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract constantly renews itself to absorb nutrients and provide protection for the body from the outside world. Since the intestinal epithelium is constantly exposed to various chemicals and dietary components, it is critical to determine which constituents promote or inhibit intestinal epithelium health and growth rate. Intestinal organoids, three-dimensional miniature models of the intestines, represent an ex vivo tool to investigate intestinal physiology and growth patterns. In this study, we measured the growth rates of murine intestinal organoids exposed to various concentrations of different dietary constituents. Results indicate that caffeic acid inhibited organoid ...


Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu Jan 2018

Kruppel-Like Factor 4-Dependent Staufen1-Mediated Mrna Decay Regulates Cortical Neurogenesis, Byoung-San Moon, Jinlun Bai, Mingyang Cai, Chunming Liu, Jiandang Shi, Wange Lu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a zinc-finger-containing protein that plays a critical role in diverse cellular physiology. While most of these functions attribute to its role as a transcription factor, it is postulated that Klf4 may play a role other than transcriptional regulation. Here we demonstrate that Klf4 loss in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) leads to increased neurogenesis and reduced self-renewal in mice. In addition, Klf4 interacts with RNA-binding protein Staufen1 (Stau1) and RNA helicase Ddx5/17. They function together as a complex to maintain NPC self-renewal. We report that Klf4 promotes Stau1 recruitment to the 3′-untranslated region of ...


Creb-Binding Protein Plays Key Roles In Juvenile Hormone Action In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Jingjing Xu, Amit Roy, Subba Reddy Palli Jan 2018

Creb-Binding Protein Plays Key Roles In Juvenile Hormone Action In The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Jingjing Xu, Amit Roy, Subba Reddy Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids regulate many biological and metabolic processes. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Therefore, CBP is involved in activation of many transcription factors that regulate expression of genes associated with postembryonic development in insects. However, the function of CBP in JH action in insects is not well understood. Hence, we studied the role of CBP in JH action in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and the Tribolium cell line. CBP knockdown caused a decrease in JH induction of genes, Kr-h1, 4EBP and G13402 in T. castaneum larvae, adults and ...


Highly Conserved Molecular Pathways, Including Wnt Signaling, Promote Functional Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury In Lampreys, Paige E. Herman, Angelos Papatheodorou, Stephanie A. Bryant, Courtney K. M. Waterbury, Joseph R. Herdy, Anthony A. Arcese, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Jeramiah J. Smith, Jennifer R. Morgan, Ona Bloom Jan 2018

Highly Conserved Molecular Pathways, Including Wnt Signaling, Promote Functional Recovery From Spinal Cord Injury In Lampreys, Paige E. Herman, Angelos Papatheodorou, Stephanie A. Bryant, Courtney K. M. Waterbury, Joseph R. Herdy, Anthony A. Arcese, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Jeramiah J. Smith, Jennifer R. Morgan, Ona Bloom

Biology Faculty Publications

In mammals, spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to dramatic losses in neurons and synaptic connections, and consequently function. Unlike mammals, lampreys are vertebrates that undergo spontaneous regeneration and achieve functional recovery after SCI. Therefore our goal was to determine the complete transcriptional responses that occur after SCI in lampreys and to identify deeply conserved pathways that promote regeneration. We performed RNA-Seq on lamprey spinal cord and brain throughout the course of functional recovery. We describe complex transcriptional responses in the injured spinal cord, and somewhat surprisingly, also in the brain. Transcriptional responses to SCI in lampreys included transcription factor networks ...


Selection Of Housekeeping Genes And Demonstration Of Rnai In Cotton Leafhopper, Amrasca Biguttula Biguttula (Ishida), Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli Jan 2018

Selection Of Housekeeping Genes And Demonstration Of Rnai In Cotton Leafhopper, Amrasca Biguttula Biguttula (Ishida), Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) commonly known as cotton leafhopper is a severe pest of cotton and okra. Not much is known on this insect at molecular level due to lack of genomic and transcriptomic data. To prepare for functional genomic studies in this insect, we evaluated 15 common housekeeping genes (Tub, B-Tub, EF alpha, GADPH, UbiCF, RP13, Ubiq, G3PD, VATPase, Actin, 18s, 28s, TATA, ETF, SOD and Cytolytic actin) during different developmental stages and under starvation stress. We selected early (1st and 2nd), late (3rd and 4th) stage nymphs and adults for identification of stable housekeeping ...


Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Novel Surgical Model For Moyamoya Syndrome, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Justin F. Fraser, Gregory J. Bix Jan 2018

Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis: A Novel Surgical Model For Moyamoya Syndrome, Jill M. Roberts, Michael E. Maniskas, Justin F. Fraser, Gregory J. Bix

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Moyamoya is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by progressive stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid arteries. There are two forms: Disease and Syndrome, with each characterized by the sub-population it affects. Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is more prominent in adults in their 20’s-40’s, and is often associated with autoimmune diseases. Currently, there are no surgical models for inducing moyamoya syndrome, so our aim was to develop a new animal model to study this relatively unknown cerebrovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate a new surgical technique termed internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS), to mimic MMS using micro-coils on the proximal ICA. We ...


Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley Jan 2018

Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley

Animal Sentience

Peña-Guzmán’s depiction of the opponent of animal suicide as a conservative is a straw man. It is possible to accept that animals are self-conscious and reflexive yet still reject the view that they have the mental wherewithal to commit run-of-the-mill suicide. That animal behaviour can be positioned on a continuum of self-destructive behaviour does not establish that animals can intentionally kill themselves.


The Toxicity Of Nanoparticles Depends On Multiple Molecular And Physicochemical Mechanisms, Yue-Wern Huang, Melissa Cambre, Han-Jung Lee Dec 2017

The Toxicity Of Nanoparticles Depends On Multiple Molecular And Physicochemical Mechanisms, Yue-Wern Huang, Melissa Cambre, Han-Jung Lee

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline that studies matters at the nanoscale level. Eventually, the goal is to manipulate matters at the atomic level to serve mankind. One growing area in nanotechnology is biomedical applications, which involve disease management and the discovery of basic biological principles. In this review, we discuss characteristics of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on transition metal oxide nanoparticles that influence cytotoxicity. Identification of those properties may lead to the design of more efficient and safer nanosized products for various industrial purposes and provide guidance for assessment of human and environmental health risk. We then investigate biochemical and ...


Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields Dec 2017

Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Development of approaches to genetically manipulate Chlamydia is fostering important advances in understanding pathogenesis. Fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) now enables the complete deletion of specific genes in C. trachomatis L2. We have leveraged this technology to delete the coding sequences for a known type III effector. The evidence provided here indicates that CT694/CTL0063 is a virulence protein involved in chlamydial invasion. Based on our findings, we designate the gene product corresponding to ct694-ctl0063 translocated membrane-associated effector A (TmeA). Deletion of tmeA did not impact development of intracellular chlamydiae. However, the absence of TmeA manifested as a decrease in ...


Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe Nov 2017

Linkage, Whole Genome Sequence, And Biological Data Implicate Variants In Rab10 In Alzheimer's Disease Resilience., Perry G Ridge, Celeste M Karch, Simon Hsu, Ivan Arano, Craig C Teerlink, Mark T W Ebbert, Josue D Gonzalez Murcia, James M Farnham, Anna R Damato, Mariet Allen, Xue Wang, Oscar Harari, Victoria M Fernandez, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, John Hardy, Ronald Munger, Maria Norton, Celeste Sassi, Andrew Singleton, Steven G Younkin, Dennis W Dickson, Todd E Golde, Nathan D Price, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Christopher Corcoran, Joann Tschanz, Lisa A Cannon-Albright, John S K Kauwe

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

BACKGROUND: While age and the APOE ε4 allele are major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a small percentage of individuals with these risk factors exhibit AD resilience by living well beyond 75 years of age without any clinical symptoms of cognitive decline.

METHODS: We used over 200 "AD resilient" individuals and an innovative, pedigree-based approach to identify genetic variants that segregate with AD resilience. First, we performed linkage analyses in pedigrees with resilient individuals and a statistical excess of AD deaths. Second, we used whole genome sequences to identify candidate SNPs in significant linkage regions. Third, we replicated ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy Oct 2017

The Trophic Life Cycle Stage Of The Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis Murina Hinders The Ability Of Dendritic Cells To Stimulate Cd4+ T Cell Responses, Heather M. Evans, Andrew Simpson, Shu Shen, Arnold J. Stromberg, Carol L. Pickett, Beth A. Garvy

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The life cycle of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina consists of a trophic stage and an ascus-like cystic stage. Infection with the cyst stage induces proinflammatory immune responses, while trophic forms suppress the cytokine response to multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including β-glucan. A targeted gene expression assay was used to evaluate the dendritic cell response following stimulation with trophic forms alone, with a normal mixture of trophic forms and cysts, or with β-glucan. We demonstrate that stimulation with trophic forms downregulated the expression of multiple genes normally associated with the response to infection, including genes encoding ...


The Effect Of The "Onco-Mouse" Decisions On The Exception To Patentability For "Animal Varieties" Under The European Patent Convention, Katrina Mcclatchey Sep 2017

The Effect Of The "Onco-Mouse" Decisions On The Exception To Patentability For "Animal Varieties" Under The European Patent Convention, Katrina Mcclatchey

Oklahoma Journal of Law and Technology

No abstract provided.


Pituitary Genomic Expression Profiles Of Steers Are Altered By Grazing Of High Vs. Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Forages, Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J. Bridges, James C. Matthews Sep 2017

Pituitary Genomic Expression Profiles Of Steers Are Altered By Grazing Of High Vs. Low Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Forages, Qing Li, Raquel Hegge, Phillip J. Bridges, James C. Matthews

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Consumption of ergot alkaloid-containing tall fescue grass impairs several metabolic, vascular, growth, and reproductive processes in cattle, collectively producing a clinical condition known as “fescue toxicosis.” Despite the apparent association between pituitary function and these physiological parameters, including depressed serum prolactin; no reports describe the effect of fescue toxicosis on pituitary genomic expression profiles. To identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, we compared the global and selected targeted mRNA expression patterns of pituitaries collected from beef steers that had been randomly assigned to undergo summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a high-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ...


Investigation Of The Safety Of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening In A Natural Canine Model Of Aging, Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony P. Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen Aug 2017

Investigation Of The Safety Of Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening In A Natural Canine Model Of Aging, Meaghan Anne O'Reilly, Ryan Matthew Jones, Edward Barrett, Anthony P. Schwab, Elizabeth Head, Kullervo Hynynen

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Rationale: Ultrasound-mediated opening of the Blood-Brain Barrier(BBB) has shown exciting potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Studies in transgenic mouse models have shown that this approach can reduce plaque pathology and improve spatial memory. Before clinical translation can occur the safety of the method needs to be tested in a larger brain that allows lower frequencies be used to treat larger tissue volumes, simulating clinical situations. Here we investigate the safety of opening the BBB in half of the brain in a large aged animal model with naturally occurring amyloid deposits.

Methods: Aged dogs naturally accumulate ...


Phytoplasma Infection Of A Tropical Root Crop Triggers Bottom-Up Cascades By Favoring Generalist Over Specialist Herbivores, Kris A. G. Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter Aug 2017

Phytoplasma Infection Of A Tropical Root Crop Triggers Bottom-Up Cascades By Favoring Generalist Over Specialist Herbivores, Kris A. G. Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter

Entomology Faculty Publications

Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches’ broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans. We conducted observational studies in cassava fields in eastern Cambodia to assess the ...


Genetic Divergence Of Influenza A(H3n2) Amino Acid Substitutions Mark The Beginning Of The 2016-2017 Winter Season In Israel, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Yaron Drori, Sharon Beni, Nehemya Friedman, Rakefet Pando, Hanna Sefty, Ilana Tal, John Mccauley, Galia Rahav, Nathan Keller, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim Aug 2017

Genetic Divergence Of Influenza A(H3n2) Amino Acid Substitutions Mark The Beginning Of The 2016-2017 Winter Season In Israel, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Yaron Drori, Sharon Beni, Nehemya Friedman, Rakefet Pando, Hanna Sefty, Ilana Tal, John Mccauley, Galia Rahav, Nathan Keller, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim

NYMC Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccine composition is reevaluated each year due to the frequency and accumulation of genetic changes that influenza viruses undergo. The beginning of the 2016-2017 influenza surveillance period in Israel has been marked by the dominance of influenza A(H3N2).

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the type, subtype, genetic evolution and amino acid substitutions of influenza A(H3N2) viruses detected among community patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with respiratory illness in the first weeks of the 2016-2017 influenza season.

STUDY DESIGN: Respiratory samples from community patients with influenza-like illness and from hospitalized patients underwent identification, subtyping and molecular ...


Consequences Of Severe Habitat Fragmentation On Density, Genetics, And Spatial Capture-Recapture Analysis Of A Small Bear Population, Sean Mccarthy Murphy, Ben C. Augustine, Wade Allen Ulrey, Joseph Maddox Guthrie, Brian K Scheick, J. Walter Mccown, John J. Cox Jul 2017

Consequences Of Severe Habitat Fragmentation On Density, Genetics, And Spatial Capture-Recapture Analysis Of A Small Bear Population, Sean Mccarthy Murphy, Ben C. Augustine, Wade Allen Ulrey, Joseph Maddox Guthrie, Brian K Scheick, J. Walter Mccown, John J. Cox

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats caused by human land uses have subdivided several formerly contiguous large carnivore populations into multiple small and often isolated subpopulations, which can reduce genetic variation and lead to precipitous population declines. Substantial habitat loss and fragmentation from urban development and agriculture expansion relegated the Highlands-Glades subpopulation (HGS) of Florida, USA, black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) to prolonged isolation; increasing human land development is projected to cause ≥ 50% loss of remaining natural habitats occupied by the HGS in coming decades. We conducted a noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture study to quantitatively describe the degree of contemporary ...