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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cancer Risk Prediction With Whole Exome Sequencing And Machine Learning, Abdulrhman Fahad M Aljouie Dec 2019

Cancer Risk Prediction With Whole Exome Sequencing And Machine Learning, Abdulrhman Fahad M Aljouie

Dissertations

Accurate cancer risk and survival time prediction are important problems in personalized medicine, where disease diagnosis and prognosis are tuned to individuals based on their genetic material. Cancer risk prediction provides an informed decision about making regular screening that helps to detect disease at the early stage and therefore increases the probability of successful treatments. Cancer risk prediction is a challenging problem. Lifestyle, environment, family history, and genetic predisposition are some factors that influence the disease onset. Cancer risk prediction based on predisposing genetic variants has been studied extensively. Most studies have examined the predictive ability of variants in known ...


Perivascular Waste Metabolites Clearance In Central Nervous System (Cns), Yiming Cheng Dec 2019

Perivascular Waste Metabolites Clearance In Central Nervous System (Cns), Yiming Cheng

Dissertations

Efficient clearance of interstitial waste metabolites is essential for normal brain homeostasis. Such effective clearance is hampered by the lack of a lymphatic system in the brain, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is unable to clear large size waste metabolites in the brain. Here, a novel idea that brain arterial endothelium and smooth muscle cells reactivity regulates the clearance of these water-insoluble large size waste metabolites through the perivascular dynamic exchange, and that low dose ethanol promotes this perivascular clearance is proposed.

In Aim 1, the biodistribution of a large size waste metabolite (Amyloid-β protein mimic) in rat perivascular space ...


Trex Function In Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing, Gen Zhang Dec 2019

Trex Function In Pirna Biogenesis And Transposon Silencing, Gen Zhang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Piwi interacting RNA pathway (piRNA) transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally silences transposons in the germline to maintain host genome integrity and faithful transmission of the genetic materials. In Drosophilaovaries, maternally loaded piRNAs kick-start piRNA biogenesis and convert precursor transcripts into piRNAs to replenish the piRNA pool during oogenesis. piRNA clusters are the genomic source of piRNA precursors, which are determined by the HP1 homolog Rhino and accessary factors. Rhino specifically binds to piRNA cluster chromatin. I was intrigued by how Rhino localizes to piRNA clusters to specify piRNA precursors. TREX is a conserved mRNA biogenesis complex composed of UAP56 and ...


The Intersection Of Deforestation And Economic Growth In The Brazilian Amazon, Victoria Oceguera Dec 2019

The Intersection Of Deforestation And Economic Growth In The Brazilian Amazon, Victoria Oceguera

Student Theses 2015-Present

Abstract

As a result of capital gain, deforestation of the Amazon in Brazil continues. Brazilian government's insufficient efforts to mitigate and enforce the preservation of these precious forests has ledto the commodification of the Amazon. Chapter 1 uses historical and quantitative data to examine the negative impacts of deforestation on indigenous communities and climate change. Chapter2 employs economics to analyze the role of business as a crucial component of deforestation in Brazil. Chapter 3 engages politics in Brazil to discuss interactions between key actors involved in the perpetuation of deforestation. Chapter 3 examines the interactions between politics and corruption ...


Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman Dec 2019

Peroxiredoxin 6 And Inflammation In Alzheimer's Disease, Jared Ferrell-Penniman

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is known for its debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. However, despite intense research into neurodegenerative diseases, there are few therapies targeted at the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are cellular phenomena thought to be key to the progression of the disease. Critically, peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6), an antioxidant protein with multiple functions, has been identified from mammalian studies as a potential regulator of both OS and inflammation that may have a specific effect on AD. This project seeks to elucidate the role of Prx6 in AD as well as the underlying mechanisms ...


Spruce Budworm Defoliation Dynamics And Its Influence On The Acadian Forest, Cen Chen Dec 2019

Spruce Budworm Defoliation Dynamics And Its Influence On The Acadian Forest, Cen Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spruce budworm (SBW; Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) is the primary forest defoliator in North America. SBW defoliation has affected tens of millions ha of forests during its periodic outbreaks and caused severe growth reduction and mortality of spruce-fir (Picea-Abies) species. Evaluating these damaging effects of SBW defoliation requires understandings of the variation and dynamics of defoliation, as well as trees' variable responses to defoliation in consideration of various tree- stand-, and site-level factors. In this dissertation, we developed statistical models to 1) evaluate influences of SBW defoliation on spruce-fir stand dynamics of annual volume net growth, mortality, and ingrowth, 2 ...


Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski Dec 2019

Characterization Of The Effect Of Exercise Dose And Integrative Nonpharmacological Therapies In The Treatment Of Chronic Pain, Anna M. Polaski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chronic pain includes debilitating conditions affecting large populations of people throughout the world. These diseases are further complicated by comorbid psychological disorders which make chronic pain conditions difficult to treat. Nonpharmacological treatment options have more recently become an important mainstay of effective therapies and are currently being used to supplement or replace traditional pharmacological treatment methods. Exercise-based therapies in particular are of interest due to their demonstrated success in reducing pain symptoms as well as improving psychological outcomes. Dose is an important factor in being able to effectively prescribe treatments in the context of specific exercise interventions and specific pain ...


State-Dependent Mapping Of Glyr-Cholesterol Interactions By Coupling Crosslinking With Mass Spectrometry, Nicholas Ferraro Dec 2019

State-Dependent Mapping Of Glyr-Cholesterol Interactions By Coupling Crosslinking With Mass Spectrometry, Nicholas Ferraro

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The glycine receptor (GlyR) belongs to a superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) that mediate fast neurotransmission. GlyR typically modulates inhibitory transmission by antagonizing membrane depolarization through anion influx. Allosteric interactions between the receptor and its lipid surroundings affect receptor function, and cholesterol is essential for pLGIC activity. Human α1 GlyR was purified from baculovirus infected insect cells and reconstituted in unilamellar vesicles at cholesterol: lipid ratios below and above the cholesterol activity threshold with aliquots of azi-cholesterol. State-dependent crosslinking studies of receptors primarily in its resting (no glycine), desensitized (10mM glycine) and open (F207A/A288G, 30nM ivermectin) states ...


Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem Dec 2019

Nanomedicine-Driven Neuropathic Pain Relief In Rat Model Is Associated With Macrophage Polarity And Mast Cell Activation, Muzamil Saleem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the immune neuropathology underlying multi-day relief from neuropathic pain in a rat model initiated at the sciatic nerve by using a nanoemulsion-based nanomedicine as a biological probe. The nanomedicine is theranostic: both therapeutic (containing celecoxib drug) and diagnostic (containing near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye) and is small enough to be phagocytosed by circulating monocytes. A model of neuropathic pain is initiated by tying four 1mm spaced knots around the sciatic nerve with chromic gut suture, which results in neuroinflammation, and a resultant pain-like behavior manifests. We show that pain-like behavior reaches a plateau of maximum hypersensitivity 8 days post-surgery ...


Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi Dec 2019

Genetic Analysis Of A Novel Ftsk Homolog, Hfka, In Streptomyces Coelicolor Development-Associated Chromosome Segregation, Sumedha Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A quintessential phenomenon occurring during prokaryotic development is accurate segregation of the replicated genomes into the daughter cells. Key energy-dependent processes like chromosome condensation and subcellular partitioning of the genomes are driven by conserved proteins like SMC, ParB, FtsK. During its complex developmental cycle, Streptomyces coelicolor segregates its genomes into chains of unicellular spores when its multigenomic syncytial aerial hyphae undergo division.

A novel ftsK-like gene, hfkA (Homolog of FtsK protein A), was examined for function and localization during development-associated chromosome segregation. Individual deletions did not affect segregation, but a ΔhfkA ΔftsK mutant exhibited 8% anucleate spores ...


Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann Dec 2019

Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann

Theses & Dissertations

RATIONALE: Our laboratories birthed the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) theranostics. The new field allows simultaneous detection (diagnostics) and treatment (therapeutic) for the identification, treatment and inevitable elimination of virus in cell and tissue compartments. By employing theranostics, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can be tracked in lymph nodes, gut, spleen and liver. Cellular viral reservoirs including CD4+ T cell populations and mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes, macrophages, microglia and dendritic cells) along with subcellular endosomal structures can now be targeted for drug delivery bringing therapeutics to areas where virus replicates. The overarching idea rests in improving precision targeted ARV delivery. Bringing ...


There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford Dec 2019

There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford

Student Theses 2015-Present

This report addresses the widespread pollution of domestic groundwater resources with Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) caused by firefighting activities performed at military installations across the United States. Two former military bases in Southeastern Pennsylvania are used as a single case study: the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) in Warminster and the Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) in Horsham. Chapter 1 gives a history of domestic military bases from the perspective of the infrastructure buildup and downsizing that occurred over the 20th Century, along with the environmental degradation revealed during brownfield redevelopment. The chapter then gives specifics about ...


Characterizing The Combination Of Rpa Inhibitors With Parp Inhibitors In High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer, Yat Tang Dec 2019

Characterizing The Combination Of Rpa Inhibitors With Parp Inhibitors In High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer, Yat Tang

Theses & Dissertations

High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common and deadly gynecologic malignancy. HGSC patients with BRCA1/2 mutations have homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), requiring parallel pathways to maintain genome integrity (e.g., PARP1, PARP2). Approximately 50% of ovarian carcinomas are estimated to exhibit HRD. For the remaining 50% and the large percentage of HRD patients with acquired or innate resistance to single-agent PARP inhibitors, there is a need to develop alternative therapeutic strategies.

Replication Protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimeric protein crucial for genome maintenance. Phosphorylation of RPA in DNA damage response (DDR) is a negative regulator of DNA ...


Computational Studies And Design Of Pparγ And Glut1 Inhibitors, Suliman Almahmoud Dec 2019

Computational Studies And Design Of Pparγ And Glut1 Inhibitors, Suliman Almahmoud

Theses & Dissertations

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that controls the expression of a variety of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. PPARγ is a target for insulin-sensitizing drugs, and it plays a significant function in prostate cancer. PPARγ antagonists have anti-proliferative effects in a broad range of hematopoietic and epithelial cell lines. The ligand binding domain (LBD) of PPARγ is large and has orthosteric and allosteric binding sites. Several PPARγ-ligand co-crystal structures show two bound molecules, one to the orthosteric pocket and a second to the allosteric ...


Towards A Unified Disease Mechanism For Trna Synthetase-Mediated Peripheral Neuropathy, Emily L. Spaulding Dec 2019

Towards A Unified Disease Mechanism For Trna Synthetase-Mediated Peripheral Neuropathy, Emily L. Spaulding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a debilitating inherited peripheral neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle atrophy and loss of sensation. CMT is genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in over 80 different genes leading to demyelinating or axonal forms. There are genetically similar subgroups, including the largest protein family implicated in the disease, the tRNA synthetases (ARSs). ARSs are responsible for aminoacylation of tRNAs during translation and are therefore ubiquitously expressed and essential proteins. Dominant mutations in at least five ARSs cause axonal forms of CMT. How mutations in ARSs cause CMT is unclear, however, the similar clinical presentation of patients suggests shared ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga Dec 2019

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows Dec 2019

Evaluating The Occurrence Of Age-Related Peripheral Neuropathy In Het3 Mice And Development Of A Whole Tissue Imaging Technique For Analyzing Total Innervation In The Subcutaneous Adipose Depot, Jake Willows

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Adipose tissue can be characterized as either being a white (energy storing) depot or a brown (energy expending) depot and both have been found to contain dense networks of neural innervation. This adipose nerve supply regulates numerous metabolic functions and likely plays an important role in the function of adipose blood vessels. Recently our lab has shown in the C57BL/6 mouse model that peripheral neuropathy, or the dying back and dysfunction of the nerves in the superficial tissues such as the skin, can extend into the subcutaneous adipose tissue in conditions commonly associated with the neuropathic phenotype (i.e ...


Validation Of A Fluorescence-Based Bacteria Enumeration And Viability Determination Method Using Image Cytometry, Matthew R. Hodgkin Dec 2019

Validation Of A Fluorescence-Based Bacteria Enumeration And Viability Determination Method Using Image Cytometry, Matthew R. Hodgkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Craft beer production in the United States has been increasing significantly in recent years. As production and participation in the industry increases, so have consumer demands for more beer options. Breweries have met this call with experimentation of ingredients in their beer and also the styles they brew. One such beer, the sour beer, is an example of this experimentation and new product development. Sour beers are a style that differ from most other beers by how they are manufactured. Instead of being fermented with only yeast, both a lactic acid-producing bacteria and yeast are used. With increased competition amongst ...


The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi Dec 2019

The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sediment acidification has been shown to negatively impact clams of economic importance such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758, and hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Effects of sediment acidification on razor clams, including the Atlantic jackknife clam Ensis leei M. Huber, 2015, are unknown. E. leei has been identified as a species with potential for aquaculture operations on the New England coast. E. leei may be resilient to acidification and thus persist in acidified sediments where other clams cannot. To this end, the impact of acidified surface sediment on the internal immune capacity of adult (mean shell ...


The Effect Of Invasive Plants On Soil Microbial Activity In A Ny Temperate Forest, Victoria Dawn Hull Dec 2019

The Effect Of Invasive Plants On Soil Microbial Activity In A Ny Temperate Forest, Victoria Dawn Hull

Theses - ALL

Invasive woody plants are often strong competitors that can have large effects on ecosystem function. While there is evidence that Northeastern invasive species can increase nitrogen cycling in monocultures, little is known about how invasive plants alter biogeochemistry in the field. I hypothesized that the high-quality leaf and root litter of invaders would enhance the quality of soil organic matter, leading to greater belowground microbial activity and faster rates of nitrogen mineralization. In the summer of 2017, I conducted a field survey of invasive and native understory shrubs to see how invasive woody plants influence microbial activity in central New ...


Variation In Herbivore Effects On Grassland Primary Production: A Test Of Three Models, Jacob Penner Dec 2019

Variation In Herbivore Effects On Grassland Primary Production: A Test Of Three Models, Jacob Penner

Theses - ALL

Grazing animals influence a wide range of plant and soil processes in the world’s grasslands. Ecologists have long understood that grazing can stimulate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), although this phenomenon has not been broadly generalizable across grasslands and grazing regimes. The mechanisms underlying grazer stimulation of ANPP are therefore of interest to a wide variety of stakeholders from ecologists to land managers. Three data-supported hypotheses offer differing explanations for the ways in which grazing interacts with resource availability to drive ANPP: the compensatory continuum hypothesis (CCH) implicates background resource availability, the limiting resource model (LRM) considers the direct ...


Gingival Mscs Improve Bone Phenotype In Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Via Programmed Cell Death Pathway, Sultan Alghaithi Dec 2019

Gingival Mscs Improve Bone Phenotype In Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Via Programmed Cell Death Pathway, Sultan Alghaithi

Dental Theses

Estrogen deficiency-related osteoporosis is a skeletal system disorder that affects women after menopause taking a toll on financial and health institutions. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem cells (GMSCs) are a distinctive population of dental tissue-derived stem cells that possess uniquely high proliferation abilities and are capable of self-maintenance and multipotent differentiation. Their use has been investigated in different disease model applications, including cutaneous wound healing models, colitis, and allergy-related inflammatory disease models, but their effect on the bone phenotype of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis hasn’t been explored. In our study, we show that a single systemic infusion of GMSCs elevated the bone mass ...


The Benefits Of Physical Activity And Sport On Mental Health And Well-Being In School-Aged Children, Ian Gilhousen Dec 2019

The Benefits Of Physical Activity And Sport On Mental Health And Well-Being In School-Aged Children, Ian Gilhousen

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

There is research that concludes that there are benefits of physical activity for young children. However, there is an area of research which is lacking the benefits that physical activity and sport have on mental health and well-being in school-aged children, specifically. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the benefits of physical activity and sport on mental health and well-being in school-aged children. Results determined that there are significant benefits, and a correlation between physical activity participation and overall mental health in school-aged children.


Concussion Assessment Management In High School And Collegiate Athletics, Erin Mcneely Dec 2019

Concussion Assessment Management In High School And Collegiate Athletics, Erin Mcneely

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research indicates that protocol regarding concussion assessment management at the high school and collegiate level is advancing, however, there are holes in consistency that need to be filled in order to ensure accuracy. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on concussion assessment management in high school and collegiate athletics. The results indicate that the lack of consistency comes as a direct result of key factors including a school’s lack of funding and lack of resources, the emphasis placed on the self-efficacy of athletic trainers, and the willingness of athletic trainers to follow guidelines provided for ...


Microfiber Concentrations In Sand From Nesting Sea Turtle Beaches In Costa Rica, South Carolina, And Florida., Kaylin Leroy, George Boneillo Dec 2019

Microfiber Concentrations In Sand From Nesting Sea Turtle Beaches In Costa Rica, South Carolina, And Florida., Kaylin Leroy, George Boneillo

Honors Theses

Microplastics are an increasing threat to marine environments and the organisms that inhabit them. Since plastic pollution in the ocean is prominent throughout the globe, microplastic is washing ashore, affecting important sea turtle nesting sites. This study quantified microfibers in the sand of various sea turtle nesting sites around the world. Sand samples were collected in Myrtle Beach (South Carolina), Destin (Florida) and the Pacuare Reserve (Costa Rica). The microfibers were retrieved using a super saline solution and then filtered under a hood. Filters were then counted using microscopy. Microfibers were found at every sampling site, with the lowest surface ...


Potential Arm Preference Within Starfish Species Including Asterias Vulgaris And Luidia Clathrata: A Study And Summary, Rebecca Jones, Young Robert Dec 2019

Potential Arm Preference Within Starfish Species Including Asterias Vulgaris And Luidia Clathrata: A Study And Summary, Rebecca Jones, Young Robert

Honors Theses

Foraging arm preference was tested in two species of starfish: Asterias vulgaris and Luidia clathrata. No evidence was found for a species-wide preference or for a preference by individual sea stars, but trials were impacted by illness and resulting low sample size.


Modulating Mcm Levels Causes Differential Loading At Origins Of Replication And Changes Replication Timing, Livio Dukaj Dec 2019

Modulating Mcm Levels Causes Differential Loading At Origins Of Replication And Changes Replication Timing, Livio Dukaj

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

DNA replication is a highly complex part of cell metabolism that ensures safe propagation of the genome through tight regulation of the expression, localization, and activity of a large number of factors. Replication starts from distinct sites in the genome and initiation events are temporally ordered in a manner that is, on average, highly reproducible across cell populations. The specific order with which different parts of the genome are replicated has been proposed to be important to processes such as gene expression, cell differentiation, development, and genome evolution. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for establishing these timing programs ...


Parents' Understanding Of The Impact On Sport Specialization, Samuel Lacelle Dec 2019

Parents' Understanding Of The Impact On Sport Specialization, Samuel Lacelle

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis project was to review the literature on parents’ understanding of the impact on sport specialization. An extensive literature review was completed in order to properly examine all the information available regarding the parent’s role when it comes to their child’s participation in sport and whether or not they are specializing in a specific sport. This review was done so by examining 16 peer reviewed articles on multiple web data bases. The research concluded that there should be a high emphasis on the child’s motor development at an early age (Goodway and Robinson ...


Effects Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity Of Aquatic Litter-Associated Fungi, Nicholas Bautz Dec 2019

Effects Of Temperature On Enzyme Activity Of Aquatic Litter-Associated Fungi, Nicholas Bautz

Honors Theses

The decomposition of leaf litter in aquatic ecosystems is carried out mostly by microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Fungi, known as aquatic hyphomycetes, dominate microbial communities in the decomposition of leaf litter. These fungi produce extracellular enzymes that aid in the sequestration of carbon and nutrients and lead to the breakdown of complex plant polymers. We evaluated the effects of temperature on extracellular enzyme activity within the framework of the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE). The activity of β-1,4-glucosidase and β-1,4-xylosidase was estimated fluorometrically using artificial substrate analogs. Phenol oxidase activity was estimated spectrophotometrically from oxidation of L-DOPA ...


Robustness Mechanisms Of Temporal Cell-Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Orkan Ilbay Dec 2019

Robustness Mechanisms Of Temporal Cell-Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Orkan Ilbay

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Robustness is a ubiquitous property of biological systems, however, underlying mechanisms that help reinforce the optimal phenotypes despite environmental or physiological perturbations are poorly understood.

C. elegans development consists of four larval stages (L1-L4) and well-characterized invariant cell lineages, within which the heterochronic pathway controls the order and timing of cell-fates. Environmental or physiological stress signals can slow or temporarily halt larval stage progression; remarkably, however, temporal cell-fate progression remains unaffected.

We show that two widely conserved signaling pathways, insulin and TGF- β, that regulate C. elegans larval stage progression in response to starvation and crowding, respectively, also regulate a ...