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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effects Of Increasing Temperature And Acidification On The Growth And Competitive Success Of Alexandrium Catenella From The Gulf Of Maine, Drajad Seto Dec 2018

Effects Of Increasing Temperature And Acidification On The Growth And Competitive Success Of Alexandrium Catenella From The Gulf Of Maine, Drajad Seto

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The increases in ocean temperature and pCO2 due to climate change are projected to affect the growth and future prevalence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in nearshore waters, but systematic studies on the effects these climate drivers have on harmful algal species are lacking. In particular, little is known about how future climate scenarios will affect the growth of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces the toxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) that threaten the health and economy of coastal communities in the Gulf of Maine. I examined growth responses of A. catenella and two other naturally co-occurring ...


Climatic Range Filling Of North American Trees, Benjamin Seliger Dec 2018

Climatic Range Filling Of North American Trees, Benjamin Seliger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the degree to which species distributions are controlled by climate is crucial for forecasting biodiversity responses to climate change. Climatic equilibrium, when species are found in all places which are climatically suitable, is a fundamental assumption of species distribution models, but there is evidence in support of climate disequilibria in species ranges. Long-lived, sessile organisms such as trees may be especially vulnerable to being outpaced by climate change, and thus prone to disequilibrium. In this dissertation, I tested the degree to which North American trees are in equilibrium with their potential climatic ranges using the ‘range filling’ metric, which ...


Minerva 2018, The Honors College Dec 2018

Minerva 2018, The Honors College

Minerva

This issue of Minerva includes an article on the Honors Endeavor by recently retired faculty member, David Gross; an adaptation of Isaac Record's 2018 Distinguished Honors Graduate lecture; an article on 2018 Honors Read Just Mercy; and a wonderful farewell to beloved Honors College Administrative Specialist, Deb Small. Other highlights include a reflection by CLAS-Honors preceptor of philosophy, Hao Hong; and a look into 2018-2019 student thesis research.


The Effects Of Seasonal Variations In Chemistry And Hydrology On The Microbial Community And Its Sulfide Oxidation Potential In A Naturally Acidic Maine Stream, Raymond C. Kahler Iii Dec 2018

The Effects Of Seasonal Variations In Chemistry And Hydrology On The Microbial Community And Its Sulfide Oxidation Potential In A Naturally Acidic Maine Stream, Raymond C. Kahler Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sulfide minerals oxidize through interaction with water and oxygen, releasing hydrogen ions. The process often occurs naturally near metal sulfide deposits, and can be accelerated through mining. Microorganisms accelerate the rate of sulfide oxidation. Acidified streams typically contain high metal concentrations (e.g. aluminum) and microbes in these systems may develop resistances to metal toxicity. Stream flow can affect sulfide oxidation and microbial community structure. Baseflow can influence stream chemistry from interactions with the surrounding bedrock, while stormflow affects stream chemistry and the local microbial community through dilution and addition of microbes transported by runoff. Microbial community composition is affected ...


Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel Aug 2018

Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic disturbances have altered the N cycle on the regional to global scale. Although numerous studies have examined the effects of chronic atmospheric N deposition on ecosystem processes, less is known about intra-annual variability of these processes, or how these responses might be altered under conditions of changing climate. The work described in this dissertation focuses on the effects of a changing chemical and physical climate, particularly terrestrial N processes (a) during Maine’s changing winters, and (b) in response to chronic elevated N additions.

Subnivean winter soil processes were examined at the Dwight B. DeMerritt Forest (DBDF ...


Notes On Contributors Jul 2018

Notes On Contributors

The Catch

No abstract provided.


On How A Fisherman Supports Fishermen: Oral History With Patrick Shepard, Natalie Springuel Jul 2018

On How A Fisherman Supports Fishermen: Oral History With Patrick Shepard, Natalie Springuel

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Reflections On The Water, Patricia S. Ranzoni Jul 2018

Reflections On The Water, Patricia S. Ranzoni

The Catch

No abstract provided.


The World Is Your Oyster, Aliya Uteuova Jul 2018

The World Is Your Oyster, Aliya Uteuova

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Editor's Note: The Catch Volume Vi, Catherine Schmitt Jul 2018

Editor's Note: The Catch Volume Vi, Catherine Schmitt

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Full Issue Volume Vi Jul 2018

Full Issue Volume Vi

The Catch

No abstract provided.


New Approaches To Mapping Forest Conditions And Landscape Change From Moderate Resolution Remote Sensing Data Across The Species-Rich And Structurally Diverse Atlantic Northern Forest Of Northeastern North America, Kasey R. Legaard May 2018

New Approaches To Mapping Forest Conditions And Landscape Change From Moderate Resolution Remote Sensing Data Across The Species-Rich And Structurally Diverse Atlantic Northern Forest Of Northeastern North America, Kasey R. Legaard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The sustainable management of forest landscapes requires an understanding of the functional relationships between management practices, changes in landscape conditions, and ecological response. This presents a substantial need of spatial information in support of both applied research and adaptive management. Satellite remote sensing has the potential to address much of this need, but forest conditions and patterns of change remain difficult to synthesize over large areas and long time periods. Compounding this problem is error in forest attribute maps and consequent uncertainty in subsequent analyses. The research described in this document is directed at these long-standing problems.

Chapter 1 demonstrates ...


Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner May 2018

Developing A Risk Assessment Protocol To Quantify Distribution And Uptake Of Persistent Organic Pollutants In Glacial Outflows, Kimberley Rain Miner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pollutants released by industrialized nations between 1960 and 2004 have been transported northward through atmospheric processes and deposited into glaciated alpine ecosystems. Many of these chemicals retain their original structure and are absorbed into the biota thousands of miles away from where they were originally utilized. With a warming climate increasing the melt of alpine glaciers, these glaciers may be introducing growing amounts of toxins into the watershed. While studies have demonstrated the existence of resident pollutants within glaciated ecosystems, no one has developed a risk assessment to identify sources and quantity of risk posed by these compounds when released ...


Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish May 2018

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Of the most iconic fish species in the world, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, hereafter, cod) has been a mainstay in the North Atlantic for centuries. While many global fish stocks have received increased pressure with the advent of new, more efficient fishing technology in the mid-20th century, exceptional pressure has been placed on this prized gadoid. Bycatch, or the unintended catch of organisms, is one of the biggest global fisheries issues. Directly resulting from the failed recovery of cod in the GoM, attention has been placed as to possible sources of unaccounted catch. Among the most prominent is ...


Extraction And Purification Of (E)-Resveratrol From The Bark Of Maine's Native Spruces, Panduka S. Piyaratne May 2018

Extraction And Purification Of (E)-Resveratrol From The Bark Of Maine's Native Spruces, Panduka S. Piyaratne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Resveratrol is a plant secondary metabolite which protects plants from pathogenic invasions and acts as a remedial agent against injury, stress, and tissue damage by UV radiation. With its characteristic stilbene structure, resveratrol adopts (E) and (Z) isomeric forms. However, the (E) isomer is the most biologically active and abundant form of resveratrol in nature.

(E)- Resveratrol confers a variety of benefits to human health and well-being. Besides its antioxidant activity, the role of (E)-resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, cardioprotection, and anticancer agent has been a widely explored research interest. Many plant species including mulberry, peanut, and grape are ...


Polyp To Population: A Tale Of Two Corals, Christopher T. Fountain May 2018

Polyp To Population: A Tale Of Two Corals, Christopher T. Fountain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Deep-sea corals are of conservation concern in the North Atlantic due to prolonged disturbances associated with the exploitation of natural resources and a changing environment. As a result, the recovery rates of deep-sea coral communities are of heightened interest. These recovery rates are suggested to be on the order of decades to millennia, based on slow growth rates and longevity, of various deep-sea coral species. In 2014 and 2017 two research cruises in the Gulf of Maine, collected samples of two locally dominant species, Primnoa resedaeformis and Paramuricea placomus. These specimen collections were coupled with video surveys, conducted by remotely ...


Immersed In Fire: The Use Of Virtual Reality As An Attitude Assessor And Boundary Object In Wildland Fire Management, Casey Olechnowicz May 2018

Immersed In Fire: The Use Of Virtual Reality As An Attitude Assessor And Boundary Object In Wildland Fire Management, Casey Olechnowicz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Interest in using prescribed burning as a forest management tool to promote forest health and regeneration is growing in Maine. The goal for this research was to better understand the way that the public perceives prescribed burning practices in wildland-urban interfaces, with an emphasis placed on how immersive imagery, closely related to virtual reality (VR), compares to traditional communication methods. We specifically focus on the social acceptability of prescribed burning and analyze how the level of immersive imagery is related to that acceptability (Ahn, 2015; Bricken, 1990; Fogg, Cuellar, and Danielson, 2009; Smith 2015; Wiederhold, Davis, and Wiederhold, 1998). The ...


Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams May 2018

Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oyster aquaculture is an expanding industry that relies on identifying and utilizing natural estuarine conditions for the economically viable production of a filter-feeding crop. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is the principal species currently cultured in Maine. In addition to preferentially consumed phytoplankton, various detrital complexes (non-algal and/or non-living organic matter) may provide some nutrition to C. virginica between times of phytoplankton abundance. Here I investigated the importance of detrital proteins in supporting the growth of oysters cultured in the upper Damariscotta Estuary. Oyster aquaculture in this area is highly successful and previous reports indicate that labile detrital protein ...


Reducing Tillage In Small-Scale Permanent Bed Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Jeremiah D. Vallotton May 2018

Reducing Tillage In Small-Scale Permanent Bed Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Jeremiah D. Vallotton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The response of field-grown vegetable crops to reduced tillage and mulching in permanent beds was evaluated through measuring crop yields, weed pressure, earthworm counts, and soil basal respiration. Two vegetable crops (“Bush Delicata” squash and “Farao” cabbage) were started in April and May of 2016 and 2017 respectively, transplanted in late June, and harvested on 15-Sep-2016 and 25-Aug-2017. Fruit number and weight of squash, and head weight and feeding damage of cabbage were measured. These results suggest that intensive tillage (8” rototill every year) can be successfully reduced to alternating years of shallow (2”) rototilling and a less intensive form ...


Does Drought Affect Reproduction In The Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus Caudacutus)?, Valerie K. Watson May 2018

Does Drought Affect Reproduction In The Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus Caudacutus)?, Valerie K. Watson

Honors College

The Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) is experiencing steep population declines, with extinction likely within the next few decades. Sea-level rise has been identified as a major threat to the species, but little has been done to examine the effects of other aspects of climate change on Saltmarsh Sparrow populations. In this study, I examine whether drought affects reproductive success in the Saltmarsh Sparrow. I use nest- and chick-monitoring data collected over five years across the northern half of the species range to test whether drought conditions affect four metrics of reproductive success in these birds: hatch rate, clutch size, chick ...