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2019

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Articles 31 - 60 of 10090

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Forage Allowance And Cow Genotype, Tools To Increase Animal Production In Native Pastures, Pablo Soca, Mariana Carriquiry, Martín Do Carmo Dec 2019

Forage Allowance And Cow Genotype, Tools To Increase Animal Production In Native Pastures, Pablo Soca, Mariana Carriquiry, Martín Do Carmo

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In eight plots (four per block) the effects of two FA per two cow genotypes were tested from August 2007 to March 2010, on a Campos grassland (major species were Axonopus affinis, Oxalis sp., Cyperus sp., Cynodon dactylon, Eryngium nudicaule, Gaudinia fragilis, Chevreulia sarmentosa, Stipa setigera, Paspalum notatum and Coelorhachis selloana) in Uruguay (32º 20` S, 54º 26` W). Forage allowance varied seasonally, in HIGH (5, 3, 4 and 4 kg DM/kg LW) and LOW (3, 3, 2 and 2 kg DM/kg LW) during autumn, winter, spring and summer; respectively. Continuous stocking method was applied throughout the year ...


Herbage Accumulation And Animal Performance On Xaraes Palisade Grass Subjected To Intensities Of Continuous Stocking Management, A. Hernández-Garay, Valéria P. B. Euclides, Sila C. Da Silva, Denise B. Montagner, Nayana N. Nantes, D. Nascimento Jr., C. O. Soare Dec 2019

Herbage Accumulation And Animal Performance On Xaraes Palisade Grass Subjected To Intensities Of Continuous Stocking Management, A. Hernández-Garay, Valéria P. B. Euclides, Sila C. Da Silva, Denise B. Montagner, Nayana N. Nantes, D. Nascimento Jr., C. O. Soare

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The large majority of species used in Brazil belong to the Brachiaria and Panicum genus, with marandu paladisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich) cv. Marandu) being the main cultivated forage grass species (Santos Filho 1996). Brachiaria brizantha cv. xaraés (xaraes palisade grass) was released as an option for diversifying forage species, and it had the advantages of fast regrowth and herbage yield, favouring larger stocking rates and animal productivity (Euclides et al. 2008; 2009).

The objective of this study was to evaluate herbage accumulation and animal performance of beef cattle steers grazing continuously stocked xaraes palisade grass managed at ...


Herb And Clover Mixes Increase Average Daily Gain (Adg) Of Finishing Lambs In Different Seasons, Sharini C. Somasiri, Paul R. Kenyon, Peter D. Kemp, Patrick C. H. Morel, Stephen T. Morris Dec 2019

Herb And Clover Mixes Increase Average Daily Gain (Adg) Of Finishing Lambs In Different Seasons, Sharini C. Somasiri, Paul R. Kenyon, Peter D. Kemp, Patrick C. H. Morel, Stephen T. Morris

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Approximately half of the usable land area in New Zealand is under grasslands (Saggar 2001). Production of lamb meat is seasonal in New Zealand (Fisher 2004) with the majority of lambs born in the spring and slaughtered in late summer and autumn depending on the international demand (Clemens and Babcock 2004) and pasture growth pattern. Finishing lambs outside this window using high quality pastures would help to facilitate a continuous supply of meat to the domestic and international markets. Charlton and Belgrave (1992) and Kemp et al. (2010) reported that the use of herb-clover mixes instead of perennial ryegrass/white ...


Cultivar Influences Milk Production Of Grazing Dairy Cows, Mary Mcevoy, Michael O’Donovan, Emer Kennedy, John Paul Murphy, Luc Delaby Dec 2019

Cultivar Influences Milk Production Of Grazing Dairy Cows, Mary Mcevoy, Michael O’Donovan, Emer Kennedy, John Paul Murphy, Luc Delaby

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Perennial ryegrass is considered one of the most important forage grass species used in temperate ruminant animal production systems. Maximizing milk production from grazed grass is a major objective of pastoral-based dairy systems. While DM yield is an important trait, it fails to define the ultimate value of a grass cultivar, which is its potential to improve animal performance from a pasture sward (Reed 1994). The majority of cultivar evaluation trials are conducted under cutting, so therefore inferior cultivars from an animal production perspective may not be identified until commercialisation when animals graze a pasture sward. Reed (1978) reported that ...


Short-Term Milk Yield Response To Changes In Post-Grazing Sward Height, Elodie Ganche, Luc Delaby, Michael O’Donovan, Tommy M. Boland, Emer Kennedy Dec 2019

Short-Term Milk Yield Response To Changes In Post-Grazing Sward Height, Elodie Ganche, Luc Delaby, Michael O’Donovan, Tommy M. Boland, Emer Kennedy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In temperate climates, grazed grass is the cheapest source of nutrients for the dairy cow (Finneran et al. 2010), therefore its utilisation should be optimised throughout the grazing season to increase enterprise profitability (Shalloo et al. 2004). Within spring-calving systems, energy requirements increase for the post-parturient dairy cow during the spring period. On the other hand, spring grass supply can be limited given low over-winter grass growth rates. The imposition of a lower post-grazing sward height (PGH) during this critical time may be a viable solution to increase grass availability. As the season progresses, PGH may be increased or ...


Introducing Perennials Into Grasslands In South West Australia Increases Gross Margins For Dual Purpose Merino Enterprises, Paul Sanford Dec 2019

Introducing Perennials Into Grasslands In South West Australia Increases Gross Margins For Dual Purpose Merino Enterprises, Paul Sanford

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Dual purpose Merino enterprises on the south coast of Western Australia (WA) typically utilise agricultural grasslands that comprise entirely of annual plant species. These grasslands face a range of challenges including a variable Mediterranean climate coupled with mostly infertile fragile sandy soils. As a consequence livestock producers have to manage potentially high supple-mentary feeding costs particularly in summer and autumn while running sufficient livestock to remain profitable. Sowing summer-active perennial species into these grasslands has been shown through short-term livestock trials to allow an increase in stocking rates and reduce the amount of supplement fed. The objective of this investigation ...


Efficient Beef Production From Temperate Grasslands In North-Western Europe, Edward G. O’Riordan, Paul Crosson, Mark Mcgee, Padraig O’Kiely Dec 2019

Efficient Beef Production From Temperate Grasslands In North-Western Europe, Edward G. O’Riordan, Paul Crosson, Mark Mcgee, Padraig O’Kiely

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Ireland’s cool temperate maritime climate is conducive to grass growth and, as a result, ruminant livestock systems have evolved that maximise both grazed pastures and conserved grassland forage as winter feed. Most Irish pastures are permanent, capable of achieving high herbage production (Keating and O’Kiely 2000) and, accordingly, supporting intensive livestock production systems. Most male progeny from the 1.1 million Irish dairy herd are reared as steers, typically slaughtered at 24-26 months of age. Approximately 85% of dairy calves available for beef production are spring-born, usually in February/March (AIMS 2011). The progeny of Holstein-Friesian (Ho/Fr ...


Using Grasses Morphogenetic Variables For Natural Grassland Grazing Management, Fernando L. De Quadros, Marta G. Da Rocha, Fábio C. Garagorry, Bruno C. Kuinchtner, Cezar W. Barbieri, Thiago H. N. De Carvalho Dec 2019

Using Grasses Morphogenetic Variables For Natural Grassland Grazing Management, Fernando L. De Quadros, Marta G. Da Rocha, Fábio C. Garagorry, Bruno C. Kuinchtner, Cezar W. Barbieri, Thiago H. N. De Carvalho

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In a perspective of ecologically sustainable agriculture, culturally accepted and economically feasible, natural pastures fits as one of the best options for Southern Brazil region. This study assessed the feasibility of rearing beef heifers from 12 to 18 months of age in natural pasture during its growing season (173 days). We evaluated two rest intervals in a natural pasture managed under rotational grazing. Intervals were defined based on the average thermal sum (degree-days) that fits to leaf expansion duration (average of two leaves) of native species of two grasses functional groups, according to Cruz et al. (2010). Only grasses were ...


Dietary Effect Of Substituting Panicum Maximum With Tithonia Diversifolia Forage On Performance Of Yankasa Sheep, Adebowale N. Fajemisin, Timayin Salihu, Akinyemi Fadiyimu, Adebayo Alokan, Olusola Agbede Dec 2019

Dietary Effect Of Substituting Panicum Maximum With Tithonia Diversifolia Forage On Performance Of Yankasa Sheep, Adebowale N. Fajemisin, Timayin Salihu, Akinyemi Fadiyimu, Adebayo Alokan, Olusola Agbede

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Ruminant livestock production in Nigeria is based predominantly on native grassland (especially Panicum maximum); the nutritive value of the natural pasture varies drastically according to season (Ademosun.1992). Changes in nutritional status of these native plants result in very irregular growth and marked fluctuations in seasonal weights of farm animals. Consequently, it becomes imperative to source for alternative feed resources which are more efficient, economical and can be incorporated into ruminant’s diet with a view to reducing feed costs and hence, achieving a greater profit margin for the producer. Tithonia diversifolia is an herbaceous weed of field crops and ...


Plantain (Plantago Lanceolata) In Herb And Legume Pastures Increases Lamb Growth Relative To Perennial Ryegrass And White Clover Pasture, Peter D. Kemp, Paul R. Kenyon, Stephen T. Morris, Sharini C. Somasiri Dec 2019

Plantain (Plantago Lanceolata) In Herb And Legume Pastures Increases Lamb Growth Relative To Perennial Ryegrass And White Clover Pasture, Peter D. Kemp, Paul R. Kenyon, Stephen T. Morris, Sharini C. Somasiri

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Increased use of plantain (Plantago lanceolata) by New Zealand farmers has created a demand for a more complete understanding of the performance and manage-ment of plantain by itself and in various combinations with chicory (Cichorium intybus) and legumes such as white clover (Trifolium repens) and red clover (T. pratense). The objective of this study was to evaluate lamb finishing on plantain by itself and combined with chicory, white and red clover as part of a research programme to develop a temperate perennial pasture superior in animal performance to perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture for sheep production systems (Kemp et ...


Do Different Breeds Of Dairy Cow Differ In Their Ability To Digest Perennial Ryegrass?, Marion Beecher, Frank Buckley, Tommy M. Boland, Craig Thackaberry, Daniel Enriquez-Hidalgo, Michael O’Donovan, Eva Lewis Dec 2019

Do Different Breeds Of Dairy Cow Differ In Their Ability To Digest Perennial Ryegrass?, Marion Beecher, Frank Buckley, Tommy M. Boland, Craig Thackaberry, Daniel Enriquez-Hidalgo, Michael O’Donovan, Eva Lewis

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grazed grass is the cheapest feed source available for ruminant production systems in temperate climates (Finnernan et al. 2010) accounting for 70% and 90% of the diet of dairy cows in Ireland and New Zealand, respectively. Successful operation of grass-based dairy systems is based on achieving large intakes of high quality grass and efficiently converting it into high value milk solids (Prendiville et al. 2010). Prendiville et al. (2009) identified production efficiency differences between Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (J) cows. They found that J had higher milk solids output per 100 kg bodyweight than HF. The aim of this ...


The Effects On Milk Yield And Composition, And Animal Nitrogen And Phosphorus Status, Of Offering Early-Lactation Dairy Cows Concentrate Feeds Of Differing Crude Protein And Phosphorus Concentrations, Michael P. Reid, Michael O’Donovan, Christopher Elliott, John S. Bailey, Catherine J. Watson, Stan T. J. Lalor, John Paul Murphy, Fergal Coughlan, Eva Lewis Dec 2019

The Effects On Milk Yield And Composition, And Animal Nitrogen And Phosphorus Status, Of Offering Early-Lactation Dairy Cows Concentrate Feeds Of Differing Crude Protein And Phosphorus Concentrations, Michael P. Reid, Michael O’Donovan, Christopher Elliott, John S. Bailey, Catherine J. Watson, Stan T. J. Lalor, John Paul Murphy, Fergal Coughlan, Eva Lewis

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Milk composition is affected by the dietary concentration of crude protein (CP) (Kung Jr and Huber 1983) and minerals such as phosphorus (P) (Wu and Satter 2000). Milk composition has consequent effects on the processing properties of milk (Dillon et al. 1997). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of offering supplementary concentrate feeds differing in CP and P concentration to lactating dairy cows in the early lactation period (Feb-May) on milk yield and composition, and on animal nitrogen (N) and P status.


Effect Of Forage Allowance On Native Pasture Traits, Stocking Rate And Beef Cow Body Condition, Martín Do Carmo, Mariana Carriquiry, Pablo Soca Dec 2019

Effect Of Forage Allowance On Native Pasture Traits, Stocking Rate And Beef Cow Body Condition, Martín Do Carmo, Mariana Carriquiry, Pablo Soca

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Stocking rate is a poor indicator of grazing intensity because, in contrast to forage allowance, it gives no information of feed availability. Forage allowance (FA), measured as kg of forage dry matter (DM) per kg of live weight (LW), is the ratio between forage mass and stocking rate (Sollenberger et al. 2005). Crossbred cows demonstrated higher production efficiency than purebreds in poor and rich quality pastures (Barlow et al. 1994) but few experiments have been conducted under different FA in Campos grasslands with growing beef steers (Maraschin et al. 1997, Soares et al. 2005), and no work has been conducted ...


Effects Of Diet During The First Winter On Replacement Heifer Weight Gain And Body Condition Score During The Subsequent Grazing Season, Emer Kennedy, Fergal Coughlan, Steven Fitzgerald, John Paul Murphy Dec 2019

Effects Of Diet During The First Winter On Replacement Heifer Weight Gain And Body Condition Score During The Subsequent Grazing Season, Emer Kennedy, Fergal Coughlan, Steven Fitzgerald, John Paul Murphy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In seasonal calving dairy production systems it is important that heifers attain puberty in an appropriate timeframe especially when they are bred to calve at 2 years of age and in systems that impose restricted breeding periods (Ferrell, 1982). Achieving target weights at key time points is critical because, for example, the onset of puberty usually occurs in dairy heifers at 30-40% of their expected mature BW (Heinrichs 1993) which corresponds to approximately 240-320 kg in Holstein heifers. Furthermore, heifers should be managed to achieve 55% to 60% of mature bodyweight (BW) at mating start date (MSD; Patterson et al ...


Developing And Implementing Animal Welfare Assessments On Extensive And Intensive Grassland Systems: An Overview, Nguyen Xuan Trach, Bob Kilgour Dec 2019

Developing And Implementing Animal Welfare Assessments On Extensive And Intensive Grassland Systems: An Overview, Nguyen Xuan Trach, Bob Kilgour

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

While several definitions of animal welfare exist, in this paper we use the concept of the Five Freedoms. The Five Freedoms are freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury and disease; freedom from fear and distress; freedom to perform normal behavior. While the idea of the Five Freedoms has limitations, it is still a widely-used conceptualization of animal welfare and we use it here to discuss the welfare of cattle in intensive and extensive management systems in Vietnam and Australia. Compared to extensive pasture systems, intensive management systems do result in heightened animal welfare ...


The Evolving Beef Industry And Its Sustainability In Western China, J. P. Wu, Z. M. Lei, L. P. Zhang, X. R. Wang, S. G. Zhao, C. Q. Zhang, G. H. Sun, S. G. Li Dec 2019

The Evolving Beef Industry And Its Sustainability In Western China, J. P. Wu, Z. M. Lei, L. P. Zhang, X. R. Wang, S. G. Zhao, C. Q. Zhang, G. H. Sun, S. G. Li

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The beef industry in China has started to develop since the 1980s. Since then, its production system has been evolving significantly from subsistence production towards business operation in farmer households. As demands continue to grow, China will become the largest beef consumption country in the world by the year of 2025. The beef production in China’s western agriculture regions is gaining significant role in the beef industry of China. Utilization of corn stover and other agriculture aftermath is seen as the competitive advantage of development of the beef industry. Over the last 30 years the beef production efficiency has ...


The Place Of Crossbred Lambs In Australian Lamb Production, David L. Hopkins, Suzanne I. Mortimer, Jessica S. Richards Dec 2019

The Place Of Crossbred Lambs In Australian Lamb Production, David L. Hopkins, Suzanne I. Mortimer, Jessica S. Richards

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Australian sheep industry, particularly the lamb meat sector has undergone a major change in focus, such that consumer requirements are a paramount determinant for production and processing developments. This change has been facilitated by the use of cross breeding production systems where the benefits of heterosis are captured and the implementation of a performance recording system amongst initially, breeders of terminal sires. This sector of the industry has strongly embraced genetic selection using objectively measured traits and this is one of the contributors to the superior growth rate of crossbred progeny over pure bred progeny. A crossbreeding system does ...


Developing A Diet Authentication System From The Composition Of Meat In Ruminants, F. J. Monahan, A. P. Moloney, O. Schmidt Dec 2019

Developing A Diet Authentication System From The Composition Of Meat In Ruminants, F. J. Monahan, A. P. Moloney, O. Schmidt

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

As consumer interest in the link between diet and human health and in the ethics of food production increases assurances about the background origin of food are sought. In the case of animal-derived foods, such as meat, the animal’s diet is an intrinsic component of the food’s production and of its subsequent nutritional quality. Thus, there is a need to develop ways of validating the authenticity of the animal diet. Among the approaches to authenticate the background diet of ruminants is the measurement of components in meat (muscle and adipose tissue) and other tissues that are directly influenced ...


Effect Of Harvest Stage On Forage Yield And Nutritional Value Of Winter And Spring Triticale Genotypes, Abidi Sourour, Ben Youssef Salah, Jlidi Refka Dec 2019

Effect Of Harvest Stage On Forage Yield And Nutritional Value Of Winter And Spring Triticale Genotypes, Abidi Sourour, Ben Youssef Salah, Jlidi Refka

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Triticale grain is the first human made cereal created by 1875. It grows in most climates on acidic soils and in extreme temperature conditions. Moreover, the low value of triticale flour makes it a cereal mainly for animal feed as grain or forage (Varughese et al. 1987). It is well suited for dual purpose use (forage + grain + fodder or fodder, Ben Youssef et al. 2000) and as green forage, silage or hay (Delogu et al. 2001). In Tunisia, triticale was introduced by INRAT but its utilization has not been fully developed in Tunisia. The maximum sown area reached 20000 ha ...


Performance Of Medicago Varia Cv. Gannong No.1 And Onobrychis Viciaefolia Cv. Gansu In The Mixed Agricultural And Pastoral Zone Of Western China, X. R. Wang, J. P. Wu, Z. M. Lei, Y. Liu, T. Liu, B. J. Chen Dec 2019

Performance Of Medicago Varia Cv. Gannong No.1 And Onobrychis Viciaefolia Cv. Gansu In The Mixed Agricultural And Pastoral Zone Of Western China, X. R. Wang, J. P. Wu, Z. M. Lei, Y. Liu, T. Liu, B. J. Chen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Western China is mostly covered with natural grasslands, particularly in mountainous and alpine areas. Here agriculture and grazing pastures with livestock are widely integrated. Overgrazing and forage shortages are prominent problems for animal production. Cold weather and long drought periods can also lead to serious feed shortages, especially of high quality protein forages (Liu et al. 2010). Planting perennial forages with high nutritive value is an important way of increasing forage supply and relieving grassland degradation. Medicago varia L. cv. Gannong No.1 (Medicago) and Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop. cv. Gansu (sainfoin) are examples of perennial legumes with high nutritive value ...


Successful Establishment Of Oversown Chicory And Plantain On Uncultivatable Hill Country, Grant B. Douglas, Katherine N. Tozer, Catherine Cameron, Tom J. Fraser, Paul D. Muir, Ray A. Moss, Grant M. Rennie, Trevor L. Knight Dec 2019

Successful Establishment Of Oversown Chicory And Plantain On Uncultivatable Hill Country, Grant B. Douglas, Katherine N. Tozer, Catherine Cameron, Tom J. Fraser, Paul D. Muir, Ray A. Moss, Grant M. Rennie, Trevor L. Knight

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

All-year grazing of livestock on steep, non-arable hill country (> 20o slope angle, < 1,000 m elevation) is a significant feature of New Zealand agriculture. Hill country pastures are in various states of improvement depending on factors such as extent of subdivision, fertiliser inputs, plant species introduction, and grazing management. Numerous introduced grass, legume and herb species are available to match the many micro-sites in steep hill country (Kemp et al. 1999).

There has been increasing use of the perennial herbs chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) in seed mixtures used on a range of topographies, mostly flat to undulating terrain. Advantages of these species include tolerance of drought and high summer temperatures, highly palatable foliage, enhanced mineral content, and high animal growth rates (Stewart 1996; Li and Kemp 2005). Farmers have sown these species on hill country but there is negligible information on their establishment in such landscapes. As part of a ...


Evaluation Of Crop Production And Water Use Efficiency Of Autumn-Sown Annual Forage Crops On The Rainfed Region Of Loess Plateau China, Qingping Zhang, Lihua Tian, Yuanbo Liu, Lindsay W. Bell, Jeremy P. M. Whish, Yuying Shen Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Crop Production And Water Use Efficiency Of Autumn-Sown Annual Forage Crops On The Rainfed Region Of Loess Plateau China, Qingping Zhang, Lihua Tian, Yuanbo Liu, Lindsay W. Bell, Jeremy P. M. Whish, Yuying Shen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Loess Plateau is one of the most important rainfed regions in China, but rainfall is the most significant factor limiting crop production. In this region rainfall from July to September accounts for 56% of the annual total, providing enough water resources for the growth of autumn-sown crops. Although increasing forage production with autumn sown crops is considered an important means of balancing crop forage and livestock management, suitable species with high yields and good water use efficiency (WUE) are not well defined.

The relationship between yield and water use efficiency has been shown to vary with plant species and ...


Characterizing Feeds And Feed Availability In Sud-Kivu Province, Dr Congo, Samy B. Bacigale, Birthe K. Paul, Fabrice L. Muhimuzi, Neville Mapenzi, Michael Peters, Brigitte L. Maass Dec 2019

Characterizing Feeds And Feed Availability In Sud-Kivu Province, Dr Congo, Samy B. Bacigale, Birthe K. Paul, Fabrice L. Muhimuzi, Neville Mapenzi, Michael Peters, Brigitte L. Maass

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Animal husbandry in the Sud-Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is gradually moving towards stall feeding, due to demographic pressure (Battistin et al. 2009) and scarcity of collectable forages (DSRP-RDC 2005). Therefore, feed is considered one of the main constraints faced by livestock production, especially in the dry season (Katunga et al. 2009; Maass et al. 2012). Unaffordable, fluctuating prices and inaccessibility of feed concentrates and the lack of improved forages adapted to marginal conditions, making them non-competitive with food crops, further exacerbate the livestock feeding situation. This study within the African Food Security Initiative, with ...


Understanding The Impact Of Learning Community Support For Stem Students With Low Mathematics Placement, Ryan D. Sweeder, Merve N. Kursav, Samantha M F Cass, Rebecca L. Matz Dec 2019

Understanding The Impact Of Learning Community Support For Stem Students With Low Mathematics Placement, Ryan D. Sweeder, Merve N. Kursav, Samantha M F Cass, Rebecca L. Matz

Learning Communities Research and Practice

As a residential college within Michigan State University that focuses on STEM fields, Lyman Briggs College developed a STEM learning community to support students with low mathematics placement test scores, the Instilling Quantitative and Integrative Reasoning program (INQUIRE). INQUIRE serves some of those students considered historically at-risk based on STEM retention and graduation rates. INQUIRE was developed as learning community using curricular design, cohort-building activities, and academic resources to assist students’ transition to college. Participating students were surveyed to understand the student experience of INQUIRE. Students’ responses indicated that the program helped them adjust to college, prepare for introductory STEM ...


Architecture Of The Chromatin Remodeler Rsc And Insights Into Its Nucleosome Engagement., Avinash B Patel, Camille M Moore, Basil J Greber, Jie Luo, Stefan A Zukin, Jeff Ranish, Eva Nogales Dec 2019

Architecture Of The Chromatin Remodeler Rsc And Insights Into Its Nucleosome Engagement., Avinash B Patel, Camille M Moore, Basil J Greber, Jie Luo, Stefan A Zukin, Jeff Ranish, Eva Nogales

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosome arrays, which are repositioned by chromatin remodeling complexes to control DNA accessibility. The


The Structure Of The Endogenous Esx-3 Secretion System, Nicole Poweleit, Nadine Czudnochowski, Rachel Nakagawa, Donovan Trinidad, Kenan C. Murphy, Christopher M. Sassetti, Oren S. Rosenberg Dec 2019

The Structure Of The Endogenous Esx-3 Secretion System, Nicole Poweleit, Nadine Czudnochowski, Rachel Nakagawa, Donovan Trinidad, Kenan C. Murphy, Christopher M. Sassetti, Oren S. Rosenberg

Open Access Articles

The ESX (or Type VII) secretion systems are protein export systems in mycobacteria and many Gram-positive bacteria that mediate a broad range of functions including virulence, conjugation, and metabolic regulation. These systems translocate folded dimers of WXG100-superfamily protein substrates across the cytoplasmic membrane. We report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of an ESX-3 system, purified using an epitope tag inserted with recombineering into the chromosome of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. The structure reveals a stacked architecture that extends above and below the inner membrane of the bacterium. The ESX-3 protomer complex is assembled from a single copy of the EccB3 ...


Establishment Of Wildflower Islands To Enhance Roadside Health And Aesthetics, Walter Schacht, Judy Wu-Smart Dec 2019

Establishment Of Wildflower Islands To Enhance Roadside Health And Aesthetics, Walter Schacht, Judy Wu-Smart

Nebraska Department of Transportation Research Reports

Wildflowers are crucial in the ecological function of the low-input roadside plant communities in terms of water andnutrient cycling, nutrient inputs such as nitrogen, total plant canopy cover, stand longevity, and provision of habitat for numerous small animals. Further, wildflowers provide critical foraging and nesting resources for birds, insects, and other wildlife. Unfortunately, habitat loss from agricultural and urban development has led to rapid population declines in wild bees and other pollinators across the US, thereby jeopardizing not only food production but also the sustainability of our natural landscapes (Kearns & Inouye, 1997). One way to mitigate wild bee decline is ...


Trex Function In Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing, Gen Zhang Dec 2019

Trex Function In Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing, Gen Zhang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Piwi interacting RNA pathway (piRNA) transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally silences transposons in the germline to maintain host genome integrity and faithful transmission of the genetic materials. In Drosophilaovaries, maternally loaded piRNAs kick-start piRNA biogenesis and convert precursor transcripts into piRNAs to replenish the piRNA pool during oogenesis. piRNA clusters are the genomic source of piRNA precursors, which are determined by the HP1 homolog Rhino and accessary factors. Rhino specifically binds to piRNA cluster chromatin. I was intrigued by how Rhino localizes to piRNA clusters to specify piRNA precursors. TREX is a conserved mRNA biogenesis complex composed of UAP56 and ...


Sensitive Detection Of Ebv Micrornas Across Cancer Spectrum Reveals Association With Decreased Survival In Adult Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, Mercedeh J. Movassagh, Cliff Oduor, Catherine Forconi, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey Dec 2019

Sensitive Detection Of Ebv Micrornas Across Cancer Spectrum Reveals Association With Decreased Survival In Adult Acute Myelocytic Leukemia, Mercedeh J. Movassagh, Cliff Oduor, Catherine Forconi, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey

Open Access Articles

Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is the etiologic agent involved in numerous human cancers. After infecting the host, EBV establishes a latent infection, with low levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression, evolved to evade immune recognition. Conversely, EBV microRNAs (miRNA) are expressed ubiquitously and abundantly within infected cells. Their role in tumor biology and clinical outcomes across the spectrum of cancer is not fully explained. Here, we applied our bioinformatics pipeline for quantitative EBV miRNA detection to examine sequencing data of 8,955 individual tumor samples across 27 tumor types representing the breadth of cancer. We uncover an association ...


Developmental Transcriptomic Analysis Of The Cave-Dwelling Crustacean, Asellus Aquaticus, Joshua B Gross, Dennis A Sun, Brian M Carlson, Sivan Brodo-Abo, Meredith E Protas Dec 2019

Developmental Transcriptomic Analysis Of The Cave-Dwelling Crustacean, Asellus Aquaticus, Joshua B Gross, Dennis A Sun, Brian M Carlson, Sivan Brodo-Abo, Meredith E Protas

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Faculty Scholarship

Cave animals are a fascinating group of species often demonstrating characteristics including reduced eyes and pigmentation, metabolic efficiency, and enhanced sensory systems. Asellus aquaticus, an isopod crustacean, is an emerging model for cave biology. Cave and surface forms of this species differ in many characteristics, including eye size, pigmentation, and antennal length. Existing resources for this species include a linkage map, mapped regions responsible for eye and pigmentation traits, sequenced adult transcriptomes, and comparative embryological descriptions of the surface and cave forms. Our ultimate goal is to identify genes and mutations responsible for the differences between the cave and surface ...