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2021

University of Nebraska - Lincoln

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1042

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Occurrence Of An Exotic Whitefly, Siphoninus Phillyreae (Haliday) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) In South Korea And Its Potential Pathway Analysis, Seon Woo Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Jun-Ran Kim, Soo-Jung Suh Dec 2021

Occurrence Of An Exotic Whitefly, Siphoninus Phillyreae (Haliday) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) In South Korea And Its Potential Pathway Analysis, Seon Woo Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Jun-Ran Kim, Soo-Jung Suh

Insecta Mundi

The ash whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was first found in southern areas of South Korea during September 2019. During the survey of 2021, no additional specimens of the ash whitefly were found other than the previously reported regions. Attempts to trace a possible path­way for exotic ash whitefly suggested that this species probably followed pathways of illegal importation of infested plants from China or Japan and was unintentionally introduced into South Korea based on a survey-based study. This whitefly has not been intercepted at ports of entry to South Korea on imported plant material between 1999 and 2019 …


Two New Species Of Deromecus Solier From Guatemala (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Pomachiliini), E. R. Fuller Dec 2021

Two New Species Of Deromecus Solier From Guatemala (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Pomachiliini), E. R. Fuller

Insecta Mundi

Deromecus georginas Fuller, new species, and Deromecus longitarsis Fuller, new species (Cole­optera: Elateridae: Pomachiliini) are described from cloud forest habitat on eastern coastal volcanoes in Quetzaltenango Department, Guatemala, and compared with Deromecus trivittatus Champion from Mexico.

Se describen la neuva especie Deromecus georginas Fuller y la neuva especie Deromecus longitarsis Fuller (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Pomachiliini), del hábitat del bosque nuboso, de los volcanes oriental de la costa, en el Departmento de Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, y se comparan con Deromecus trivittatus Cham­pion, de México.

The Elateridae are a conspicuous and diverse group of beetles in Central America (Champion 1894–1897). Adults of luminous …


Micromentignatha Geberti, A New Tiger Beetle Species From Australia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), Jürgen Wiesner Dec 2021

Micromentignatha Geberti, A New Tiger Beetle Species From Australia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), Jürgen Wiesner

Insecta Mundi

Micromentignatha geberti (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), new species, is described. It is distinguished from the other members of the genus by its larger body size and shape of elytral maculation.

Due to the kindness of Christian Kerkering, I was able to study specimens of a tiger beetle species he recently acquired. It proved to be new to science and is described herein. It is a member of Micromentignatha Sumlin, 1981, which raises the number of species in this genus to four (Wiesner 2020: 327). A key to distinguish these congeners as well as a catalog of the genus are given herein.


Ishtarella Thailandica Martens, New Genus, New Species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) Of Aphid Parasitoid From Thailand, With A Country Checklist Of Aphidiinae, Abigail P. Martens, Matthew L. Buffington, Donald L.J. Quicke, Marisa Raweearamwong, Buntika A. Butcher, Paul J. Johnson Dec 2021

Ishtarella Thailandica Martens, New Genus, New Species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) Of Aphid Parasitoid From Thailand, With A Country Checklist Of Aphidiinae, Abigail P. Martens, Matthew L. Buffington, Donald L.J. Quicke, Marisa Raweearamwong, Buntika A. Butcher, Paul J. Johnson

Insecta Mundi

Ishtarella Martens new genus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) and I. thailandica Martens new species are described and illustrated from Doi Phu Kha National Park, Nan Province, Thailand. The genus is assigned to the tribe Aphidiini, subtribe Trioxina. Based on morphology, Ishtarella appears most closely related to Binodoxys Mackauer. An updated checklist of the aphidiine fauna of Thailand, based on published records, is presented.

Parasitoid wasps in the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) comprise about 60 genera and more than 650 species worldwide (Yu et al. 2016). The Aphidiinae of Thailand were all but unknown prior to a Thai­land Inventory Group for Entomological …


Nesting Behavior, Ecology, And Functional Morphology Of The Trapdoor Spider-Hunting Spider Wasp Aporus (Plectraporus) Hirsutus (Banks) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), Frank E. Kurczewski, Alice J. Abela, Rick C. West Dec 2021

Nesting Behavior, Ecology, And Functional Morphology Of The Trapdoor Spider-Hunting Spider Wasp Aporus (Plectraporus) Hirsutus (Banks) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae), Frank E. Kurczewski, Alice J. Abela, Rick C. West

Insecta Mundi

Macrophotographs in series taken by Alice Abela on sandy coastal dunes in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties, CA in 2010–2021 supplement and enhance F. X. Williams (1928) study of the ecol­ogy and nesting behavior of the trapdoor spider-hunting spider wasp Aporus (Plectraporus) hirsutus (Banks) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae: Aporini). Abela’s macrophotographs and observations provide new details of adult wasp feeding, functional morphology, hunting, digging and prey transport, and host spider trapdoor, entrance, burrow structure, host capture and escape activity. Newly reported host records from this study and online photographs expand A. hirsutus host selection in the large wafer-lid …


New Larval Host Plants And Ecological Observations On North American Cerambycidae (Coleoptera), Josef Vlasak, Katerina Vlasakova Dec 2021

New Larval Host Plants And Ecological Observations On North American Cerambycidae (Coleoptera), Josef Vlasak, Katerina Vlasakova

Insecta Mundi

New larval hosts are presented for 152 North American Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Larval host plants of Aneflus calvatus Horn in Leng, Aneflomorpha arizonica Linsley, Aneflomorpha fisheri Linsley, Ane­flomorpha opacicornis Linsley, Anelaphus magnipunctatus (Knull), Atylostagma glabra Schaeffer, Cacophrissus pauper Bates, Elytroleptus limpianus Skiles and Chemsak, Obrium rubidum LeConte, and Stenelytrana splen­dens (Knull) are reported for the first time. The types of wood utilized by larvae of Leptorhabdium pictum (Haldeman), Sphenostethus taslei (Buquet), Typocerus lugubris (Say), and Xestoleptura octonotata (Say) are discussed. Notes on larval morphology and larval habits of Aneflus spp. and Stenaspis solitaria (Say), includ­ing a correction of a published host …


Reevaluation Of The Described Subspecies Of Euphydryas Phaeton (Drury, 1773) With A Replacement Name For Melitaea Phaeton Schausi (Clark, 1927), Harry Pavulaan Dec 2021

Reevaluation Of The Described Subspecies Of Euphydryas Phaeton (Drury, 1773) With A Replacement Name For Melitaea Phaeton Schausi (Clark, 1927), Harry Pavulaan

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

The present paper reevaluates the subspecific standing of the nominotypical and three described subspecies of Euphydryas phaeton (Drury, 1773). The nominotypical subspecies phaeton occupies the mid-Atlantic region, with undefined zones of contact with described subspecies borealis (F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1940) to the north, and subspecies schausi (Clark, 1927) to the south. Nominotypical phaeton is an intermediate phenotype between borealis and schausi, which are each noticeably different from each other but both reasonably similar to intermediate (nominotypical) phaeton. Both borealis and schausi were synonymized under nominotypical phaeton since about time of their descriptions, by authors and list …


New Synonymies And Notes In Criodion Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), Antonio Santos-Silva, Sergio Devesa Dec 2021

New Synonymies And Notes In Criodion Audinet-Serville (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), Antonio Santos-Silva, Sergio Devesa

Insecta Mundi

Criodion angustatum Buquet, 1852 and C. pilosum Lucas, 1857 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are synonymized with C. tomentosum Audinet-Serville, 1834. The holotypes of C. angustatum and C. hirsutum, and syntypes of C. pilosum and of C. tuberculatum Gahan, 1892 are illustrated for the first time. One of the type localities of C. tuberculatum is corrected.

Currently, Criodion Audinet-Serville, 1834 includes 13 species distributed from Guatemala to southern South America (Monné 2021; Tavakilian and Chevillotte 2021). Despite the relatively small number of species, they encompass several problems with their identification. For example, the specimens often identified as C. murinum Nonfried, 1895 …


Ardella Magnaemirabilis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Ardellini), A New Scarabaeoid Species, Genus And Tribe From The Southwestern United States, M. J. Paulsen Dec 2021

Ardella Magnaemirabilis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Ardellini), A New Scarabaeoid Species, Genus And Tribe From The Southwestern United States, M. J. Paulsen

Insecta Mundi

An interesting new taxon of scarabaeoid beetle is described from western Texas, USA. The remark­ably small chafer, Ardella magnaemirabilis new genus, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Ardellini) is described and compared to other diminutive scarabaeoid genera from drier habitats of the southwestern USA. The tribe Ardellini, new tribe, is erected to accommodate the unusual genus.

After a few centuries with entomologists scouring the continent, the discovery of unknown Nearctic scarab gen­era is no longer commonplace. The western United States, in particular, is biogeographically diverse with pockets of endemism that makes such discoveries still possible, driving collectors to continue sampling …


Evaluation Of Salmonella Biofilm Cell Transfer From Common Food Contact Surfaces To Beef Products, Rong Wong, David A. King, Norasak Kalchayanand Dec 2021

Evaluation Of Salmonella Biofilm Cell Transfer From Common Food Contact Surfaces To Beef Products, Rong Wong, David A. King, Norasak Kalchayanand

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center: Reports

Meat contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern. Available data have suggested that biofilm formation at processing plants and contaminated contact surfaces might contribute to meat contamination. Because transfer from contact surfaces to food products via direct contact has been deemed the most common bacteria transmission route that can lead to contamination, we evaluated the effect of Salmonella biofilm forming ability, contact surface material, and beef surface tissue type on Salmonella biofilm transfer from hard surfaces to beef products. Salmonella biofilms developed on the common contact surfaces stainless steel (SS) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were transferred consecutively via …


Domestication Reshaped The Genetic Basis Of Inbreeding Depression In A Maize Landrace Compared To Its Wild Relative, Teosinte, Luis Fernando Samayoa, Bode A. Olukolu, Chin Jian Yang, Qiuyue Chen, Markus G. Stetter, Alessandra M. York, Jose De Jesus Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jeffrey C. Glaubitz, Peter J. Bradbury, Maria Cinta Romay, Qi Sun, Jinliang Yang, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, Edward S. Buckler, John F. Doebley, James B. Holland Dec 2021

Domestication Reshaped The Genetic Basis Of Inbreeding Depression In A Maize Landrace Compared To Its Wild Relative, Teosinte, Luis Fernando Samayoa, Bode A. Olukolu, Chin Jian Yang, Qiuyue Chen, Markus G. Stetter, Alessandra M. York, Jose De Jesus Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jeffrey C. Glaubitz, Peter J. Bradbury, Maria Cinta Romay, Qi Sun, Jinliang Yang, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, Edward S. Buckler, John F. Doebley, James B. Holland

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Faculty Publications

Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness and vigor resulting from mating of close relatives observed in many plant and animal species. The extent to which the genetic load of mutations contributing to inbreeding depression is due to large-effect mutations versus variants with very small individual effects is unknown and may be affected by population history. We compared the effects of outcrossing and self-fertilization on 18 traits in a landrace population of maize, which underwent a population bottleneck during domestication, and a neighboring population of its wild relative teosinte. Inbreeding depression was greater in maize than teosinte for 15 of …


Identification Of Candidate Genes And Genomic Regions Associated With Adult Plant Resistance To Stripe Rust In Spring Wheat, Amira M. I. Mourad, Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid, Shamseldeen Eltaher, P. Stephen Baenziger, Andreas Börner Dec 2021

Identification Of Candidate Genes And Genomic Regions Associated With Adult Plant Resistance To Stripe Rust In Spring Wheat, Amira M. I. Mourad, Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid, Shamseldeen Eltaher, P. Stephen Baenziger, Andreas Börner

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Faculty Publications

Wheat stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a major disease that damages wheat plants and affects wheat yield all over the world. In recent years, stripe rust became a major problem that affects wheat yield in Egypt. New races appeared and caused breakdowns in the resistant genotypes. To improve resistance in the Egyptian genotypes, new sources of resistance are urgently needed. In the recent research, a set of 95 wheat genotypes collected from 19 countries, including Egypt, were evaluated for their resistance against the Egyptian race(s) of stripe rust under field conditions in the two …


Farnesol Secretion As A Possible Driving Force For Maintaining Candida Albicans As A Diploid, Kenneth Nickerson, Cory Boone, Kory Parker Dec 2021

Farnesol Secretion As A Possible Driving Force For Maintaining Candida Albicans As A Diploid, Kenneth Nickerson, Cory Boone, Kory Parker

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Candida albicans is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus which is invariably found as a diploid in patients. C. albicans secretes the sesquiterpene farnesol both as a quorum sensing molecule which blocks the yeast to hypha conversion and as a virulence factor for pathogenicity. 20-25 μM farnesol kills other competing yeasts and fungi, often by triggering apoptosis, and yet wild type diploid C. albicans tolerates 300-500 μM farnesol. The recent availability of 10 haploid strains of C. albicans (5 mating type aand 5 mating type α) allowed us to compare their production of and sensitivity to farnesol. On average, the heterozygous diploid …


Relationships Among College-Level Science Course Enrollment, Environmental Perception, And Pro-Environmental Attitude: Evidence From The Us General Social Survey, Mazbahul G. Ahamad, Fahian Tanin Dec 2021

Relationships Among College-Level Science Course Enrollment, Environmental Perception, And Pro-Environmental Attitude: Evidence From The Us General Social Survey, Mazbahul G. Ahamad, Fahian Tanin

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Faculty Publications

Understanding pro-environmental attitudes is critical to encouraging pollution-minimizing behaviors. Therefore, identifying associated factors is essential for understanding different types of pro-environmental attitudes. We aimed to investigate the associations among individuals’ college-level science course enrollment and their perceptions of the level of spending to improve and protect the environment, as well as their pro-environmental attitudes. We used nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey data from 2,348 individuals obtained from the General Social Survey in the United States. An ordered logistic model was used to examine the associations among college-level science course enrollment, environmental perception, and pro-environmental attitude. We found that science course enrollment …


Genetic Diversity Of Huaya India (Melicoccus Oliviformis Kunth), A Neglected Neotropical Fruit Crop, Mónica I. Jiménez-Rojas, Rubén H. Andueza-Noh, Obed I. Noh-Ake, Daniel Potter, Matilde M. Ortiz-García, Renee S. Arias, Jaime Martínez-Castillo Dec 2021

Genetic Diversity Of Huaya India (Melicoccus Oliviformis Kunth), A Neglected Neotropical Fruit Crop, Mónica I. Jiménez-Rojas, Rubén H. Andueza-Noh, Obed I. Noh-Ake, Daniel Potter, Matilde M. Ortiz-García, Renee S. Arias, Jaime Martínez-Castillo

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service / University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Faculty Publications

Currently, some species of Sapindaceae are important fruit crops worldwide. The Huaya India (Meliccocus oliviformis, Sapindaceae) is a neglected Neotropical fruit tree consumed locally in the Maya Lowlands of Mexico, where it exists in both wild and domesticated forms. Our objective was to evaluate the genetic diversity of the Huaya India in its possible domestication area and thus generate knowledge that serves as the basis for a commercial management. A total of 450 individuals collected from 15 natural vegetation sites and 15 Maya villages, were characterized using nine microsatellite loci and population genetics approaches were applied. STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining and PCoA …


Driver Liability For Farm And Ranch Operations, Jessica Groskopf Dec 2021

Driver Liability For Farm And Ranch Operations, Jessica Groskopf

Cornhusker Economics

One major concern of farming and/or ranching operations is the liability of semi-trucks and equipment when they are involved in a traffic accident.


Cold Conditioned: Discovery Of Novel Alleles For Low-Temperature Tolerance In The Vavilov Barley Collection, Ahmad H. Sallam, Kevin P. Smith, Gongshe Hu, Jamie Sherman, Peter Stephen Baeziger, Jochum Wiersma, Carl Duley, Eric J. Stockinger, Mark E. Sorrells, Tamas Szinyei, Igor G. Loskutov, Olga N. Kovaleva, Jed Eberly, Brian J. Steffenson Dec 2021

Cold Conditioned: Discovery Of Novel Alleles For Low-Temperature Tolerance In The Vavilov Barley Collection, Ahmad H. Sallam, Kevin P. Smith, Gongshe Hu, Jamie Sherman, Peter Stephen Baeziger, Jochum Wiersma, Carl Duley, Eric J. Stockinger, Mark E. Sorrells, Tamas Szinyei, Igor G. Loskutov, Olga N. Kovaleva, Jed Eberly, Brian J. Steffenson

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Faculty Publications

Climate changes leading to higher summer temperatures can adversely affect cool season crops like spring barley. In the Upper Midwest region of the United States, one option for escaping this stress factor is to plant winter or facultative type cultivars in the autumn and then harvest in early summer before the onset of high-temperature stress. However, the major challenge in breeding such cultivars is incorporating sufficient winter hardiness to survive the extremely low temperatures that commonly occur in this production region. To broaden the genetic base for winter hardiness in the University of Minnesota breeding program, 2,214 accessions from the …


Comparison Of Methods To Estimate Ruminal Degradation And Intestinal Digestibility Of Protein In Hydrolyzed Feather Meal With Or Without Blood, Kassidy Buse, D. L. Morris, H. L. Diaz, O. R. Drehmel, Paul J. Kononoff Dec 2021

Comparison Of Methods To Estimate Ruminal Degradation And Intestinal Digestibility Of Protein In Hydrolyzed Feather Meal With Or Without Blood, Kassidy Buse, D. L. Morris, H. L. Diaz, O. R. Drehmel, Paul J. Kononoff

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

Hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM) is a feedstuff high in rumen undegraded protein (RUP) that can be used as an effective source of metabolizable protein for dairy cattle. Because the production process may vary, the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of HFM may also vary. Additionally, some processes may incorporate additional blood into the final product to result in feather meal with poultry blood. To determine the rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of these products, several laboratory assays can be used; the common assays are the mobile bag (MOB), modified three-step (MTS), and Ross (ROS) assays. Although all 3 assays determine …


A Link Between Methylglyoxal And Heart Failure During Hiv-1 Infection, Prasanta K. Dasg, Fadhel A. Alomar, Jesse L. Cox, Joellyn Mcmillan, Bryan T. Hackfort, Edward Makarov, Brenda Morsey, Howard S. Fox, Howard E. Gendelman, Santhi Gorantla, Keshore R. Bidasee Dec 2021

A Link Between Methylglyoxal And Heart Failure During Hiv-1 Infection, Prasanta K. Dasg, Fadhel A. Alomar, Jesse L. Cox, Joellyn Mcmillan, Bryan T. Hackfort, Edward Makarov, Brenda Morsey, Howard S. Fox, Howard E. Gendelman, Santhi Gorantla, Keshore R. Bidasee

Department of Biochemistry: Faculty Publications

Early-onset heart failure (HF) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection (PLWH), yet the molecular causes for this remain poorly understood. Herein NOD.Cg- PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ humanized mice (Hu-mice), plasma from PLWH, and autopsied cardiac tissues from deceased HIV seropositive individuals were used to assess if there is a link between the glycolysis byproduct methylglyoxal (MG) and HF in the setting of HIV-1 infection. At five weeks post HIV infection, Hu-mice developed grade III-IV diastolic dysfunction (DD) with an associated two-fold increase in plasma …


Inflammatory Mediation Of Heat Stress-Induced Growth Deficits In Livestock And Its Potential Role As A Target For Nutritional Interventions: A Review, Micah S. Most, Dustin T. Yates Dec 2021

Inflammatory Mediation Of Heat Stress-Induced Growth Deficits In Livestock And Its Potential Role As A Target For Nutritional Interventions: A Review, Micah S. Most, Dustin T. Yates

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

Heat stress is detrimental to well-being and growth performance in livestock, and systemic inflammation arising during chronic heat stress contributes to these poor outcomes. Sustained exposure of muscle and other tissues to inflammation can impair the cellular processes that facilitate muscle growth and intramuscular fat deposition, thus reducing carcass quality and yield. Climate change is expected to produce more frequent extreme heat events, increasing the potential impact of heat stress on sustainable livestock production. Feedlot animals are at particularly high risk for heat stress, as confinement limits their ability to seek cooling from the shade, water, or breeze. Economically practical …


A Review Of Transformative Strategies For Climate Mitigation By Grasslands, Nuria Gomez-Casanovas, Elena Blanc-Betes, Caitlin E. Moore, Carl J. Bernacchi, Ilsa Kantola, Evan H. Delucia Dec 2021

A Review Of Transformative Strategies For Climate Mitigation By Grasslands, Nuria Gomez-Casanovas, Elena Blanc-Betes, Caitlin E. Moore, Carl J. Bernacchi, Ilsa Kantola, Evan H. Delucia

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service / University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Faculty Publications

Grasslands can significantly contribute to climate mitigation. However, recent trends indicate that human activities have switched their net cooling effect to a warming effect due to management intensification and land conversion. This indicates an urgent need for strategies directed to mitigate climate warming while enhancing productivity and efficiency in the use of land and natural (nutrients, water) resources. Here, we examine the potential of four innovative strategies to slow climate change including: 1) Adaptive multi-paddock grazing that consists of mimicking how ancestral herds roamed the Earth; 2) Agrivoltaics that consists of simultaneously producing food and energy from solar panels on …


Sustainable Intensification For A Larger Global Rice Bowl, Shen Yuan, Bruce A. Linquist, Lloyd T. Wilson, Kenneth G. Cassman, Alexander M. Stuart, Valerien Pede, Berta Miro, Kazuki Saito, Nurwulan Agustiani, Vina Eka Aristya, Leonardus Y. Krisnadi, Alencar Junior Zanon, Alexandre Bryan Heinemann, Gonzalo Carracelas, Nataraja Subash, Pathula S. Brahmanand, Tao Li, Shaobing Peng, Patricio Grassini Dec 2021

Sustainable Intensification For A Larger Global Rice Bowl, Shen Yuan, Bruce A. Linquist, Lloyd T. Wilson, Kenneth G. Cassman, Alexander M. Stuart, Valerien Pede, Berta Miro, Kazuki Saito, Nurwulan Agustiani, Vina Eka Aristya, Leonardus Y. Krisnadi, Alencar Junior Zanon, Alexandre Bryan Heinemann, Gonzalo Carracelas, Nataraja Subash, Pathula S. Brahmanand, Tao Li, Shaobing Peng, Patricio Grassini

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Faculty Publications

Future rice systems must produce more grain while minimizing the negative environmental impacts. A key question is how to orient agricultural research & development (R&D) programs at national to global scales to maximize the return on investment. Here we assess yield gap and resource-use efficiency (including water, pesticides, nitrogen, labor, energy, and associated global warming potential) across 32 rice cropping systems covering half of global rice harvested area. We show that achieving high yields and high resource-use efficiencies are not conflicting goals. Most cropping systems have room for increasing yield, resource-use efficiency, or both. In aggregate, current total rice production …


The Price Of Surviving On Adrenaline: Developmental Programming Responses To Chronic Fetal Hypercatecholaminemia Contribute To Poor Muscle Growth Capacity And Metabolic Dysfunction In Iugr-Born Offspring, Rachel L. Gibbs, Dustin T. Yates Dec 2021

The Price Of Surviving On Adrenaline: Developmental Programming Responses To Chronic Fetal Hypercatecholaminemia Contribute To Poor Muscle Growth Capacity And Metabolic Dysfunction In Iugr-Born Offspring, Rachel L. Gibbs, Dustin T. Yates

Department of Animal Science: Faculty Publications

Maternofetal stress induces fetal programming that restricts skeletal muscle growth capacity and metabolic function, resulting in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus. This thrifty phenotype aids fetal survival but also yields reduced muscle mass and metabolic dysfunction after birth. Consequently, IUGR-born individuals are at greater lifelong risk for metabolic disorders that reduce quality of life. In livestock, IUGR-born animals exhibit poor growth efficiency and body composition, making these animals more costly and less valuable. Specifically, IUGR-associated programming causes a greater propensity for fat deposition and a reduced capacity for muscle accretion. This, combined with metabolic inefficiency, means that these …


Ecological And Morphological Differentiation Among Coi Haplotype Groups In The Plant Parasitic Nematode Species Mesocriconema Xenoplax, Julianne N. Matczyszyn, Timothy Harris, Kirsten S. Powers, Sydney E. Everhart, Thomas O. Powers Dec 2021

Ecological And Morphological Differentiation Among Coi Haplotype Groups In The Plant Parasitic Nematode Species Mesocriconema Xenoplax, Julianne N. Matczyszyn, Timothy Harris, Kirsten S. Powers, Sydney E. Everhart, Thomas O. Powers

Department of Plant Pathology: Faculty Publications

DNA barcoding with the mitochondrial COI gene reveals distinct haplotype subgroups within the monophyletic and parthenogenetic nematode species, Mesocriconema xenoplax. Biological attributes of these haplotype groups (HG) have not been explored. An analysis of M. xenoplax from 40 North American sites representing both native plant communities and agroecosystems was conducted to identify possible subgroup associations with ecological, physiological, or geographic factors. A dataset of 132 M. xenoplax specimens was used to generate sequences of a 712 bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies recognized seven COI HG (≥99/0.99 posterior probability/bootstrap value). Species delimitation …


Ecological And Morphological Differentiation Among Coi Haplotype Groups In The Plant Parasitic Nematode Species Mesocriconema Xenoplax, Julianne N. Matczyszyn, Timothy Harris, Kirsten S. Powers, Sydney E. Everhart, Tom Powers Dec 2021

Ecological And Morphological Differentiation Among Coi Haplotype Groups In The Plant Parasitic Nematode Species Mesocriconema Xenoplax, Julianne N. Matczyszyn, Timothy Harris, Kirsten S. Powers, Sydney E. Everhart, Tom Powers

Department of Plant Pathology: Faculty Publications

DNA barcoding with the mitochondrial COI gene reveals distinct haplotype subgroups within the monophyletic and parthenogenetic nematode species, Mesocriconema xenoplax. Biological attributes of these haplotype groups (HG) have not been explored. An analysis of M. xenoplax from 40 North American sites representing both native plant communities and agroecosystems was conducted to identify possible subgroup associations with ecological, physiological, or geographic factors. A dataset of 132 M. xenoplax specimens was used to generate sequences of a 712 bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies recognized seven COI HG (≥99/0.99 posterior probability/bootstrap value). Species …


Hyperseed: An End-To-End Method To Process Hyperspectral Images Of Seeds, Tian Gao, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Puneet Paul, Harkamal Walia, Hongfeng Yu Dec 2021

Hyperseed: An End-To-End Method To Process Hyperspectral Images Of Seeds, Tian Gao, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Puneet Paul, Harkamal Walia, Hongfeng Yu

School of Computing: Faculty Publications

High-throughput, nondestructive, and precise measurement of seeds is critical for the evaluation of seed quality and the improvement of agricultural productions. To this end, we have developed a novel end-to-end platform named HyperSeed to provide hyperspectral information for seeds. As a test case, the hyperspectral images of rice seeds are obtained from a high-performance line-scan image spectrograph covering the spectral range from 600 to 1700 nm. The acquired images are processed via a graphical user interface (GUI)-based open-source software for background removal and seed segmentation. The output is generated in the form of a hyperspectral cube and curve for each …


Mistakes In Difficult Conversations, Allan Vyhnalek Dec 2021

Mistakes In Difficult Conversations, Allan Vyhnalek

Cornhusker Economics

Farm families that work together across the family tree and across generations seem to encounter difficulty from time to time when separating “family” from “business.” Having clear, consistent, and honest communications will go a long way towards reducing the troubles that can arise in difficult conversations. This article addresses those troubles.


Evidence Of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte) Field-Evolved Resistance To Cry3bb1 + Cry34/ 35ab1 Maize In Nebraska, Jordan D. Reinders, Emily E. Reinders, Emily Robinson, Bryan W. French, Lance J. Meinke Dec 2021

Evidence Of Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte) Field-Evolved Resistance To Cry3bb1 + Cry34/ 35ab1 Maize In Nebraska, Jordan D. Reinders, Emily E. Reinders, Emily Robinson, Bryan W. French, Lance J. Meinke

Department of Entomology: Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) field-evolved resistance to transgenic maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been confirmed across the United States Corn Belt. Although use of pyramided hybrids expressing Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 has increased in recent years to mitigate existing WCR Bt resistance, susceptibility of Nebraska WCR populations to this rootworm–Bt pyramid has not been assessed. Plant-based bioassays were used to characterize the susceptibility of WCR populations to Cry3Bb1 and Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 maize. Populations were collected from areas of northeastern Nebraska with a history of planting Bt maize that expressed …


Climate And Agronomy, Not Genetics, Underpin Recent Maize Yield Gains In Favorable Environments, Gonzalo Rizzo, Juan Pablo Monzon, Fatima Amor Tenorio, Réka Howard, Kenneth G. Cassman, Patricio Grassini Dec 2021

Climate And Agronomy, Not Genetics, Underpin Recent Maize Yield Gains In Favorable Environments, Gonzalo Rizzo, Juan Pablo Monzon, Fatima Amor Tenorio, Réka Howard, Kenneth G. Cassman, Patricio Grassini

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Faculty Publications

Quantitative understanding of factors driving yield increases of major food crops is essential for effective prioritization of research and development. Yet previous estimates had limitations in distinguishing among contributing factors such as changing climate and new agronomic and genetic technologies. Here, we distinguished the separate contribution of these factors to yield advance using an extensive database collected from the largest irrigated maize-production domain in the world located in Nebraska (United States) during the 2005-to-2018 period. We found that 48% of the yield gain was associated with a decadal climate trend, 39% with agronomic improvements, and, by difference, only 13% with …


Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Ecology In Nebraska Agroecosystems, Blessing Ademokoya Dec 2021

Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Ecology In Nebraska Agroecosystems, Blessing Ademokoya

Department of Entomology: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) have gained considerable attention in Nebraska in the last decade due to increasing densities of native stink bug and spread of invasive species in the Midwest. Little is known about stink bug dynamics in Nebraska cropping systems. Based on data from a recent field survey, specimens at the University of Nebraska State Museum and the diagnostic lab of the Entomology Department at the University of Nebraska Lincoln, as well as published literature, we present a checklist of 72 species and subspecies of Pentatomidae (55 Pentatominae, 13 Asopinae, 3 Podopinae and 1 Edessinae) that occur in …