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2021

Biological control

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Host Plant Use, Phenology, And Biological Control Of The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; Halymorpha Halys) In Northern Utah, Mark Cody Holthouse Dec 2021

Host Plant Use, Phenology, And Biological Control Of The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae; Halymorpha Halys) In Northern Utah, Mark Cody Holthouse

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has become a significant agricultural and urban nuisance pest in North America, causing millions of dollars of damage to specialty fruit and vegetable crops over the past two decades. This pest uses over 170 host plant species in North America and is difficult to control with most conventional insecticides. Following the establishment of H. halys in Utah in 2012, this dissertation explores the plant host species, seasonal development, and biological control agents found in the unique climate conditions of the Intermountain West. Chapter II documents important plant species utilized by each …


The Impact Of Beneficial Organisms In Corn Agroecosystems, Callie Rosalind Braley Dec 2021

The Impact Of Beneficial Organisms In Corn Agroecosystems, Callie Rosalind Braley

Doctor of Plant Health Program: Dissertations and Student Research

Corn is one of the world’s, and Nebraska’s, most important crops. Millions of acres are planted to corn each year in the Cornhusker State. However, each year there are a plethora of arthropod, weed, and microorganism pests that rob farmers of reaching their maximum yield potential. There are many options available to manage these pests in corn agroecosystems, but one option is often underutilized: beneficial organisms. For each pest, there are a variety of natural enemies that can assist in mitigating the damage caused by pests.

Many beneficial organisms exist, and they can be grouped by the type of pest …


Revealing The Native Status Of Conyza Bonariensis: Specialization Of Insect Herbivores Associated With Conyza And Erigeron Spp. (Asteraceae) In Louisiana, Texas, And Mississippi, Carlos Wiggins Nov 2021

Revealing The Native Status Of Conyza Bonariensis: Specialization Of Insect Herbivores Associated With Conyza And Erigeron Spp. (Asteraceae) In Louisiana, Texas, And Mississippi, Carlos Wiggins

LSU Master's Theses

Flaxleaf fleabane [Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist] (Asterales: Asteraceae) is an annual herb which grows up to 1.0 m in height and is native to South America. Due to introduction and subsequent development of herbicide resistance, C. bonariensis has become a major agricultural weed in Australia. The purpose of this study was to catalog herbivorous insects associated with local populations of C. bonariensis in Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi in order to establish comparisons with the Australian fauna and identify potential biological control agents. Leaves, roots, stems, and flowers of C. bonariensis were inspected for signs of insects and pathogens. Results …


Agricultural Natural Enemies Benefit Predominantly From Broader Scales Of Environmental Heterogeneity: A Quantitative Review, Aaron Iverson, Robyn Burnham, John Vandermeer Nov 2021

Agricultural Natural Enemies Benefit Predominantly From Broader Scales Of Environmental Heterogeneity: A Quantitative Review, Aaron Iverson, Robyn Burnham, John Vandermeer

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Naturally occurring predator and parasitoid communities are well known to respond to multiple scales of environmental heterogeneity within and around agroecoystems, yet our understanding of which scales are most influential on different functional guilds of enemies is limited. Using vote-counting methodology, we synthesized the results from 40 empirical studies that observed how natural enemy richness, diversity, or parasitism rate is affected by environmental heterogeneity at a local scale (e.g. a focal field), an intermediate scale (e.g. habitat in immediate proximity of a focal field), and landscape scale (e.g. habitat within >200 m radius around focal field). Heterogeneity at all scales …


Endophytic Beauveria Bassiana Increases Galling Of ‘Rutgers’ Tomato Roots With Meloidogyne Incognita, Shalini Yerukala, Ernest C. Bernard, Kimberly D. Gwinn, David M. Butler, Parwinder Grewal, Bonnie H. Ownley Aug 2021

Endophytic Beauveria Bassiana Increases Galling Of ‘Rutgers’ Tomato Roots With Meloidogyne Incognita, Shalini Yerukala, Ernest C. Bernard, Kimberly D. Gwinn, David M. Butler, Parwinder Grewal, Bonnie H. Ownley

School of Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Beauveria bassiana is endophytic in many plant species and has been shown to protect host plants against insect pests and plant pathogens. However, less is known about its activity against plant-parasitic nematodes. In vitro and plant assays were conducted to determine the effect of B. bassiana 11-98 (Bb) on Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode; RKN). Beauveria bassiana was confirmed as an endophyte in ‘Rutgers’ tomato and colonization patterns of Bb in ‘Rutgers’ (highly susceptible to RKN) were compared with those in ‘Mountain Spring’ (less susceptible to RKN). In greenhouse tests with ‘Rutgers’ at 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT) with …


Predator Defense And Host Selection Behavior Of Billbugs (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Desireè M. Wickwar Aug 2021

Predator Defense And Host Selection Behavior Of Billbugs (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Desireè M. Wickwar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Spring 1920 to Summer 2023

Billbugs are a complex of weevils that feed on the roots of turfgrass, causing severe damage to the plants. These pests are traditionally managed with applications of insecticides. However, there is a need for non-chemical management tools. Here I investigate billbug behavior in relation to two potential avenues for more sustainable management: using resident predators to suppress billbugs (Chapter II) and selecting specific turfgrasses that resist billbug damage (Chapter III). In Chapter II, I investigate the effects of predator presence and cues associated with their presence on billbug behavior. Though resident predators contribute very little to billbug suppression through directly …


Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla Jun 2021

Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla

Polytechnic Journal

The rice blast infection triggered by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. is a grave issue restraining rice yields globally. Biological regulation has been seen as an encouraging option to such chemical fungicides. The biological control proficiency of 24 isolates of Streptomyces against P. oryzae (KT693184.1) has been examined. Analysis of defense enzymes such as polyphenol, peroxidase (PO), and total protein and phenol content was performed. The Streptomyces isolate that was determined to have maximum effectiveness was determined to be Streptomyces xantholiticus. The sequence was sent to the NCBI vide accession number MW029942. The S. xantholiticus isolate inhibited P. oryzae 92% using dual …


Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla Jun 2021

Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla

Polytechnic Journal

The rice blast infection triggered by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. is a grave issue restraining rice yields globally. Biological regulation has been seen as an encouraging option to such chemical fungicides. The biological control proficiency of 24 isolates of Streptomyces against P. oryzae (KT693184.1) has been examined. Analysis of defense enzymes such as polyphenol, peroxidase (PO), and total protein and phenol content was performed. The Streptomyces isolate that was determined to have maximum effectiveness was determined to be Streptomyces xantholiticus. The sequence was sent to the NCBI vide accession number MW029942. The S. xantholiticus isolate inhibited P. oryzae 92% using dual …


Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla Jun 2021

Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla

Polytechnic Journal

The rice blast infection triggered by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. is a grave issue restraining rice yields globally. Biological regulation has been seen as an encouraging option to such chemical fungicides. The biological control proficiency of 24 isolates of Streptomyces against P. oryzae (KT693184.1) has been examined. Analysis of defense enzymes such as polyphenol, peroxidase (PO), and total protein and phenol content was performed. The Streptomyces isolate that was determined to have maximum effectiveness was determined to be Streptomyces xantholiticus. The sequence was sent to the NCBI vide accession number MW029942. The S. xantholiticus isolate inhibited P. oryzae 92% using dual …


Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla Jun 2021

Effect Of Streptomyces Xantholiticus On Rice Blast Disease Reduction And Enzyme Activity, Hayman K. Awla

Polytechnic Journal

The rice blast infection triggered by Pyricularia oryzae Cav. is a grave issue restraining rice yields globally. Biological regulation has been seen as an encouraging option to such chemical fungicides. The biological control proficiency of 24 isolates of Streptomyces against P. oryzae (KT693184.1) has been examined. Analysis of defense enzymes such as polyphenol, peroxidase (PO), and total protein and phenol content was performed. The Streptomyces isolate that was determined to have maximum effectiveness was determined to be Streptomyces xantholiticus. The sequence was sent to the NCBI vide accession number MW029942. The S. xantholiticus isolate inhibited P. oryzae 92% using dual …


Multi-Year Biological Control Of Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus Sulcatus, With Persistent Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Elson J. Shields, Antonio M. Testa Feb 2021

Multi-Year Biological Control Of Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus Sulcatus, With Persistent Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Elson J. Shields, Antonio M. Testa

The Great Lakes Entomologist

Abstract:

The black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorhynchus sulcatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has a worldwide distribution and is a serious pest of many agricultural crops with a host plant species range of 140 plants. Common economic losses occur in small fruits, including strawberries, ornamental and nursery plants, caused primarily by the root feeding larvae resulting in reduced vigor and plant death.

The susceptibility of BVW to entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) is well established with numerous authors publishing papers using a wide array of EPN species from commercial sources and very high application rates for use as a biopesticide. The concept of using …


The Future Of Organic Insect Pest Management: Be A Better Entomologist Or Pay For Someone Who Is, David H. Headrick Feb 2021

The Future Of Organic Insect Pest Management: Be A Better Entomologist Or Pay For Someone Who Is, David H. Headrick

Horticulture and Crop Science

Insect pest management in certified organic production systems presents considerable challenges for growers. The Federal National Organic Program (NOP) guidelines list acceptable tactics, but their effective use requires a considerable knowledgebase in entomology. The range of tactics allowed by the NOP are viewed as limiting by many growers and there are important elements missing from the list such as pest monitoring and identification. Educational programs must consider utilizing instructional methods and additional means of outreach that introduce new pest management tactics that are individualized, regionally appropriate and emphasize grower adoption and collaboration with local professionals. This review describes the challenges …


Technological Advances To Address Current Issues In Entomology: 2020 Student Debates, Lina Bernaola, Molly Darlington, Kadie Britt, Patricia Prade, Morgan Roth, Adrian Pekarcik, Michelle Boone, Dylan Ricke, Anh Tran, Joanie King, Kelly Carruthers, Morgan Thompson, John J. Ternest, Sarah E. Anderson, Scott W. Gula, Kayleigh C. Hauri, Jacob R. Pecenka, Sajjan Grover, Heena Puri, Surabhi Gupta Vakil Jan 2021

Technological Advances To Address Current Issues In Entomology: 2020 Student Debates, Lina Bernaola, Molly Darlington, Kadie Britt, Patricia Prade, Morgan Roth, Adrian Pekarcik, Michelle Boone, Dylan Ricke, Anh Tran, Joanie King, Kelly Carruthers, Morgan Thompson, John J. Ternest, Sarah E. Anderson, Scott W. Gula, Kayleigh C. Hauri, Jacob R. Pecenka, Sajjan Grover, Heena Puri, Surabhi Gupta Vakil

Department of Entomology: Faculty Publications

The 2020 Student Debates of the Entomological Society of America (ESA) were live-streamed during the Virtual Annual Meeting to debate current, prominent entomological issues of interest to members. The Student Debates Subcommittee of the National ESA Student Affairs Committee coordinated the student efforts throughout the year and hosted the live event. This year, four unbiased introductory speakers provided background for each debate topic while four multi-university teams were each assigned a debate topic under the theme ‘Technological Advances to Address Current Issues in Entomology’. The two debate topics selected were as follows: 1) What is the best taxonomic approach to …


Assessment Of Entomopathogenic Nematodes And Their Symbiotic Bacteria To Control The Stink Bugs Euschistus Heros And Dichelops Melacanthus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) In The Soybean-Corn Succession System, Samanta Letícia Lopes Nanzer, Gustavo Henrique Recchia, Julie Giovanna Chacon-Orozco, Raphael Satochi Abe Silva, Jorge Franco Maringoli Cardoso, Luis Garrigós Leite Jan 2021

Assessment Of Entomopathogenic Nematodes And Their Symbiotic Bacteria To Control The Stink Bugs Euschistus Heros And Dichelops Melacanthus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) In The Soybean-Corn Succession System, Samanta Letícia Lopes Nanzer, Gustavo Henrique Recchia, Julie Giovanna Chacon-Orozco, Raphael Satochi Abe Silva, Jorge Franco Maringoli Cardoso, Luis Garrigós Leite

Turkish Journal of Zoology

The Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros and the green-belly stink bug Dichelops melacanthus are the most important pests today for the succession system of soy-corn in Brazil. Dichelops melacanthus attacks the emerging shoot (epicotyl) of corn plants at the seedling stage of their development, remaining and reproducing on the straw over generations. Euschistus heros, on the other hand, feeds directly on the grains and lodge under fallen leaves after the soybean harvest, due to the absence of another crop host. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are capable of killing insects due to their ability to search for the host in the …


Determining Some Biological Parameters Of Aenasius Arizonensis (Girault)(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) On Cotton Mealybug And The Rate Of Parasitism In Fieldconditions, Doğancan Kahya, Asi̇me Fi̇li̇z Çalişkan Keçe, Mehmet Ri̇fat Ulusoy Jan 2021

Determining Some Biological Parameters Of Aenasius Arizonensis (Girault)(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) On Cotton Mealybug And The Rate Of Parasitism In Fieldconditions, Doğancan Kahya, Asi̇me Fi̇li̇z Çalişkan Keçe, Mehmet Ri̇fat Ulusoy

Turkish Journal of Zoology

Aenasius arizonensis (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is the primary parasitoid of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Some biological parameters of this parasitoid have not been fully understood. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine biological parameters of A.arizonensis at 25 °C, 65% R.H, 16 : 8 L : D with age-stage two-sex life table and effectiveness of this parasitoid in field conditions in Turkey. The results showed that pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods of A. arizonensis were calculated as 1.5, 26, and 3.1 days, respectively. In addition, total mean longevity was determined as 31 days for female and 18 days for …


Understanding Patterns And Functional Impacts Of An Invasive Tree And Its Biological Control In A Riparian System, Annie L. Henry Jan 2021

Understanding Patterns And Functional Impacts Of An Invasive Tree And Its Biological Control In A Riparian System, Annie L. Henry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species have become an inextricable part of the landscape, particularly in riparian plant communities, and removal is often a key component of restoration programs. Biological control (biocontrol) is a method of removal that is often both efficient and effective. However, the impact of biocontrol on target species and indirect effects from invasive species removal can be hard to predict. While monitoring the impact of invasive species removal usually involves some species-based assessment such as changes in diversity, historically dominant species or native species, these strategies do not typically provide insight into the mechanisms underlying plant community response to removal. …


Investigation Of Some Enthomopathogens As Biocontrol Agents Of Tinocallis (Sappocallis) Saltans (Nevsky, 1929) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Eli̇f Tozlu, Göksel Tozlu, Recep Kotan, Önder Çalmaşur, Fati̇h Dadaşoğlu Jan 2021

Investigation Of Some Enthomopathogens As Biocontrol Agents Of Tinocallis (Sappocallis) Saltans (Nevsky, 1929) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Eli̇f Tozlu, Göksel Tozlu, Recep Kotan, Önder Çalmaşur, Fati̇h Dadaşoğlu

Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry

In Turkey, Tinocallis (Sappocallis) saltans (Nevsky) on Ulmus glabra Hudson was detected for the first time, and it was determined that it caused a considerable amount of damage. The study was conducted for the purpose of determining the usability of enthomopathogens in the control against it, while avoiding the negative effects of chemicals on the environment and human health. A total of 12 bacteria strains were tested for control efficacy and verified: Brevibacillus brevis (2), Bacillus thuringiensis (1), Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae (2), Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstakii (2), Bacillus subtilis (1), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (1), Bacillus sphaericus GC subgroup D (1), …


Biocontrol Agent, Biofumigation, And Grafting With Resistant Rootstock Suppress Soil-Borne Disease And Improve Yield Of Tomato In West Virginia, Mahfuz Rahman, Tofazzal Islam, Lewis Jett, James Kotcon Jan 2021

Biocontrol Agent, Biofumigation, And Grafting With Resistant Rootstock Suppress Soil-Borne Disease And Improve Yield Of Tomato In West Virginia, Mahfuz Rahman, Tofazzal Islam, Lewis Jett, James Kotcon

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Organic tomato growers in West Virginia and neighboring states suffer serious economic losses each year due to soil-borne wilt diseases caused by fungal pathogens including Verticillium dahliae. This study determined the efficacies of biological control agents (BCAs – Serenade SOIL and Prestop), bio-fumigants and transplants grafted to a resistant rootstock in suppressing wilt disease in heirloom tomato cv. Mortgage Lifter in a certified organic production system in West Virginia in two consecutive years. Prestop and Serenade treatments resulted in higher seedling vigor at the early stage. However, within 40 days of field set in the fungal pathogen infested soil, grafted …


Metarhizium Anisopliae, Metarhizium Brunneum And Beauveria Bassiana Formulations For Biological Control Of Larval Winter Ticks, Dermacentor Albipictus, Cheryl Sullivan Jan 2021

Metarhizium Anisopliae, Metarhizium Brunneum And Beauveria Bassiana Formulations For Biological Control Of Larval Winter Ticks, Dermacentor Albipictus, Cheryl Sullivan

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

There is a critical need to develop effective, high-quality, fungal-based biopesticides for use against ticks. Dermacentor albipictus Petch (Acari: Ixodidae), the winter tick, is a one-host tick. They commonly infest large ungulates, particularly moose, Alces alces L. (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) on which they cause significant physiological and metabolic stress on densely parasitized individuals. Heavily infested calves can be killed. Entomopathogenic fungi in the genera Metarhizium (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Beauveria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising tick biological control agents. The larval stage of D. albipictus aggregates on the ground in a prolonged, quiescent state during the summer and then quests for hosts in …