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2017

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Articles 1 - 30 of 12833

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Shelf Life Of Ground Beef From Cattle Fed Distillers Grains Containing Different Amounts Of Oil, Faith D. Rasmussen, Chad G. Bower, Gary A. Sullivan Dec 2017

Shelf Life Of Ground Beef From Cattle Fed Distillers Grains Containing Different Amounts Of Oil, Faith D. Rasmussen, Chad G. Bower, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Beef shoulder clods were collected from steers fed one of four finishing diets: no distillers grains and three with distillers grains containing different amounts of oil. Raw ground beef patties were evaluated for changes in objective color, discoloration, and lipid oxidation during simulated retail display (7 days). Cooked beef links in refrigerated (18 days) and frozen storage (198 days) were analyzed for lipid oxidation throughout shelf life. Fatty acid profiles were evaluated in lean, subcutaneous fat, and ground composite samples. All distillers grain diets increased C18:2 and polyunsaturated fatty acids in beef. There were no dietary differences in lipid ...


Conservation And Variation Of Dna Methylation In Lactuca Sativa And Lactuca Serriola, Trudi A. Baker Dec 2017

Conservation And Variation Of Dna Methylation In Lactuca Sativa And Lactuca Serriola, Trudi A. Baker

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Molecular techniques for guiding plant breeding have successfully used wild progenitors of domestic crops as sources of genetic variants conveying desirable traits. However, epigenetic variation, in particular DNA methylation, is a significant source of phenotypic variation and epigenetic effects of plant domestication are poorly understood. Described herein are the first single-base pair resolution methylomes of the highly valued crop iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas) and its close relative, and ubiquitous weed, L. serriola. This work suggests several roles for acquisition and inheritance of methylation in the evolution of Lactuca spp. in response to stress. The Lactuca spp. have conserved ...


Evaluation Of Extracellular Matrix Composition And Rheology As Determinants Of Growth, Invasion, And Response To Photodynamic Therapy In 3d Cell Culture Models Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Gwendolyn M. Cramer Dec 2017

Evaluation Of Extracellular Matrix Composition And Rheology As Determinants Of Growth, Invasion, And Response To Photodynamic Therapy In 3d Cell Culture Models Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Gwendolyn M. Cramer

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a notoriously lethal disease characterized by prominent stromal involvement, which plays complex roles in regulating tumor growth and therapeutic response. The extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich stroma has been implicated as a barrier to drug penetration, although stromal depletion strategies have had mixed clinical success. It remains less clear how biophysical interactions with the ECM regulate invasive progression and susceptibilities to specific therapies. Here, an integrative approach combining 3D cell culture and quantitative imaging techniques is used to evaluate invasive behavior and motility as determinants of response to classical chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which ...


Multiple Functions Of Creb-Binding Protein During Postembryonic Development: Identification Of Target Genes, Amit Roy, Smitha George, Subba Reddy Palli Dec 2017

Multiple Functions Of Creb-Binding Protein During Postembryonic Development: Identification Of Target Genes, Amit Roy, Smitha George, Subba Reddy Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

Background: Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids control postembryonic development in insects. They serve as valuable targets for pest management. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of their action is of crucial importance. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a universal transcriptional co-regulator. It controls the expression of several genes including those from hormone signaling pathways through co-activation of many transcription factors. However, the role of CBP during postembryonic development in insects is not well understood. Therefore, we have studied the role of CBP in postembryonic development in Tribolium, a model coleopteran insect.

Results: CBP is ubiquitously expressed in the red flour beetle, Tribolium ...


High Fructose Corn Syrup Induces Metabolic Dysregulation And Altered Dopamine Signaling In The Absence Of Obesity, Allison M. Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A. Beeler Dec 2017

High Fructose Corn Syrup Induces Metabolic Dysregulation And Altered Dopamine Signaling In The Absence Of Obesity, Allison M. Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A. Beeler

Publications and Research

The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry ...


A New Cryptic Species Of Aleochara Gravenhorst Associated With Marmota Monax (Linnaeus) Burrows And Caves In North America (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), Jan Klimaszewski, Reginald P. Webster, Adam Brunke Dec 2017

A New Cryptic Species Of Aleochara Gravenhorst Associated With Marmota Monax (Linnaeus) Burrows And Caves In North America (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), Jan Klimaszewski, Reginald P. Webster, Adam Brunke

Insecta Mundi

A new cryptic species, Aleochara (Xenochara) castaneimarmotae Klimaszewski, Webster, and Brunke, new species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), associated with Marmota monax (Linnaeus) burrows and caves in eastern North America, is described and illustrated. A key to Canadian species of subgenus Xenochara Mulsant and Rey and revised distributions of the taxonomically difficult fumata species group are provided. Aleochara quadrata Sharp is recorded from Washington and Oregon for the first time.


Genus Hydrosmecta C. G. Thomson: A Review Of Species Occurring In Eastern Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae), Jan Klimaszewski, Reginald P. Webster, Anthony Davies Dec 2017

Genus Hydrosmecta C. G. Thomson: A Review Of Species Occurring In Eastern Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae), Jan Klimaszewski, Reginald P. Webster, Anthony Davies

Insecta Mundi

Species of Hydrosmecta C. G. Thomson, occurring in eastern Canada, are studied and reviewed. Six species are recognized, and two of them are described as new to science. The new species are: Hydrosmecta canadensis Webster and Klimaszewski, new species, and Hydrosmecta minutissimoides Webster and Klimaszewski, new species. Two species described in the USA are recorded from Canada and New Brunswick for the first time: Hydrosmecta caduca Casey and Hydrosmecta dulcis Casey. New distribution and collection data, diagnoses, a key for species identification, and images of habitus and genital structures are provided. Hydrosmecta newfoundlandica Klimaszewski and Langor, 2011, is transferred to ...


Nomenclatural And Taxonomic Changes In Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera), Alfred F. Newton Dec 2017

Nomenclatural And Taxonomic Changes In Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera), Alfred F. Newton

Insecta Mundi

Many nomenclatural changes are implemented in the beetle families Georissidae, Histeridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Ptiliidae, Leiodidae and especially Staphylinidae, of the beetle series Staphyliniformia (Coleoptera), in preparation for making a world catalog of this group available online. Limited taxonomic changes are also made in the staphylinid subfamilies Osoriinae and Staphylininae.

At the level of family-group taxa, Article 29.4 of the current (1999) Zoological Code is reviewed and the original spellings of two tribal names, Nymphisterini Tishechkin (Histeridae) and Cryptonotopsisini Pace (Staphylinidae), are resurrected. The tribal name Stictocraniini Jakobson (Staphylinidae) is also resurrected as the valid name for its new ...


Synopsis Of The Tribe Zolini In New Zealand (Coleoptera: Carabidae), André Larochelle, Marie-Claude Larivière Dec 2017

Synopsis Of The Tribe Zolini In New Zealand (Coleoptera: Carabidae), André Larochelle, Marie-Claude Larivière

Insecta Mundi

The tribe Zolini (Carabidae: Trechinae) is revised for New Zealand. Two subtribes, five genera, and fortyeight species are recognized. The presence of the subtribe Merizodina is confirmed for New Zealand; it includes three genera (Maungazolus n. gen., Pseudoopterus Csiki, 1928, and Synteratus Broun, 1909). The subtribe Zolina contains two genera (Oopterus Guérin-Méneville, 1841 and Zolus Sharp, 1886).

One genus and twenty-five species are described as new: Maungazolus n. gen.; Maungazolus acutus n. sp., Maungazolus priestleyensis n. sp., Maungazolus ranatungae n. sp., Maungazolus septempunctatus n. sp., Maungazolus tararuaensis n. sp., Oopterus anglemensis n. sp., Oopterus arthurensis n. sp., Oopterus corvinki n ...


Revision Of The Endemic Madagascan Stag Beetle Genus Ganelius Benesh, And Description Of A New, Related Genus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae: Figulini), M. J. Paulsen Dec 2017

Revision Of The Endemic Madagascan Stag Beetle Genus Ganelius Benesh, And Description Of A New, Related Genus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae: Figulini), M. J. Paulsen

Insecta Mundi

This paper revises the genus Ganelius Benesh, which is endemic to Madagascar, in the stag beetle tribe Figulini Burmeister (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae). Species in the genus are striking in their highly sexually dimorphic mandibles, a character that rarely occurs in the tribe. The genus was previously comprised of four species, but three of these names were problematic or questionably applied. A lectotype is designated for G. madagascariensis Laporte, a neotype is designated for Ganelius oberndorferi Nonfried, and Nigidius passaliformis Benesh is newly synonymized with G. oberndorferi. Two new species, G. gnamptus Paulsen and G. zombi Paulsen, are described from western ...


New Genera And Species Of Mimetic Cleridae From Mexico And Central America (Coleoptera: Cleroidea), Jacques Rifkind Dec 2017

New Genera And Species Of Mimetic Cleridae From Mexico And Central America (Coleoptera: Cleroidea), Jacques Rifkind

Insecta Mundi

New genera and species of putatively mimetic Cleridae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) are described from Mexico and Central America: Namba testacea, new genus and species from Nuevo León, Mexico; Aulicoides leavengoodi, new genus and species from Jalisco, Mexico; and Quadrophenia, new genus, which includes Q. townshendi, new species, from Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, Q. mooni, new species, from Costa Rica, Q. entwistlei, new species, from Guatemala and Honduras, Q. daltreyi, new species, from Costa Rica, and Q. sumidero new species, from Chiapas, Mexico. A key to the species of Quadrophenia is provided. All of the newly described species are hypothesized ...


A Highly Stable Blood Meal Alternative For Rearing Aedes And Anopheles Mosquitoes, Ted Baughman, Chelsea Peterson, Corrie Ortega, Sarah R. Preston, Christopher Paton, Jessica Williams, Amy Guy, Gavin Omodei, Brian Johnson, Helen Williams, Scott L. O'Neill, Scott A. Ritchie, Stephen L. Dobson, Damian Madan Dec 2017

A Highly Stable Blood Meal Alternative For Rearing Aedes And Anopheles Mosquitoes, Ted Baughman, Chelsea Peterson, Corrie Ortega, Sarah R. Preston, Christopher Paton, Jessica Williams, Amy Guy, Gavin Omodei, Brian Johnson, Helen Williams, Scott L. O'Neill, Scott A. Ritchie, Stephen L. Dobson, Damian Madan

Entomology Faculty Publications

We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.


South American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Part Xvii: Systematic Revision Of Western Hemisphere Cephaloscymnini (Coccinellinae) With Description Of A Cryptic New Genus And Species Of Coccidulini (Coccinellinae), Robert D. Gordon, Guy A. Hanley Dec 2017

South American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Part Xvii: Systematic Revision Of Western Hemisphere Cephaloscymnini (Coccinellinae) With Description Of A Cryptic New Genus And Species Of Coccidulini (Coccinellinae), Robert D. Gordon, Guy A. Hanley

Insecta Mundi

Genera of Cephaloscymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Coccidulinae) are discussed and a key to all recognized genera and species is provided. Succinctonotum, new genus, is proposed. Scymnus laboulbenii Mulsant and Prodilis maculata Weise are transferred to Neaporia as new combinations. Prodiloides bipunctata Weise, and Neaporia compta are transferred to Prodilis as new combinations. Neaporia cuprea Gorham is considered a junior synonym of Neaporia viridiscens Gorham and Cephaloscymnus bruchi Weise a junior synonym of Prodilis volgus Mulsant. New species described in Cephaloscymnus are C. beulah, C. candice, C. juanita. New species described in Neaporia are N. becky, N. bobbie, N. brandy, N. carole ...


Revision Of The Northern South American Species Of Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906 (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae: Protoptilinae)*, Roger J. Blahnik, Ralph W. Holzenthal Dec 2017

Revision Of The Northern South American Species Of Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906 (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae: Protoptilinae)*, Roger J. Blahnik, Ralph W. Holzenthal

Insecta Mundi

Species of Mortoniella are revised for the northern and Andean part of the South American continent, including the countries of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyana. All previously described species from the region are reillustrated and redescribed, except for Mortoniella santiaga Sykora, 1999 and M. quinuas Harper and Turcotte, 1985, whose types could not be located, and M. tranquilla Martynov, 1912, whose type is based on a female specimen and thus is currently unidentifiable. Included in the revision are 35 described species and 59 new species. Mortoniella similis Sykora, 1999 is considered a junior synonym of M. roldani Flint ...


Redescripción Del Género Ogyges Kaup (Coleoptera: Passalidae) Con Una Lista Comentada De Los Tipos Primarios, Enio B. Cano Dec 2017

Redescripción Del Género Ogyges Kaup (Coleoptera: Passalidae) Con Una Lista Comentada De Los Tipos Primarios, Enio B. Cano

Insecta Mundi

Se redescribe el género Ogyges Kaup, 1871 (Coleoptera: Passalidae), incluyendo su historia taxonómica. Se presentan las imágenes, los datos registrados en las etiquetas, las coordenadas geográficas, mediciones, comentarios taxonómicos y las instituciones depositarias de 19 tipos primarios que fueron descritos o que están incluidos dentro del género Ogyges Kaup. El nombre infrasubespecífico Ogyges laevior ab. vinculotaenia Kuwert, 1897, está indisponible, de acuerdo al artículo 45.6.2 del ICZN.

The genus Ogyges Kaup, 1871 (Coleoptera: Passalidae) is redescribed, including the taxonomic history. Also, images, data registered in labels, geographic coordinates, measurements, taxonomic comments, and repository institutions of 19 primary types ...


Primer Registro De Sarucallis Kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy, 1907) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) En Lagerstroemia Indica (Lythraceae) En Guatemala, José Francisco García Ochaeta Dec 2017

Primer Registro De Sarucallis Kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy, 1907) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) En Lagerstroemia Indica (Lythraceae) En Guatemala, José Francisco García Ochaeta

Insecta Mundi

El pulgón Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) conocido comúnmente como pulgón del árbol de júpiter, se reporta por primera vez para Guatemala. Esta especie de la familia Aphididae (Hemiptera) fue encontrada en Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae). También se presenta la información básica de la especie así como una diagnosis para identificarla.

The aphid Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy), commonly known as the crape myrtle aphid, is recorded for the first time in Guatemala. This species of the family Aphididae (Hemiptera) was found on Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae), known as crape myrtle. The present work also presents basic information on this aphid species as well as a ...


Primer Registro De Celidophylla Albimacula Saussure Y Pictet, 1898 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) En Panamá, Alonso Santos Murgas, Yostin J. Añino R., Iris Y. Gómez De Huertas Dec 2017

Primer Registro De Celidophylla Albimacula Saussure Y Pictet, 1898 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) En Panamá, Alonso Santos Murgas, Yostin J. Añino R., Iris Y. Gómez De Huertas

Insecta Mundi

Celidophylla albimacula Saussure y Pictet, 1898 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) es reportado por primera vez para Panamá. El espécimen fue colectado en la Reserva Hídrica de Turega, en la provincia de Coclé. Celidophylla albimacula solo había sido reportado anteriormente para Costa Rica y Nicaragua.

Celidophylla albimacula Saussure and Pictet, 1898 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) is reported for the first time from Panama. The specimen was collected in the Turega Water Reserve in the province of Coclé. Celidophylla albimacula had only been previously reported for Costa Rica and Nicaragua.


Systematic Revision Of The Species Of Geomyphilus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) Of Mexico And Neighboring Countries With Description Of A New Mexican Species, Marco Dellacasa, Giovanni Dellacasa, Paul E. Skelley, Robert D. Gordon Dec 2017

Systematic Revision Of The Species Of Geomyphilus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) Of Mexico And Neighboring Countries With Description Of A New Mexican Species, Marco Dellacasa, Giovanni Dellacasa, Paul E. Skelley, Robert D. Gordon

Insecta Mundi

A systematic redefinition of the species belonging to the genus Geomyphilus Gordon and Skelley, 2007 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) of Mexico and neighboring countries is presented. The new species G. tuzincola of Mexico is described and figured. The new combination Coelotrachelus macgregori (Islas, 1955) is proposed.


Discovery Of Novel, Orally Bioavailable, Antileishmanial Compounds Using Phenotypic Screening, Diana Ortiz, W. Armand Guiguemde, Jared T. Hammill, Angela K. Carrillo, Yizhe Chen, Michele Connelly, Kayla Stalheim, Carolyn Elya, Alex Johnson, Jaeki Min, Anang Shelat, David C. Smithson, Lei Yang, Fangyi Zhu, Rodney K. Guy, Scott M. Landfear Dec 2017

Discovery Of Novel, Orally Bioavailable, Antileishmanial Compounds Using Phenotypic Screening, Diana Ortiz, W. Armand Guiguemde, Jared T. Hammill, Angela K. Carrillo, Yizhe Chen, Michele Connelly, Kayla Stalheim, Carolyn Elya, Alex Johnson, Jaeki Min, Anang Shelat, David C. Smithson, Lei Yang, Fangyi Zhu, Rodney K. Guy, Scott M. Landfear

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection that afflicts approximately 12 million people worldwide. There are several limitations to the approved drug therapies for leishmaniasis, including moderate to severe toxicity, growing drug resistance, and the need for extended dosing. Moreover, miltefosine is currently the only orally available drug therapy for this infection. We addressed the pressing need for new therapies by pursuing a two-step phenotypic screen to discover novel, potent, and orally bioavailable antileishmanials. First, we conducted a high-throughput screen (HTS) of roughly 600,000 small molecules for growth inhibition against the promastigote form of the parasite life cycle using the nucleic ...


Improvements To Bayesian Gene Activity State Estimation From Genome-Wide Transcriptomics Data, Craig Disselkoen, Nathan Hekman, Brian Gilbert, Sydney Benson, Matthew Anderson, Matthew Dejongh, Aaron Best, Nathan L. Tintle Dec 2017

Improvements To Bayesian Gene Activity State Estimation From Genome-Wide Transcriptomics Data, Craig Disselkoen, Nathan Hekman, Brian Gilbert, Sydney Benson, Matthew Anderson, Matthew Dejongh, Aaron Best, Nathan L. Tintle

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

An important question in many biological applications, is to estimate or classify gene activity states (active or inactive) based on genome-wide transcriptomics data. Recently, we proposed a Bayesian method, titled MultiMM, which showed superior results compared to existing methods. In short, MultiMM performed better than existing methods on both simulated and real gene expression data, confirming well-known biological results and yielding better agreement with fluxomics data. Despite these promising results, MultiMM has numerous limitations. First, MultiMM leverages co-regulatory models to improve activity state estimates, but information about co-regulation is incorporated in a manner that assumes that networks are known with ...


Developmental Biology, The Stem Cell Of Biological Disciplines, Scott F. Gilbert Dec 2017

Developmental Biology, The Stem Cell Of Biological Disciplines, Scott F. Gilbert

Biology Faculty Works

Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines.” Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.


Multiple Signaling Functions Of Song In A Polymorphic Species With Alternative Reproductive Strategies, M. L. Grunst, A. S. Grunst, Vincent A. Formica, R. A. Gonser, E. M. Tuttle Dec 2017

Multiple Signaling Functions Of Song In A Polymorphic Species With Alternative Reproductive Strategies, M. L. Grunst, A. S. Grunst, Vincent A. Formica, R. A. Gonser, E. M. Tuttle

Biology Faculty Works

Vocal traits can be sexually selected to reflect male quality, but may also evolve to serve additional signaling functions. We used a long-term dataset to examine the signaling potential of song in dimorphic white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis). We investigated whether song conveys multifaceted information about the vocalizing individual, including fitness, species identity, individual identity, and morph. We also evaluated whether song traits correlate differently with fitness in the two morphs, as the more promiscuous strategy of white, relative to tan, morph males might impose stronger sexual selection. Males with high song rates achieved higher lifetime reproductive success, and this pattern ...


Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon Dec 2017

Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by coexpression of transgenes for deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin-type 1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 lg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from nontransgenic plants. Approximately 85%–90% of these carotenoids accumulated as all-trans-β-carotene, the most nutritionally efficacious carotenoid. β-Carotene-accumulating storage roots displayed delayed onset of ...


Rlim-Dependent And -Independent Pathways For X Chromosome Inactivation In Female Escs, Feng Wang, Kurtis N. Mccannell, Ana Boskovic, Xiaochun Zhu, Jongdae Shin, Jun Yu, Judith Gallant, Meg Byron, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Lihua Julie Zhu, Stephen N. Jones, Oliver J. Rando, Thomas G. Fazzio, Ingolf Bach Dec 2017

Rlim-Dependent And -Independent Pathways For X Chromosome Inactivation In Female Escs, Feng Wang, Kurtis N. Mccannell, Ana Boskovic, Xiaochun Zhu, Jongdae Shin, Jun Yu, Judith Gallant, Meg Byron, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Lihua Julie Zhu, Stephen N. Jones, Oliver J. Rando, Thomas G. Fazzio, Ingolf Bach

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

During female mouse embryogenesis, two forms of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensure dosage compensation from sex chromosomes. Beginning at the four-cell stage, imprinted XCI (iXCI) exclusively silences the paternal X (Xp), and this pattern is maintained in extraembryonic cell types. Epiblast cells, which give rise to the embryo proper, reactivate the Xp (XCR) and undergo a random form of XCI (rXCI) around implantation. Both iXCI and rXCI depend on the long non-coding RNA Xist. The ubiquitin ligase RLIM is required for iXCI in vivo and occupies a central role in current models of rXCI. Here, we demonstrate the existence of ...


Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is A Metabolic Liability Of Aneuploid Cells, Sunyoung Hwang, H. Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O’Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Schevchenko, Robert C. Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M. Torres Dec 2017

Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is A Metabolic Liability Of Aneuploid Cells, Sunyoung Hwang, H. Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O’Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Schevchenko, Robert C. Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M. Torres

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Aneuploidy disrupts cellular homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological responses and adaptation to aneuploidy are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms is important because aneuploidy is associated with diseases, including intellectual disability and cancer. Although tumors and mammalian aneuploid cells, including several cancer cell lines, show altered levels of sphingolipids, the role of sphingolipids in aneuploidy remains unknown. Here, we show that ceramides and long-chain bases, sphingolipid molecules that slow proliferation and promote survival, are increased by aneuploidy. Sphingolipid levels are tightly linked to serine synthesis, and inhibiting either serine or sphingolipid synthesis can specifically impair the fitness ...


Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is A Metabolic Liability Of Aneuploid Cells, Sunyoung Hwang, H. Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O'Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Schevchenko, Robert C. Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M. Torres Dec 2017

Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is A Metabolic Liability Of Aneuploid Cells, Sunyoung Hwang, H. Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O'Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Schevchenko, Robert C. Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M. Torres

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Aneuploidy disrupts cellular homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological responses and adaptation to aneuploidy are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms is important because aneuploidy is associated with diseases, including intellectual disability and cancer. Although tumors and mammalian aneuploid cells, including several cancer cell lines, show altered levels of sphingolipids, the role of sphingolipids in aneuploidy remains unknown. Here, we show that ceramides and long-chain bases, sphingolipid molecules that slow proliferation and promote survival, are increased by aneuploidy. Sphingolipid levels are tightly linked to serine synthesis, and inhibiting either serine or sphingolipid synthesis can specifically impair the fitness ...


Expression Of Wnt-Signaling Pathway Genes And Their Associations With Mirnas In Colorectal Cancer, Martha L. Slattery, Lila E. Mullany, Lori C. Sakoda, Wade S. Samowitz, Roger K. Wolff, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick Dec 2017

Expression Of Wnt-Signaling Pathway Genes And Their Associations With Mirnas In Colorectal Cancer, Martha L. Slattery, Lila E. Mullany, Lori C. Sakoda, Wade S. Samowitz, Roger K. Wolff, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications

The Wnt-signaling pathway functions in regulating cell growth and thus is involved in the carcinogenic process of several cancers, including colorectal cancer. We tested the hypothesis that multiple genes in this signaling pathway are dysregulated and that miRNAs are associated with these dysregulated genes. We used data from 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases to evaluate differences in Wnt-signaling pathway gene expression between paired CRC and normal mucosa and identify miRNAs that are associated with these genes. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were analyzed. We focused on genes most strongly ...


Probiotic Strain Stenotrophomonas Acidaminiphila Bj1 Degrades And Reduces Chlorothalonil Toxicity To Soil Enzymes, Microbial Communities And Plant Roots, Qingming Zhang, Muhammad Saleem, Caixia Wang Dec 2017

Probiotic Strain Stenotrophomonas Acidaminiphila Bj1 Degrades And Reduces Chlorothalonil Toxicity To Soil Enzymes, Microbial Communities And Plant Roots, Qingming Zhang, Muhammad Saleem, Caixia Wang

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

Chlorothalonil, a non-systemic and broad-spectrum fungicide, is widely used to control the pathogens of agricultural plants. Although microbial degradation of chlorothalonil is known, we know little about the colonization and degradation capacity of these microbes in the natural and semi-natural soil environments. Therefore, we studied the colonization and detoxification potential of a chlorothalonil degrading Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila probiotic strain BJ1 in the soil under green conditions. The results from polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that probiotic strain BJ1 successfully colonized the soil by competing with the native biota. Moreover, the bacterial inoculation stimulated some members of indigenous soil microbial ...


Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis- A Case Report, Renee M. Horner, Douglas S. Gardenhire, Ralph D. Zimmerman Dec 2017

Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis- A Case Report, Renee M. Horner, Douglas S. Gardenhire, Ralph D. Zimmerman

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disorder caused by a congregation of excessive lipoproteinaceous material in the alveolar spaces due to impaired surfactant metabolism. The congregation of the protein in the alveolar space leads to difficulty in breathing, impaired pulmonary immunity, and susceptibility to both opportunistic and acquired pulmonary infections. Although Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis is rare, there are potential treatments. Whole-lung lavage is the most widely accepted therapy and course of treatment. An additional form of therapy, GM-CSF stimulating therapy, uses recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology to increase white cell production.

Purpose: The purpose of this ...


Ability Of Functional Performance Tests To Identify Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis, Adam B. Rosen, Alan R. Needle, Jupil Ko Dec 2017

Ability Of Functional Performance Tests To Identify Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis, Adam B. Rosen, Alan R. Needle, Jupil Ko

Health and Kinesiology Faculty Publications

Objective:

The purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of functional performance tests (FPTs) in differentiating between individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls.

Data Sources:

The National Library of Medicine Catalog (PubMed), the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the SPORTDiscus, from inception to June 2017 were searched. Search terms consisted of: “Functional Performance Test*” OR “Dynamic Balance Test*” OR “Postural Stability Test*” OR “Star Excursion Balance Test*” OR “Hop Test*” AND “Ankle Instability” OR “Ankle Sprain.” Included articles assessed differences in FPTs in patients with CAI compared ...