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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Predicting The Initial Spread Of Novel Asian Origin Influenza A Viruses In The Continental Usa By Wild Waterfowl, Alan. B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins, Jeremy W. Ellis, Ryan S. Miller, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Daniel P. Walsh, Thomas J. Deliberto Nov 2018

Predicting The Initial Spread Of Novel Asian Origin Influenza A Viruses In The Continental Usa By Wild Waterfowl, Alan. B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins, Jeremy W. Ellis, Ryan S. Miller, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root, Daniel P. Walsh, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Using data on waterfowl band recoveries, we identified spatially explicit hotspots of concentrated waterfowl movement to predict occurrence and spatial spread of a novel influenza A virus (clade 2.3.4.4) introduced from Asia by waterfowl from an initial outbreak in North America in November 2014. In response to the outbreak, the hotspots of waterfowl movement were used to help guide sampling for clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in waterfowl as an early warning for the US poultry industry during the outbreak. After surveillance sampling of waterfowl, we tested whether there was greater detection of clade 2.3 ...


Exposure Of A Population Of Invasive Wild Pigs To Simulated Toxic Bait Containing Biomarker: Implications For Population Reduction, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. Vannatta, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Rustin T. Tabor, Bruce R. Leland, Linton D. Staples, Kurt C. Vercauteren Oct 2018

Exposure Of A Population Of Invasive Wild Pigs To Simulated Toxic Bait Containing Biomarker: Implications For Population Reduction, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Michael P. Glow, Eric H. Vannatta, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Rustin T. Tabor, Bruce R. Leland, Linton D. Staples, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: An international effort to develop an acute and humane toxic bait for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is underway to curtail their expansion. We evaluated the ability to expose a population of wild pigs to a simulated toxic bait (i.e., placebo bait containing a biomarker, rhodamine B, in lieu of the toxic ingredient) to gain insight on potential population reduction. We used 28 GPS-collars and sampled 428 wild pigs to examine their vibrissae for evidence of consuming the bait.

RESULTS: We estimated that 91% of wild pigs within 0.75 km of bait sites (total area = 16.8 ...


Livestock Abundance Predicts Vampire Bat Demography, Immune Profiles And Bacterial Infection Risk, Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G. Streicker Jan 2018

Livestock Abundance Predicts Vampire Bat Demography, Immune Profiles And Bacterial Infection Risk, Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G. Streicker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife–pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen, pathogen transmission probably depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a 4-year study of 369 common vampire bats across 10 sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and adaptive immunity from bats and assessed infection with two common bacteria. We predicted that abundant livestock could reduce starvation and foraging effort, allowing for ...


Consistent Individual Behavior: Evidence Of Personality In Black Bears, Patrick J. Myers, Julie K. Young Jan 2018

Consistent Individual Behavior: Evidence Of Personality In Black Bears, Patrick J. Myers, Julie K. Young

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Personality is defined as consistency in individual differences in organismal behavior across time or context, a phenomenon of interest within behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Empirical data have revealed an ever-increasing number and diversity of taxa that display these phenotypic patterns in both wild and captive settings. Moreover, these behavioral traits are frequently linked to wild behavior, life history strategies, and measures of individual fitness. Understanding personality is of particular importance for some animals, such as large carnivores, which may express maladaptive behavior that can lead to conflict with humans. To date, few studies of personality exist on large carnivores and ...


Clinostomum Poteae N. Sp. (Digenea: Clinostomidae), In The Trachea Of A Double-Crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax Auritus Lesson, 1831 And Molecular Data Linking The Life-Cycle Stages Of Clinostomum Album Rosser, Alberson, Woodyard, Cunningham, Pote & Griffin, 2017 In Mississippi, Usa, Thomas G. Rosser, Wes A. Baumgartner, Neely R. Alberson, Travis W. Noto, Ethan T. Woodyard, D. Tommy King, David J. Wise, Matt J. Griffin Jan 2018

Clinostomum Poteae N. Sp. (Digenea: Clinostomidae), In The Trachea Of A Double-Crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax Auritus Lesson, 1831 And Molecular Data Linking The Life-Cycle Stages Of Clinostomum Album Rosser, Alberson, Woodyard, Cunningham, Pote & Griffin, 2017 In Mississippi, Usa, Thomas G. Rosser, Wes A. Baumgartner, Neely R. Alberson, Travis W. Noto, Ethan T. Woodyard, D. Tommy King, David J. Wise, Matt J. Griffin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Clinostomum spp. (Digenea: Clinostomidae) are a group of trematodes commonly found in the buccal cavity and oesophagus of a variety of piscivorous birds. The metacercariae, colloquially known as ‘‘yellow grubs,’’ have been reported from a diverse group of freshwater fishes worldwide. In the catfish farming region of the southeastern USA, piscivorous birds present a continuous challenge for aquaculturists in the form of fish depredation and the introduction of trematodes into these static, earthen pond systems. Clinostomum spp. are commonly encountered in farmraised catfish. While generally considered pests of minimal importance, heavy infections can result in unmarketable fillets. Of the piscivorous ...


Civil Airports From A Landscape Perspective: A Multi-Scale Approach With Implications For Reducing Bird Strikes, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Jason D. Kougher, Travis L. Devault Jan 2018

Civil Airports From A Landscape Perspective: A Multi-Scale Approach With Implications For Reducing Bird Strikes, Morgan B. Pfeiffer, Jason D. Kougher, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Collisions between birds and aircraft are a global problem that jeopardizes human safety and causes economic losses. Although landscape features have been suggested as one of a number of factors contributing to bird strikes, no evidence exists to support this suggestion. We investigated the effects of landscape structure on the adverse effect (AE) bird strike rate at 98 civil airports in the United States. The number of reported AE bird strikes was standardized by air carrier movements between 2009 and 2015. Land use structure and composition were quantified within 3, 8, and 13 km radii extents from airports. We predicted ...


Tissue Tropisms Opt For Transmissible Reassortants During Avian And Swine Influenza A Virus Co-Infection In Swine, Xiaojian Zhang, Hailiang Sun, Fred L. Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Matthew W. Hopken, Jim Cooley, Li-Ping Long, John A. Baroch, Tao Li, Brandon S. Schmit, Xiaoxu Lin, Alicia K. Olivier, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. Deliberto, Xiu-Feng Wan Jan 2018

Tissue Tropisms Opt For Transmissible Reassortants During Avian And Swine Influenza A Virus Co-Infection In Swine, Xiaojian Zhang, Hailiang Sun, Fred L. Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Matthew W. Hopken, Jim Cooley, Li-Ping Long, John A. Baroch, Tao Li, Brandon S. Schmit, Xiaoxu Lin, Alicia K. Olivier, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. Deliberto, Xiu-Feng Wan

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Genetic reassortment between influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitate emergence of pandemic strains, and swine are proposed as a “mixing vessel” for generating reassortants of avian and mammalian IAVs that could be of risk to mammals, including humans. However, how a transmissible reassortant emerges in swine are not well understood. Genomic analyses of 571 isolates recovered from nasal wash samples and respiratory tract tissues of a group of co-housed pigs (influenza-seronegative, avian H1N1 IAV–infected, and swine H3N2 IAV– infected pigs) identified 30 distinct genotypes of reassortants. Viruses recovered from lower respiratory tract tissues had the largest genomic diversity, and those ...


American Black Bear Den-Site Selection And Characteristics In An Urban Environment, Toryn L. J. Schafer, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, David L. Lewis, Kenneth R. Wilson, Julie S. Mao, Thomas L. Day Jan 2018

American Black Bear Den-Site Selection And Characteristics In An Urban Environment, Toryn L. J. Schafer, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, David L. Lewis, Kenneth R. Wilson, Julie S. Mao, Thomas L. Day

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Selection of den sites is a crucial aspect of American black bear (Ursus americanus) life history. High-quality dens provide thermal insulation, protection from disturbance, suitable environment for parturition and cub development, and proximity to available forage upon emergence. Black bears are increasingly coexisting with people in human-dominated landscapes; however, little is known about whether urban environments influence characteristics of dens and den site selection. Our objective was to determine the effect of housing density (a proxy for human activity and availability of anthropogenic resources) on selection of den sites in years of good and poor natural forage.We additionally compared ...


The Role Of Dog Population Management In Rabies Elimination—A Review Of Current Approaches And Future Opportunities, Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H. Nel Jan 2018

The Role Of Dog Population Management In Rabies Elimination—A Review Of Current Approaches And Future Opportunities, Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H. Nel

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission. Humane DPM tools, such as ...


Clinicopathologic Features Of Infection With Novel Brucella Organisms In Captive Waxy Tree Frogs (Phyllomedusa Sauvagii) And Colorado River Toads (Incilius Alvarius), Kelly E. Helmick, Michael M. Garner, Jack Rhyan, Daniel Bradway Jan 2018

Clinicopathologic Features Of Infection With Novel Brucella Organisms In Captive Waxy Tree Frogs (Phyllomedusa Sauvagii) And Colorado River Toads (Incilius Alvarius), Kelly E. Helmick, Michael M. Garner, Jack Rhyan, Daniel Bradway

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Two novel and distinct Brucella strains were recovered from 5 of 10 adult, sex undetermined, captive waxy tree frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) and two of five adult, sex undetermined, captive Colorado river toads (Incilius alvarius) held in a zoologic collection with clinical and pathologic findings of bacterial disease. These amphibians originated from three separate private breeding facilities over several years and exhibited disease 9–49 mo following release from quarantine. Common presenting signs were vague but included focal abscessation, weight loss, change in coloration, anorexia, and decreased perching. Two waxy tree frogs and one Colorado river toad recovered with supportive care ...


Anticoagulant Rodenticides And Wildlife: Introduction, Nico W. Van Den Brink, John E. Elliott, Richard F. Shore, Barnett A. Rattner Jan 2018

Anticoagulant Rodenticides And Wildlife: Introduction, Nico W. Van Den Brink, John E. Elliott, Richard F. Shore, Barnett A. Rattner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rodents began to associate with humans at least from the early Neolithic era with the beginnings of systematic sequestering of food stores by humans (Cucchi and Vigne 2006; Reperant and Osterhaus 2014). About the year 541, the Justinian plague started amid the central granaries and crowded, unsanitary conditions of the later Roman cities. The resulting pandemic was the first documented example of the potentially devastating impact of commensal rodents on European society. The primary reservoir host and source of the plague was the black rat (Rattus rattus), which has widely thought to have disseminated from South-East Asia along land and ...


Invasive Rats (Rattus Sp.), But Not Always Mice (Mus Musculus), Are Ubiquitous At All Elevations And Habitats Within The Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels, Gabriela E. Ramirez De Arellano Jan 2018

Invasive Rats (Rattus Sp.), But Not Always Mice (Mus Musculus), Are Ubiquitous At All Elevations And Habitats Within The Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels, Gabriela E. Ramirez De Arellano

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rodents, particularly rats (Rattus spp.), occupy >80% of the world’s islands and are among the greatest threats to native biodiversity and agriculture on islands. At the time of their introduction in the 1500s, there was at least 1 native rat species in Puerto Rico. Today there are no native rodents remaining in Puerto Rico, but R. norvegicus (Norway Rat) may be found in urban settings, and R. rattus (Black Rat) are the most common rat across the island including within natural areas, and invasive Mus musculus (House Mouse) may also be found in urban and non-urban habitats. The ...


Spatial Processes Decouple Management From Objectives In A Heterogeneous Landscape: Predator Control As A Case Study, Peter J. Mahoney, Julie K. Young, Kent R. Hersey, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. Mcmillan, David C. Stoner Jan 2018

Spatial Processes Decouple Management From Objectives In A Heterogeneous Landscape: Predator Control As A Case Study, Peter J. Mahoney, Julie K. Young, Kent R. Hersey, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. Mcmillan, David C. Stoner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Predator control is often implemented with the intent of disrupting top-down regulation in sensitive prey populations. However, ambiguity surrounding the efficacy of predator management, as well as the strength of top-down effects of predators in general, is often exacerbated by the spatially implicit analytical approaches used in assessing data with explicit spatial structure. Here, we highlight the importance of considering spatial context in the case of a predator control study in south-central Utah. We assessed the spatial match between aerial removal risk in coyotes (Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) resource selection during parturition using a spatially explicit, multi-level ...


Regional-Based Mitigation To Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions, Nathan P. Snow, Zhen Zhang, Andrew O. Finley, Brent A. Rudolph, William F. Porter, David M. Williams, Scott R. Winterstein Jan 2018

Regional-Based Mitigation To Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions, Nathan P. Snow, Zhen Zhang, Andrew O. Finley, Brent A. Rudolph, William F. Porter, David M. Williams, Scott R. Winterstein

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Vehicular collisions with large ungulates pose serious challenges for managing and conserving large ungulates throughout the world. Despite the global frequency, mitigation efforts are mostly limited to localized hotspots and not effective on broad scales. Our goal was to determine whether dynamic, regional attributes could inform broader focus for mitigation efforts. We applied a spatiotemporal dynamic model to examine the regional influences on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)–vehicle collisions (DVCs) throughout the Midwest United States from traffic, abundance of deer, and composition and configuration of the landscape during 2000–2011. The regions included eco-zones representing landscape dominated by shelter-forage habitats ...


Diets Of Kauai’S Invasive Rose-Ringed Parakeet (Psittacula Krameri): Evidence Of Seed Predation And Dispersal In A Human-Altered Landscape, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Bukoski, Shane R. Siers Jan 2018

Diets Of Kauai’S Invasive Rose-Ringed Parakeet (Psittacula Krameri): Evidence Of Seed Predation And Dispersal In A Human-Altered Landscape, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Bukoski, Shane R. Siers

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) are the world’s most successful introduced parrots, and[2000 individuals reside on Kauai, Hawaii. These birds destroy crops, but impacts to other native and non-native species are largely unknown. Our study objectives on Kauai were to determine: (1) diets of rose-ringed parakeets at five sites (n = 9–25 per site), by sex, through crop and gizzard analysis and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis, and (2) whether birds are dispersing or depredating seeds. We found 100% of birds (n = 64) were eating plant material and 80% of their diet was seed; males had more food ...


Effects Of Immunization Against Bone Morphogenetic Protein-15 And Growth Differentiation Factor-9 On Ovarian Function In Mares, Kelli A. Davis, Kristin M. Klohonatz, Darcy S.O. Mora, Hannah M. Twenter, Peter E. Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C. Eckery, Jason E. Bruemmer Jan 2018

Effects Of Immunization Against Bone Morphogenetic Protein-15 And Growth Differentiation Factor-9 On Ovarian Function In Mares, Kelli A. Davis, Kristin M. Klohonatz, Darcy S.O. Mora, Hannah M. Twenter, Peter E. Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C. Eckery, Jason E. Bruemmer

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Currently there is no contraceptive vaccine that can cause permanent sterility in mares. This study investigates the effect of vaccination against oocyte-specific growth factors, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) and Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), on ovarian function of mares. It was hypothesized that immunization against these growth factors would prevent ovulation and/or accelerate depletion of the oocyte reserve. For this study, 30 mares were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10/group) and vaccinated with BMP-15 or GDF-9 peptides conjugated to KLH and adjuvant, or a control of phosphate buffered saline and adjuvant. Horses received vaccinations at weeks ...


The Elusive Search For An Effective Repellent Against Voles: An Assessment Of Anthraquinone For Citrus Crops, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Gary W. Witmer, Scott J. Werner Jan 2018

The Elusive Search For An Effective Repellent Against Voles: An Assessment Of Anthraquinone For Citrus Crops, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Gary W. Witmer, Scott J. Werner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Vole (Cricetidae) girdling of tree trunks is a common form of damage experienced by tree and vine growers throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. Management programs that effectively incorporate chemical repellents and vegetation management would be of substantial assistance to growers that experience such damage. Anthraquinone has proven effective as a repellent against voles in lab trials, yet controlled field tests of combined anthraquinone and vegetation management programs are lacking. Therefore, we established a mesocosm-based study in central California, USA, to test the efficacy of anthraquinone and vegetation management for reducing girdling damage caused by California voles Microtus californicus to ...


Potential Of Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax Auritus), American White Pelicans (Pelecanus Erythrorhynchos), And Wood Storks (Mycteria Americana) To Transmit A Hypervirulent Strain Of Aeromonas Hydrophila Between Channel Catfish Culture Ponds, Fred L. Cunningham, Madison M. Jubirt, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Paul Fioranelli, Larry A. Hanson Jan 2018

Potential Of Double-Crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax Auritus), American White Pelicans (Pelecanus Erythrorhynchos), And Wood Storks (Mycteria Americana) To Transmit A Hypervirulent Strain Of Aeromonas Hydrophila Between Channel Catfish Culture Ponds, Fred L. Cunningham, Madison M. Jubirt, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Paul Fioranelli, Larry A. Hanson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gramnegative bacterium ubiquitous to freshwater and brackish aquatic environments that can cause disease in fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila strain (VAH) that is genetically distinct from less virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that research has shown that Great Egrets (Ardea alba) can shed viable hypervirulent A. hydrophila after consuming diseased fish, we hypothesized that Doublecrested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana ...


Identifying Individual Cougars (Puma Concolor) In Remote Camera Images – Implications For Population Estimates, Peter D. Alexander, Eric M. Gese Jan 2018

Identifying Individual Cougars (Puma Concolor) In Remote Camera Images – Implications For Population Estimates, Peter D. Alexander, Eric M. Gese

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Several studies have estimated cougar (Puma concolor) abundance using remote camera trapping in conjunction with capture–mark–recapture (CMR) type analyses. However, this methodology (photo-CMR) requires that photo-captured individuals are individually recognisable (photo identification). Photo identification is generally achieved using naturally occurring marks (e.g. stripes or spots) that are unique to each individual. Cougars, however, are uniformly pelaged, and photo identification must be based on subtler attributes such as scars, ear nicks or body morphology. There is some debate as to whether these types of features are sufficient for photo-CMR, but there is little research directly evaluating its ...


Seasonal Variation In Preference Dictates Space Use In An Invasive Generalist, Kelsey E. Paolini, Bronson K. Strickland, Jessica L. Tegt, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Garrett M. Street Jan 2018

Seasonal Variation In Preference Dictates Space Use In An Invasive Generalist, Kelsey E. Paolini, Bronson K. Strickland, Jessica L. Tegt, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Garrett M. Street

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The spatiotemporal distribution of resources is a critical component of realized animal distributions.

In agricultural landscapes, space use by generalist consumers is influenced by ephemeral resource availability that may produce behavioral differences across agricultural seasons, resulting in economic and production consequences and increased human-wildlife conflict. Our objective was to assess changes in habitat selection across seasons in an invasive generalist omnivore (feral pigs, Sus scrofa). Hypothesizing that pig space use is primarily driven by forage availability, we predicted strong selection for the most nutritionally beneficial crops and resource types as agricultural seasons progressed. We deployed GPS collars on 13 adult ...


Sharing An Environment With Sick Conspecifics Alters Odors Of Healthy Animals, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, Bruce A. Kimball Jan 2018

Sharing An Environment With Sick Conspecifics Alters Odors Of Healthy Animals, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, Bruce A. Kimball

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Body odors change with health status and the odors of sick animals can induce avoidance behaviors in healthy conspecifics. Exposure to sickness odors might also alter the physiology of healthy conspecifics and modify the odors they produce. We hypothesized that exposure to odors of sick (but non-infectious) animals would alter the odors of healthy cagemates. To induce sickness, we injected mice with a bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used behavioral odor discrimination assays and analytical chemistry techniques followed by predictive classification modeling to ask about differences in volatile odorants produced by two types of healthy mice: those cohoused with healthy conspecifics ...


Trace Element Concentrations In The Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) From Hawaii, Usa, Sawako Horai, Yusuke Nakashima, Kanae Nawada, Izumi Watanabe, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shintaro Abe, Fumio Yamada, Robert Sugihara Jan 2018

Trace Element Concentrations In The Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes Auropunctatus) From Hawaii, Usa, Sawako Horai, Yusuke Nakashima, Kanae Nawada, Izumi Watanabe, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shintaro Abe, Fumio Yamada, Robert Sugihara

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Concentrations of 26 trace elements including essential (Mg, Ca, Cr, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr and Mo) and toxic (As, Cd and Pb), were determined in the liver, kidney, brain, hair, muscle, and stomach contents of the small Indian mongooses inhabiting eight areas on three Hawaiian Islands, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. There were significant differences in concentrations of some metals among the habitats. Cadmium concentrations in mongooses from the macadamia nut orchards on Island of Hawaii were relatively higher than those in populations from other seven areas. Lead concentrations in mongooses from the Ukumehame firing range ...


Evaluating An Alleged Mimic Of The Monarch Butterfly: Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Butterflies Are Palatable To Avian Predators, Dale A. Halbritter, Johnalyn M. Gordon, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, Jaret C. Daniels Jan 2018

Evaluating An Alleged Mimic Of The Monarch Butterfly: Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Butterflies Are Palatable To Avian Predators, Dale A. Halbritter, Johnalyn M. Gordon, Kandy L. Keacher, Michael L. Avery, Jaret C. Daniels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Some taxa have adopted the strategy of mimicry to protect themselves from predation. Butterflies are some of the best representatives used to study mimicry, with the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) a well-known model. We are the first to empirically investigate a proposed mimic of the monarch butterfly: Neophasia terlooii, the Mexican pine white butterfly (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). We used captive birds to assess the palatability of N. terlooii and its sister species, N. menapia, to determine the mimicry category that would best fit this system. The birds readily consumed both species of Neophasia and a palatable control species but ...


Cross-Fostering As A Conservation Tool To Augment Endangered Carnivore Populations, Eric M. Gese, William T. Waddell, Patricia A. Terletzky, Chris F. Lucash, Scott R. Mclellan, Susan K. Behrns Jan 2018

Cross-Fostering As A Conservation Tool To Augment Endangered Carnivore Populations, Eric M. Gese, William T. Waddell, Patricia A. Terletzky, Chris F. Lucash, Scott R. Mclellan, Susan K. Behrns

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Cross-fostering offspring with nonbiological parents could prove useful to augment populations of endangered carnivores. We used cross-fostering to augment captive-born and wild-born litters for the endangered red wolf (Canis rufus). Between 1987 and 2016, 23 cross-fostering events occurred involving captive-born pups fostered into captive litters (n = 8 events) and captive-born pups fostered into wild recipient litters (n = 15 events). Percentage of pups surviving 3 and 12 months was 91.7% for captive-born pups fostered into captive recipient litters. For pups fostered into wild litters, percentage of pups surviving 5 months was > 94% among fostered pups (pups fostered into a wild ...


Persistence Of Maternal Antibodies To Influenza A Virus Among Captive Mallards (Anas Platyrhynchos), Katherine L. Dirsmith, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Heather J. Sullivan, Andrea B. Liebowitz, Lauren H. Petersen, Hailey E. Mclean, Susan A. Shriner Jan 2018

Persistence Of Maternal Antibodies To Influenza A Virus Among Captive Mallards (Anas Platyrhynchos), Katherine L. Dirsmith, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Heather J. Sullivan, Andrea B. Liebowitz, Lauren H. Petersen, Hailey E. Mclean, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild waterfowl are maintenance hosts of most influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes and are often the subjects of IAV surveillance and transmission models. While maternal antibodies have been detected in yolks and in nestlings for a variety of wild bird species and pathogens, the persistence of maternal antibodies to IAVs in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) has not been previously investigated. Nonetheless, this information is important for a full understanding of IAV transmission dynamics because ducklings protected by maternal antibodies may not be susceptible to infection. In this study, we examined the transfer of IAV-specific maternal antibodies to ducklings. Blood samples ...


Enclosure Utilization And Enrichment Structure Preferences Of Captive Coyotes, Jeffrey T. Schultz, Julie K. Young Jan 2018

Enclosure Utilization And Enrichment Structure Preferences Of Captive Coyotes, Jeffrey T. Schultz, Julie K. Young

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Environmental enrichment improves well-being of captive animals using a variety of tools, including adding complexity to the physical environment. Designing enrichment structures requires an understanding of behavioral and biological responses to enrichment efforts. Captive coyotes (Canis latrans) utilize shelter structures to hide, rest, and display vigilant behavior. Because these simple structures are regularly used, new and more complex enrichment structures could enhance enclosure enrichment. This study examined the time captive coyotes spent at discrete, complex enclosure features to determine: (1) how coyotes utilize enclosure space and shelter structures; and (2) if coyotes have a preferred enrichment structure design. Three enrichment ...


Ecology, Impacts, And Management Of Invasive Rodents In The United States, Gary W. Witmer, Aaron B. Shiels Jan 2018

Ecology, Impacts, And Management Of Invasive Rodents In The United States, Gary W. Witmer, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Approximately 42% of all mammalian species in the world are rodents, amounting to about 2277 species (Wilson and Reeder 2005). Rodents have adapted to all lifestyles: terrestrial, aquatic, arboreal, and fossorial (underground). Most species are small, secretive, nocturnal, adaptable, and have keen senses of touch, taste, and smell. For most species of rodents, the incisors continually grow throughout their life span, requiring constant gnawing to keep the incisors sharp and at an appropriate length. This can result in extensive damage to seeds, fruits, field crops, structures, wires, and insulation. Rodents are known for their high reproductive potential; however, there is ...


Using Off-The-Shelf Technologies To Mass Manufacture Oral Vaccine Baits For Wildlife, Lucila M. Corro, Daniel W. Tripp, Scott A. Stelting, Michael W. Miller Jan 2018

Using Off-The-Shelf Technologies To Mass Manufacture Oral Vaccine Baits For Wildlife, Lucila M. Corro, Daniel W. Tripp, Scott A. Stelting, Michael W. Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Technology and infrastructure costs can limit access to oral vaccination tools for wildlife disease control. We describe vaccine bait mass manufacturing employing off-the-shelf technologies. Our approach has helped advance scaling-up of plague vaccination campaigns, but components of this production system could be translated into other wildlife vaccination applications.


Nutritional Depletion Of Total Mixed Rations By European Starlings: Projected Effects On Dairy Cow Performance And Potential Intervention Strategies To Mitigate Damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. Deliberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, S. J. Werner Jan 2018

Nutritional Depletion Of Total Mixed Rations By European Starlings: Projected Effects On Dairy Cow Performance And Potential Intervention Strategies To Mitigate Damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. Deliberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, S. J. Werner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

European starlings are an invasive bird species in North America that are known to cause damage to commercial dairies through the consumption of total mixed rations (TMR) destined for dairy cows. We hypothesized that large foraging flocks of starlings alter the physical composition of TMR, and that this change may be significant enough to affect milk production. To better determine if production losses could potentially occur in commercial dairies as a consequence of feed consumption by foraging flocks of starlings, we conducted controlled feeding experiments using a TMR sourced from a commercial dairy that is chronically plagued with seasonal starling ...


Frogs (Coqui Frogs, Greenhouse Frogs, Cuban Tree Frogs, And Cane Toads), Karen H. Beard, Steve A. Johnson, Aaron B. Shiels Jan 2018

Frogs (Coqui Frogs, Greenhouse Frogs, Cuban Tree Frogs, And Cane Toads), Karen H. Beard, Steve A. Johnson, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Amphibians are perhaps most well known for their highly threatened status, which often masks appreciation for the great numbers of species that are widespread global invaders (Kraus 2009). Both purposeful and accidental introductions of amphibians have occurred worldwide. Motivations for purposeful amphibian introductions include their use as biocontrol agents and culinary ambitions (Storer 1925; Kraus 2009). However, there are an increasing number of amphibians that are being accidentally introduced and becoming widespread (Kraus 2009). These introductions are in some ways more disconcerting because they may be the most difficult to prevent in the future.

There are 19 nonnative amphibians that ...