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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Can Precision Farming Technologies Be Applied To Grazing Management?, S. Mark Rutter Dec 2019

Can Precision Farming Technologies Be Applied To Grazing Management?, S. Mark Rutter

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In arable farming, precision is used to monitor and manage crop variability. The same precision approach can be used to manage grassland, by using crop sensing, targeted fertilizer/herbicide/pesticide application and forage yield measurement when it is harvested mechanically. An additional challenge in grassland agriculture is developing precision approaches to manage the grazing process. This requires technologies to determine where an animal is, when, what and how much it is grazing which the system then needs to use in conjunction with other sources of information to control where the animal grazes next. This paper reviews the existing technologies in ...


Manipulation Of The Spatial Grazing Behaviour Of Livestock In Extensive Grassland Systems, Derek W. Bailey, Mitch B. Stephenson, Milton G. Thomas, Juan F. Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon Dec 2019

Manipulation Of The Spatial Grazing Behaviour Of Livestock In Extensive Grassland Systems, Derek W. Bailey, Mitch B. Stephenson, Milton G. Thomas, Juan F. Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Spatial behaviour of livestock is a critical factor in grassland management. Recent and ongoing research suggests that new approaches can be used to manipulate where cattle graze. The combination of strategic supplement placement and low-stress herding can be used to target cattle grazing and potentially may be useful for managing fine fuels. A phenotype to genotype association study of cattle spatial behavior suggests that use of rugged terrain and areas far from water is inherited. Although more research is needed, selection for animals specifically adapted for mountainous terrain or extensive paddocks may be an alternative for managing grasslands in the ...


Case Studies Which Demonstrate The Financial Viability Of Precision Dairy Farming, Ian Yule, Hayden Lawrence, Craige Mackenzie, Carolyn Hedley, Miles Grafton Dec 2019

Case Studies Which Demonstrate The Financial Viability Of Precision Dairy Farming, Ian Yule, Hayden Lawrence, Craige Mackenzie, Carolyn Hedley, Miles Grafton

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

A number of case studies are used to demonstrate the financial viability of precision farming methods for intensively managed pastures. Precision farming has sometimes been criticized as being technology-led where the management goals and desired outcomes are sometimes poorly defined. Case studies presented in this paper demonstrate a strong management approach where appropriate technologies are selected to contribute to the financial success of the farm. The first case study farm has increased milk production by 70% in four years, increased pasture production by 43%, reduced fertilizer costs to 43% of previous levels and has successfully predicted annual production to within ...


Opportunities For Improving Livestock Production With E-Management Systems, Dave L. Swain, Rebecca N. Handcock, Greg J. Bishop-Hurley, Don Menzies Dec 2019

Opportunities For Improving Livestock Production With E-Management Systems, Dave L. Swain, Rebecca N. Handcock, Greg J. Bishop-Hurley, Don Menzies

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

There is increased interest in hardware and software that can support e-Management for grassland-based livestock industries. Managers of grazing livestock were early adopters of radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies automatically monitoring individual animal performance. Recent developments of remote sensing, automated individual recording and management, location based systems, improved data transfer and technologies that can be used in more extensive grazing systems are providing new opportunities for the development of e-Management systems. There is a need for better data integration and systems that can provide the best available information to enable better decision-making. For greater industry adoption of more integrated e-Management ...


Growth Of Bali Bulls Fattened With Forage Tree Legumes In Eastern Indonesia: Leucaena Leucocephala In Sumbawa, Tanda Panjaitan, Muhammad Fauzan, H. Dahlanuddin, Michael J. Halliday, H. Max Shelton Dec 2019

Growth Of Bali Bulls Fattened With Forage Tree Legumes In Eastern Indonesia: Leucaena Leucocephala In Sumbawa, Tanda Panjaitan, Muhammad Fauzan, H. Dahlanuddin, Michael J. Halliday, H. Max Shelton

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The contribution of West Nusa Tenggara Province to domestic beef supply in Indonesia is relatively small, however, beef cattle are very important for the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in the region.

Bali cattle (Boss javanicus) are the predominant breed as they are adapted to harsh nutritional conditions, are highly fertile and have low calf mortality (Toelihere 2003). While genetically capable of achieving a growth rate of 0.85 kg/d (Mastika 2003), Panjaitan (2012) identified poor nutrition as a severe limitation to animal growth in traditional village systems. Improving feed quality and supply is vital to increasing growth rates and ...


Effect Of High Se And Co Alfalfa Forage On Animal Production, Xiao-Lei Jie, Xiao Guo, Hua-Feng Hu Dec 2019

Effect Of High Se And Co Alfalfa Forage On Animal Production, Xiao-Lei Jie, Xiao Guo, Hua-Feng Hu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Total and available selenium (Se) and cobalt (Co) concentrations are low in Chinese soils, especially those found in mainly in temperate humid sub-humid conditions in the northeast to the southwest band across China (Tan et al. 2002). The levels of Se and Co are marginally deficit in the brown soil of the Yellow River region which causes lower production level and quality in forage and crop plants. Application of Se and Co fertilizers to arable lands is essential to produce high Se and Co forages. Henan is a Province where produce high-quality grass forages are used to support dairy farming ...


Pre-Conditioned Cattle Sales For Forage-Based Cow-Calf Management Systems, C. P. Bagley, L. S. Dale, B. C. Housewright Dec 2019

Pre-Conditioned Cattle Sales For Forage-Based Cow-Calf Management Systems, C. P. Bagley, L. S. Dale, B. C. Housewright

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Demand for preconditioned feeder cattle continues to increase in the beef industry as value-based marketing and information flow expands indicating preconditioned forage-raised calves require less management, fewer losses due to illness and deaths, and increased profitability to both buyer and seller. The goal of a preconditioning program is to increase the value of weaned cattle (Bailey, 2002). The Northeast Texas Beef Improvement Organization (NET-BIO) is comprised of commercial cow/calf and stocker operators and various agribusinesses with the same interest. The objective of this study is to determine if prices received for preconditioned NETBIO stocker cattle increase the net income ...


Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Grazing Lambs Finished On Tropical Grasses, Cesar H. E. C. Poli, Samuel Carnesella, Fernando M. Souza, Concepta Mcmanus, Zélia M. S. Castilhos, Liris Kindlein, Jaime U. Tarouco Dec 2019

Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Grazing Lambs Finished On Tropical Grasses, Cesar H. E. C. Poli, Samuel Carnesella, Fernando M. Souza, Concepta Mcmanus, Zélia M. S. Castilhos, Liris Kindlein, Jaime U. Tarouco

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Brazil is a country of continental size, and more than seven million ha are occupied with tropical pasture. Worldwide animal production from tropical pastures is also very significant where Cynodon, Panicum and Paspalum are important genus. These grasses are widely used in the production of cattle, and are growing in importance for sheep production, but their potential for producing quality lamb is not fully known.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of two tropical grasses for finishing lambs in autumn to reduce the seasonality of production of lamb for meat.


Alternative Pasture Development System And Breeding Weight For Beef Heifers, H. A. Lardner, Daalkhaijav Damiran, Steve Hendrick, Kathy Larson Dec 2019

Alternative Pasture Development System And Breeding Weight For Beef Heifers, H. A. Lardner, Daalkhaijav Damiran, Steve Hendrick, Kathy Larson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Proper development of replacement beef heifers is critical and needs to be accomplished at lower costs without sacrificing reproductive performance. The current recommendations indicate heifers should reach approximately 65% of mature body weight (MBW) at breeding for successful reproduction (Patterson et al. 1992; NRC 1996). Meeting heifer maintenance and gestation nutrient requirements are getting more economically challenged for beef producers in western Canada. Therefore, producers are moving from drylot development systems where cattle are housed and fed in pens to the adoption of extensive grazing systems (Kelln et al. 2011) in field paddocks. Limited research has been conducted to determine ...


Variation Of Rumen Bacterial Diversity In Steers After The Beginning Of Grazing, Miwa Nakano, Satoshi Haga, Masanori Tohno, Kazuhiro Matoba, Ryuichi Uegaki, Hiroshi Ishizaki Dec 2019

Variation Of Rumen Bacterial Diversity In Steers After The Beginning Of Grazing, Miwa Nakano, Satoshi Haga, Masanori Tohno, Kazuhiro Matoba, Ryuichi Uegaki, Hiroshi Ishizaki

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Holstein heifers before or after puberty often are herded on public pastures in Japan. The herbage intake and rumen fermentation of grazing heifers that are not adapted for fresh herbage decreases due to a change of feed from stall-fed dried forage to fresh herbage. This limits their performance during the first several weeks on pasture. Thus, the feeding program such as supplementation before and after the beginning of grazing is important. An increase in ammonia concentration and a decline in fibre degradation in the rumen of a heifer (both of which occur simultaneously with low herbage intake and rumen fermentation ...


Forage Systems Effect On Forage-Fed Beef Production, Guillermo Scaglia, Basu Bhandari, Jeffrey M. Gillespie, Jim J. Wang Dec 2019

Forage Systems Effect On Forage-Fed Beef Production, Guillermo Scaglia, Basu Bhandari, Jeffrey M. Gillespie, Jim J. Wang

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Locally produced forage-finished beef offers high value while enhancing economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It enhances environmental quality and the natural resource base, and makes good use of resources both on and off-farm. On the farm, it makes the most of the ability of cattle to convert grass to meat in a low-input system, making efficient use of solar energy, improving soil nutrient cycling, conserving soil and water, and limiting reliance on non-renewable resources (DeRamus 2004). Although the major causes of increased greenhouse gas emissions are due to population growth and industrialization, agriculture contributes to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through ...


Activity, Physiology And Milk Production Of Yaks And Two Different Yak Crossbreds Grazing Himalayan Pasture Sites At 4700 M And 3000 M, Shanker R. Barsila, Naba R. Devkota, Michael Kreuzer, Svenja Marquardt Dec 2019

Activity, Physiology And Milk Production Of Yaks And Two Different Yak Crossbreds Grazing Himalayan Pasture Sites At 4700 M And 3000 M, Shanker R. Barsila, Naba R. Devkota, Michael Kreuzer, Svenja Marquardt

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Yaks (Bos grunniens) and crossbreds of yaks with different local cattle breeds are important for the livelihood of local herders in the Himalayas. They are often kept in a system of transhumance comprising the use of different pasture sites for grazing along an altitudinal gradient throughout the year. The animals are moved upwards to the high altitude pastures in spring/early summer and gradually moved downwards in late summer/autumn. Yaks are suitable for very high altitudes as they are especially adapted to low oxygen partial pressure, forage scarcity and cold and harsh environment (Wiener et al. 2003). However, yak-cattle ...


Fatty Acid Metabolism On Pasture- And Feedlot-Finished Cattle, Cuk T. Noviandi, Robert E. Ward, Jong-Su Eun, Dale R. Zobell, Rusty D. Stott, Blair L. Waldron, Mike D. Peel Dec 2019

Fatty Acid Metabolism On Pasture- And Feedlot-Finished Cattle, Cuk T. Noviandi, Robert E. Ward, Jong-Su Eun, Dale R. Zobell, Rusty D. Stott, Blair L. Waldron, Mike D. Peel

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Feeding high-grain diets to finishing beef cattle results in high proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the beef, which is considered to confer negative impacts on human health. In contrast, pasture-finished cattle produce lower proportion of SFA, greater n-3 and less n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and higher conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) compared to high grain-finished beef (Noviandi et al. 2012). Increased n-3 PUFA, especially C18:3 n-3, can reduce the risk of heart disease, hypertension, inflammation, and mammary cancer, and lower cholesterol concentration in blood (De Deckere et al. 1998; Tapiero et al. 2002).

Nitrogen fertilisation can increase ...


Development Of Feeding System Based On Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) And Sheanut Cake (Vitellaria Paradoxa) For Nellore Sheep Reared In Different Production Systems, K. Sarjan Rao, Y. Ravindra Reddy Dec 2019

Development Of Feeding System Based On Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) And Sheanut Cake (Vitellaria Paradoxa) For Nellore Sheep Reared In Different Production Systems, K. Sarjan Rao, Y. Ravindra Reddy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Since protein sources such as ground nut cake and soya bean are too expensive to feed as supplements to livestock in India, steps have been taken to reduce cost by utilizing alternative feedstuffs to replace the traditional sources in ration formulation (Parashuramului et al. 2013). Azolla which is a free-floating nitrogen fixing water fern has a potential to be used as a protein supplement for ruminants (Ahirwar and Leela, 2012). Sheanut cake (Vitellaria paradoxa) which is produced after extraction of fats use in cosmetics and as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate making, is also a rich in carbohydrates and ...


Lca Study On Sheep Milk Production In Sardinian Farms At Different Input Levels, Enrico Vagnoni, Antonello Franca, Leo Breedveld, Claudio Porqueddu, Pierpaolo Duce Dec 2019

Lca Study On Sheep Milk Production In Sardinian Farms At Different Input Levels, Enrico Vagnoni, Antonello Franca, Leo Breedveld, Claudio Porqueddu, Pierpaolo Duce

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

This paper illustrates a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study carried out with the purposes of comparing the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three different dairy farms in Sardinia, Italy, characterized by different production systems.


Forage Allowance And Cow Genotype, Tools To Increase Animal Production In Native Pastures, Pablo Soca, Mariana Carriquiry, Martín Do Carmo Dec 2019

Forage Allowance And Cow Genotype, Tools To Increase Animal Production In Native Pastures, Pablo Soca, Mariana Carriquiry, Martín Do Carmo

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In eight plots (four per block) the effects of two FA per two cow genotypes were tested from August 2007 to March 2010, on a Campos grassland (major species were Axonopus affinis, Oxalis sp., Cyperus sp., Cynodon dactylon, Eryngium nudicaule, Gaudinia fragilis, Chevreulia sarmentosa, Stipa setigera, Paspalum notatum and Coelorhachis selloana) in Uruguay (32º 20` S, 54º 26` W). Forage allowance varied seasonally, in HIGH (5, 3, 4 and 4 kg DM/kg LW) and LOW (3, 3, 2 and 2 kg DM/kg LW) during autumn, winter, spring and summer; respectively. Continuous stocking method was applied throughout the year ...


Herbage Accumulation And Animal Performance On Xaraes Palisade Grass Subjected To Intensities Of Continuous Stocking Management, A. Hernández-Garay, Valéria P. B. Euclides, Sila C. Da Silva, Denise B. Montagner, Nayana N. Nantes, D. Nascimento Jr., C. O. Soare Dec 2019

Herbage Accumulation And Animal Performance On Xaraes Palisade Grass Subjected To Intensities Of Continuous Stocking Management, A. Hernández-Garay, Valéria P. B. Euclides, Sila C. Da Silva, Denise B. Montagner, Nayana N. Nantes, D. Nascimento Jr., C. O. Soare

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The large majority of species used in Brazil belong to the Brachiaria and Panicum genus, with marandu paladisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich) cv. Marandu) being the main cultivated forage grass species (Santos Filho 1996). Brachiaria brizantha cv. xaraés (xaraes palisade grass) was released as an option for diversifying forage species, and it had the advantages of fast regrowth and herbage yield, favouring larger stocking rates and animal productivity (Euclides et al. 2008; 2009).

The objective of this study was to evaluate herbage accumulation and animal performance of beef cattle steers grazing continuously stocked xaraes palisade grass managed at ...


Herb And Clover Mixes Increase Average Daily Gain (Adg) Of Finishing Lambs In Different Seasons, Sharini C. Somasiri, Paul R. Kenyon, Peter D. Kemp, Patrick C. H. Morel, Stephen T. Morris Dec 2019

Herb And Clover Mixes Increase Average Daily Gain (Adg) Of Finishing Lambs In Different Seasons, Sharini C. Somasiri, Paul R. Kenyon, Peter D. Kemp, Patrick C. H. Morel, Stephen T. Morris

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Approximately half of the usable land area in New Zealand is under grasslands (Saggar 2001). Production of lamb meat is seasonal in New Zealand (Fisher 2004) with the majority of lambs born in the spring and slaughtered in late summer and autumn depending on the international demand (Clemens and Babcock 2004) and pasture growth pattern. Finishing lambs outside this window using high quality pastures would help to facilitate a continuous supply of meat to the domestic and international markets. Charlton and Belgrave (1992) and Kemp et al. (2010) reported that the use of herb-clover mixes instead of perennial ryegrass/white ...


Cultivar Influences Milk Production Of Grazing Dairy Cows, Mary Mcevoy, Michael O’Donovan, Emer Kennedy, John Paul Murphy, Luc Delaby Dec 2019

Cultivar Influences Milk Production Of Grazing Dairy Cows, Mary Mcevoy, Michael O’Donovan, Emer Kennedy, John Paul Murphy, Luc Delaby

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Perennial ryegrass is considered one of the most important forage grass species used in temperate ruminant animal production systems. Maximizing milk production from grazed grass is a major objective of pastoral-based dairy systems. While DM yield is an important trait, it fails to define the ultimate value of a grass cultivar, which is its potential to improve animal performance from a pasture sward (Reed 1994). The majority of cultivar evaluation trials are conducted under cutting, so therefore inferior cultivars from an animal production perspective may not be identified until commercialisation when animals graze a pasture sward. Reed (1978) reported that ...


Short-Term Milk Yield Response To Changes In Post-Grazing Sward Height, Elodie Ganche, Luc Delaby, Michael O’Donovan, Tommy M. Boland, Emer Kennedy Dec 2019

Short-Term Milk Yield Response To Changes In Post-Grazing Sward Height, Elodie Ganche, Luc Delaby, Michael O’Donovan, Tommy M. Boland, Emer Kennedy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In temperate climates, grazed grass is the cheapest source of nutrients for the dairy cow (Finneran et al. 2010), therefore its utilisation should be optimised throughout the grazing season to increase enterprise profitability (Shalloo et al. 2004). Within spring-calving systems, energy requirements increase for the post-parturient dairy cow during the spring period. On the other hand, spring grass supply can be limited given low over-winter grass growth rates. The imposition of a lower post-grazing sward height (PGH) during this critical time may be a viable solution to increase grass availability. As the season progresses, PGH may be increased or ...


Introducing Perennials Into Grasslands In South West Australia Increases Gross Margins For Dual Purpose Merino Enterprises, Paul Sanford Dec 2019

Introducing Perennials Into Grasslands In South West Australia Increases Gross Margins For Dual Purpose Merino Enterprises, Paul Sanford

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Dual purpose Merino enterprises on the south coast of Western Australia (WA) typically utilise agricultural grasslands that comprise entirely of annual plant species. These grasslands face a range of challenges including a variable Mediterranean climate coupled with mostly infertile fragile sandy soils. As a consequence livestock producers have to manage potentially high supple-mentary feeding costs particularly in summer and autumn while running sufficient livestock to remain profitable. Sowing summer-active perennial species into these grasslands has been shown through short-term livestock trials to allow an increase in stocking rates and reduce the amount of supplement fed. The objective of this investigation ...


Efficient Beef Production From Temperate Grasslands In North-Western Europe, Edward G. O’Riordan, Paul Crosson, Mark Mcgee, Padraig O’Kiely Dec 2019

Efficient Beef Production From Temperate Grasslands In North-Western Europe, Edward G. O’Riordan, Paul Crosson, Mark Mcgee, Padraig O’Kiely

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Ireland’s cool temperate maritime climate is conducive to grass growth and, as a result, ruminant livestock systems have evolved that maximise both grazed pastures and conserved grassland forage as winter feed. Most Irish pastures are permanent, capable of achieving high herbage production (Keating and O’Kiely 2000) and, accordingly, supporting intensive livestock production systems. Most male progeny from the 1.1 million Irish dairy herd are reared as steers, typically slaughtered at 24-26 months of age. Approximately 85% of dairy calves available for beef production are spring-born, usually in February/March (AIMS 2011). The progeny of Holstein-Friesian (Ho/Fr ...


Using Grasses Morphogenetic Variables For Natural Grassland Grazing Management, Fernando L. De Quadros, Marta G. Da Rocha, Fábio C. Garagorry, Bruno C. Kuinchtner, Cezar W. Barbieri, Thiago H. N. De Carvalho Dec 2019

Using Grasses Morphogenetic Variables For Natural Grassland Grazing Management, Fernando L. De Quadros, Marta G. Da Rocha, Fábio C. Garagorry, Bruno C. Kuinchtner, Cezar W. Barbieri, Thiago H. N. De Carvalho

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In a perspective of ecologically sustainable agriculture, culturally accepted and economically feasible, natural pastures fits as one of the best options for Southern Brazil region. This study assessed the feasibility of rearing beef heifers from 12 to 18 months of age in natural pasture during its growing season (173 days). We evaluated two rest intervals in a natural pasture managed under rotational grazing. Intervals were defined based on the average thermal sum (degree-days) that fits to leaf expansion duration (average of two leaves) of native species of two grasses functional groups, according to Cruz et al. (2010). Only grasses were ...


Dietary Effect Of Substituting Panicum Maximum With Tithonia Diversifolia Forage On Performance Of Yankasa Sheep, Adebowale N. Fajemisin, Timayin Salihu, Akinyemi Fadiyimu, Adebayo Alokan, Olusola Agbede Dec 2019

Dietary Effect Of Substituting Panicum Maximum With Tithonia Diversifolia Forage On Performance Of Yankasa Sheep, Adebowale N. Fajemisin, Timayin Salihu, Akinyemi Fadiyimu, Adebayo Alokan, Olusola Agbede

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Ruminant livestock production in Nigeria is based predominantly on native grassland (especially Panicum maximum); the nutritive value of the natural pasture varies drastically according to season (Ademosun.1992). Changes in nutritional status of these native plants result in very irregular growth and marked fluctuations in seasonal weights of farm animals. Consequently, it becomes imperative to source for alternative feed resources which are more efficient, economical and can be incorporated into ruminant’s diet with a view to reducing feed costs and hence, achieving a greater profit margin for the producer. Tithonia diversifolia is an herbaceous weed of field crops and ...


Plantain (Plantago Lanceolata) In Herb And Legume Pastures Increases Lamb Growth Relative To Perennial Ryegrass And White Clover Pasture, Peter D. Kemp, Paul R. Kenyon, Stephen T. Morris, Sharini C. Somasiri Dec 2019

Plantain (Plantago Lanceolata) In Herb And Legume Pastures Increases Lamb Growth Relative To Perennial Ryegrass And White Clover Pasture, Peter D. Kemp, Paul R. Kenyon, Stephen T. Morris, Sharini C. Somasiri

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Increased use of plantain (Plantago lanceolata) by New Zealand farmers has created a demand for a more complete understanding of the performance and manage-ment of plantain by itself and in various combinations with chicory (Cichorium intybus) and legumes such as white clover (Trifolium repens) and red clover (T. pratense). The objective of this study was to evaluate lamb finishing on plantain by itself and combined with chicory, white and red clover as part of a research programme to develop a temperate perennial pasture superior in animal performance to perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture for sheep production systems (Kemp et ...


Do Different Breeds Of Dairy Cow Differ In Their Ability To Digest Perennial Ryegrass?, Marion Beecher, Frank Buckley, Tommy M. Boland, Craig Thackaberry, Daniel Enriquez-Hidalgo, Michael O’Donovan, Eva Lewis Dec 2019

Do Different Breeds Of Dairy Cow Differ In Their Ability To Digest Perennial Ryegrass?, Marion Beecher, Frank Buckley, Tommy M. Boland, Craig Thackaberry, Daniel Enriquez-Hidalgo, Michael O’Donovan, Eva Lewis

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grazed grass is the cheapest feed source available for ruminant production systems in temperate climates (Finnernan et al. 2010) accounting for 70% and 90% of the diet of dairy cows in Ireland and New Zealand, respectively. Successful operation of grass-based dairy systems is based on achieving large intakes of high quality grass and efficiently converting it into high value milk solids (Prendiville et al. 2010). Prendiville et al. (2009) identified production efficiency differences between Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (J) cows. They found that J had higher milk solids output per 100 kg bodyweight than HF. The aim of this ...


The Effects On Milk Yield And Composition, And Animal Nitrogen And Phosphorus Status, Of Offering Early-Lactation Dairy Cows Concentrate Feeds Of Differing Crude Protein And Phosphorus Concentrations, Michael P. Reid, Michael O’Donovan, Christopher Elliott, John S. Bailey, Catherine J. Watson, Stan T. J. Lalor, John Paul Murphy, Fergal Coughlan, Eva Lewis Dec 2019

The Effects On Milk Yield And Composition, And Animal Nitrogen And Phosphorus Status, Of Offering Early-Lactation Dairy Cows Concentrate Feeds Of Differing Crude Protein And Phosphorus Concentrations, Michael P. Reid, Michael O’Donovan, Christopher Elliott, John S. Bailey, Catherine J. Watson, Stan T. J. Lalor, John Paul Murphy, Fergal Coughlan, Eva Lewis

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Milk composition is affected by the dietary concentration of crude protein (CP) (Kung Jr and Huber 1983) and minerals such as phosphorus (P) (Wu and Satter 2000). Milk composition has consequent effects on the processing properties of milk (Dillon et al. 1997). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of offering supplementary concentrate feeds differing in CP and P concentration to lactating dairy cows in the early lactation period (Feb-May) on milk yield and composition, and on animal nitrogen (N) and P status.


Effect Of Forage Allowance On Native Pasture Traits, Stocking Rate And Beef Cow Body Condition, Martín Do Carmo, Mariana Carriquiry, Pablo Soca Dec 2019

Effect Of Forage Allowance On Native Pasture Traits, Stocking Rate And Beef Cow Body Condition, Martín Do Carmo, Mariana Carriquiry, Pablo Soca

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Stocking rate is a poor indicator of grazing intensity because, in contrast to forage allowance, it gives no information of feed availability. Forage allowance (FA), measured as kg of forage dry matter (DM) per kg of live weight (LW), is the ratio between forage mass and stocking rate (Sollenberger et al. 2005). Crossbred cows demonstrated higher production efficiency than purebreds in poor and rich quality pastures (Barlow et al. 1994) but few experiments have been conducted under different FA in Campos grasslands with growing beef steers (Maraschin et al. 1997, Soares et al. 2005), and no work has been conducted ...


Effects Of Diet During The First Winter On Replacement Heifer Weight Gain And Body Condition Score During The Subsequent Grazing Season, Emer Kennedy, Fergal Coughlan, Steven Fitzgerald, John Paul Murphy Dec 2019

Effects Of Diet During The First Winter On Replacement Heifer Weight Gain And Body Condition Score During The Subsequent Grazing Season, Emer Kennedy, Fergal Coughlan, Steven Fitzgerald, John Paul Murphy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In seasonal calving dairy production systems it is important that heifers attain puberty in an appropriate timeframe especially when they are bred to calve at 2 years of age and in systems that impose restricted breeding periods (Ferrell, 1982). Achieving target weights at key time points is critical because, for example, the onset of puberty usually occurs in dairy heifers at 30-40% of their expected mature BW (Heinrichs 1993) which corresponds to approximately 240-320 kg in Holstein heifers. Furthermore, heifers should be managed to achieve 55% to 60% of mature bodyweight (BW) at mating start date (MSD; Patterson et al ...


Developing And Implementing Animal Welfare Assessments On Extensive And Intensive Grassland Systems: An Overview, Nguyen Xuan Trach, Bob Kilgour Dec 2019

Developing And Implementing Animal Welfare Assessments On Extensive And Intensive Grassland Systems: An Overview, Nguyen Xuan Trach, Bob Kilgour

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

While several definitions of animal welfare exist, in this paper we use the concept of the Five Freedoms. The Five Freedoms are freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition; freedom from discomfort; freedom from pain, injury and disease; freedom from fear and distress; freedom to perform normal behavior. While the idea of the Five Freedoms has limitations, it is still a widely-used conceptualization of animal welfare and we use it here to discuss the welfare of cattle in intensive and extensive management systems in Vietnam and Australia. Compared to extensive pasture systems, intensive management systems do result in heightened animal welfare ...