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2014

Biology Faculty Publications

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Articles 31 - 60 of 103

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Major Alteration In Coxsackievirus B3 Genomic Rna Structure Distinguishes A Virulent Strain From An A Virulent Strain, Jerome Prusa, Johanna Missak, Jeff Kittrell, John J. Evans, William Tapprich Jul 2014

Major Alteration In Coxsackievirus B3 Genomic Rna Structure Distinguishes A Virulent Strain From An A Virulent Strain, Jerome Prusa, Johanna Missak, Jeff Kittrell, John J. Evans, William Tapprich

Biology Faculty Publications

Coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) is a cardiovirulent enterovirus that utilizes a 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) to complete critical viral processes. Here, we directly compared the structure of a 5′UTR from a virulent strain with that of a naturally occurring avirulent strain. Using chemical probing analysis, we identified a structural difference between the two 5′UTRs in the highly substituted stem-loop II region (SLII). For the remainder of the 5′UTR, we observed conserved structure. Comparative sequence analysis of 170 closely related enteroviruses revealed that the SLII region lacks conservation. To investigate independent folding and function, two chimeric CV-B3 strains ...


Germination Season And Watering Regime, But Not Seed Morph, Affect Life History Traits In A Cold Desert Diaspore-Heteromorphic Annual, Juan J. Lu, Dun Y. Tan, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin Jul 2014

Germination Season And Watering Regime, But Not Seed Morph, Affect Life History Traits In A Cold Desert Diaspore-Heteromorphic Annual, Juan J. Lu, Dun Y. Tan, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin

Biology Faculty Publications

Seed morph, abiotic conditions and time of germination can affect plant fitness, but few studies have tested their combined effects on plasticity of plant life history traits. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that seed morph, germination season and watering regime influence phenotypic expression of post-germination life history traits in the diaspore-heteromorphic cold desert winter annual/spring ephemeral Diptychocarpus strictus. The two seed morphs were sown in watered and non-watered plots in late summer, and plants derived from them were watered or not-watered throughout the study. Seed morph did not affect phenology, growth and morphology, survival, dry mass accumulation and allocation ...


Sox11 Is Required To Maintain Proper Levels Of Hedgehog Signaling During Vertebrate Ocular Morphogenesis, Lakshmi Pillai-Kastoori, Wen Wen, Stephen G. Wilson, Erin Strachan, Adriana Lo-Castro, Marco Fichera, Sebastiano A. Musumeci, Ordan J. Lehmann, Ann C. Morris Jul 2014

Sox11 Is Required To Maintain Proper Levels Of Hedgehog Signaling During Vertebrate Ocular Morphogenesis, Lakshmi Pillai-Kastoori, Wen Wen, Stephen G. Wilson, Erin Strachan, Adriana Lo-Castro, Marco Fichera, Sebastiano A. Musumeci, Ordan J. Lehmann, Ann C. Morris

Biology Faculty Publications

Ocular coloboma is a sight-threatening malformation caused by failure of the choroid fissure to close during morphogenesis of the eye, and is frequently associated with additional anomalies, including microphthalmia and cataracts. Although Hedgehog signaling is known to play a critical role in choroid fissure closure, genetic regulation of this pathway remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sox11 is required to maintain specific levels of Hedgehog signaling during ocular development. Sox11-deficient zebrafish embryos displayed delayed and abnormal lens formation, coloboma, and a specific reduction in rod photoreceptors, all of which could be rescued by treatment with the ...


Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth Jul 2014

Aquastella Gen. Nov.: A New Genus Of Saprolegniaceous Oomycete Rotifer Parasites Related To Aphanomyces, With Unique Sporangial Outgrowths, Daniel P. Molloy, Sally L. Glockling, Clifford A. Siegfried, Gordon W. Beakes, Timothy Y. James, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Elizabeth S. Wurdak, Laure Giamberini, Michael J. Gaylo, Michael J. Nemeth

Biology Faculty Publications

The oomycete genus Aquastella is described to accommodate two new species of parasites of rotifers observed in Brooktrout Lake, New York State, USA. Three rotifer species – Keratella taurocephala,Polyarthra vulgaris, and Ploesoma truncatum – were infected, and this is the first report of oomycete infection in these species. Aquastella attenuata was specific to K. taurocephala and Aquastella aciculariswas specific to P. vulgaris and P. truncatum. The occurrence of infections correlated with peak host population densities and rotifers were infected in the upper layers of the water column. Sequencing of 18S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis of both species placed them within ...


Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel Jul 2014

Diet Alters Delayed Selfing, Inbreeding Depression, And Reproductive Senescence In A Freshwater Snail, Josh R. Auld, John F. Henkel

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Coral Honeysuckle Easy To Propagate With Cuttings, W. John Hayden Jul 2014

Coral Honeysuckle Easy To Propagate With Cuttings, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

One of my earliest botanical/horticultural memories involves time spent with my dad taking cuttings of ornamental plants. Every spring, he would start several dozen new chrysanthemums from carefully overwintered stock plants. He was also fond of long yew hedges that he developed by taking numerous cuttings from just a few original shrubs in our yard. And, from time to time, both my grandmothers would propagate, via cuttings, house plants like geraniums, African violets, and Christmas cacti. But I think it was my dad’s comparatively larger scale operation that fascinated me; with just a little effort, a single shrub ...


A New Species Of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) From The Atlantic Forest Of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, João Filipe Tonini, Maruicio Forlani, Rafael O. De Sá Jul 2014

A New Species Of Chiasmocleis (Microhylidae, Gastrophryninae) From The Atlantic Forest Of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, João Filipe Tonini, Maruicio Forlani, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Among Neotropical microhylids, the genus Chiasmocleis is exceptionally diverse. Most species ofChiasmocleis were described in recent years based on external morphology, but recent studies using molecular data did not support the monophyly of the species groups clustered based on feet webbing. Furthermore, a phylogeographic study of C. lacrimae estimated high genetic divergence and low gene flow among populations across small geographic ranges. Increasing the molecular and geographic sampling, and incorporating morphological data, we identified new cryptic species. Herein, we used novel genetic and morphological data to describe a new species of Chiasmocleis.


Each Of The Eight Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Minor Structural Proteins Is Functionally Important, Heather A. Vatter, Han Di, Eric F. Donaldson, Ralph S. Baric, Margo A. Brinton Jul 2014

Each Of The Eight Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Minor Structural Proteins Is Functionally Important, Heather A. Vatter, Han Di, Eric F. Donaldson, Ralph S. Baric, Margo A. Brinton

Biology Faculty Publications

The simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) genome differs from those of other members of the family Arterivirus in encoding two adjacent sets of four minor structural protein open reading frames (ORFs). A stable, full-length, infectious SHFV-LVR cDNA clone was constructed. Virus produced from this clone had replication characteristics similar to those of the parental virus. A subgenomic mRNA was identified for the SHFV ORF previously identified as 2b. As an initial means of analyzing the functional relevance of each of the SHFV minor structural proteins, a set of mutant infectious clones was generated, each with the start codon of one ...


The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá Jun 2014

The Neotropical Genus Austrolebias: An Emerging Model Of Annual Killifishes, Nibia Berois, María J. Arezo, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Annual fishes are found in both Africa and South America occupying ephemeral ponds that dried seasonally. Neotropical annual fishes are members of the family Rivulidae that consist of both annual and non-annual fishes. Annual species are characterized by a prolonged embryonic development and a relatively short adult life.

Males and females show striking sexual dimorphisms, complex courtship, and mating behaviors. The prolonged embryonic stage has several traits including embryos that are resistant to desiccation and undergo up to three reversible developmental arrests until hatching. These unique developmental adaptations are closely related to the annual fish life cycle and are the ...


Estimating Bacterial Diversity In Scirtothrips Dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Via Next Generation Sequencing, Aaron M. Dickey, Andrew J. Trease, Antonella Jara-Cavieres, Vivek Kumar, Matthew K. Christenson, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, J. Kent Morgan, Robert G. Shatters Jr., Cindy L. Mckenzie, Paul H. Davis, Lance S. Osborne Jun 2014

Estimating Bacterial Diversity In Scirtothrips Dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Via Next Generation Sequencing, Aaron M. Dickey, Andrew J. Trease, Antonella Jara-Cavieres, Vivek Kumar, Matthew K. Christenson, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, J. Kent Morgan, Robert G. Shatters Jr., Cindy L. Mckenzie, Paul H. Davis, Lance S. Osborne

Biology Faculty Publications

The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The ...


Probability Of Regenerating A Normal Limb After Bite Injury In The Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma Mexicanum), Sierra Thompson, Laura Muzinic, Christopher Muzinic, Matthew L. Niemiller, S. Randal Voss Jun 2014

Probability Of Regenerating A Normal Limb After Bite Injury In The Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma Mexicanum), Sierra Thompson, Laura Muzinic, Christopher Muzinic, Matthew L. Niemiller, S. Randal Voss

Biology Faculty Publications

Multiple factors are thought to cause limb abnormalities in amphibian populations by altering processes of limb development and regeneration. We examined adult and juvenile axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) in the Ambystoma Genetic Stock Center (AGSC) for limb and digit abnormalities to investigate the probability of normal regeneration after bite injury. We observed that 80% of larval salamanders show evidence of bite injury at the time of transition from group housing to solitary housing. Among 717 adult axolotls that were surveyed, which included solitary-housed males and group-housed females, approximately half presented abnormalities, including examples of extra or missing digits and limbs, fused ...


A Heterogenous Thermal Environment Enables Remarkable Behavioral Thermoregulation In Uta Stansburiana, Maria Goller, Franz Goller, Susannah S. French May 2014

A Heterogenous Thermal Environment Enables Remarkable Behavioral Thermoregulation In Uta Stansburiana, Maria Goller, Franz Goller, Susannah S. French

Biology Faculty Publications

Ectotherms can attain preferred body temperatures by selecting specific temperature microhabitats within a varied thermal environment. The side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana may employ microhabitat selection to thermoregulate behaviorally. It is unknown to what degree habitat structural complexity provides thermal microhabitats for thermoregulation. Thermal microhabitat structure, lizard temperature, and substrate preference were simultaneously evaluated using thermal imaging. A broad range of microhabitat temperatures was available (mean range of 11°C within 1–2 m2) while mean lizard temperature was between 36°C and 38°C. Lizards selected sites that differed significantly from the mean environmental temperature, indicating behavioral thermoregulation, and maintained ...


Novel Telomere-Anchored Pcr Approach For Studying Sexual Stage Telomeres In Aspergillus Nidulans, Nengding Wang, Saajidha Rizvydeen, Mithaq Vahedi, Daysi M. Vargas Gonzalez, Amanda L. Allred, Dustin Wayne Perry, Peter M. Mirabito, Karen E. Kirk May 2014

Novel Telomere-Anchored Pcr Approach For Studying Sexual Stage Telomeres In Aspergillus Nidulans, Nengding Wang, Saajidha Rizvydeen, Mithaq Vahedi, Daysi M. Vargas Gonzalez, Amanda L. Allred, Dustin Wayne Perry, Peter M. Mirabito, Karen E. Kirk

Biology Faculty Publications

Telomere length varies between germline and somatic cells of the same organism, leading to the hypothesis that telomeres are lengthened during meiosis. However, little is known about the meiotic telomere length in many organisms. In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, the telomere lengths in hyphae and asexual spores are invariant. No study using existing techniques has determined the telomere length of the sexual ascospores due to the relatively low abundance of pure meiotic cells in A. nidulans and the small quantity of DNA present. To address this, we developed a simple and sensitive PCR strategy to measure the telomere length ...


Kifci, A Novel Putative Prognostic Biomarker For Ovarian Adenocarcinomas: Delineating Protein Interaction Networks And Signaling Circuitries, Shrikant Pawar, Shashikiran Donthamsetty, Vaishali Pannu, Padmashree Rida, Angela Ogden, Nathan Bowen, Remus Osan, Guilherme Cantuaria, Ritu Aneja May 2014

Kifci, A Novel Putative Prognostic Biomarker For Ovarian Adenocarcinomas: Delineating Protein Interaction Networks And Signaling Circuitries, Shrikant Pawar, Shashikiran Donthamsetty, Vaishali Pannu, Padmashree Rida, Angela Ogden, Nathan Bowen, Remus Osan, Guilherme Cantuaria, Ritu Aneja

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Amplified centrosomes in cancers are recently garnering a lot of attention as an emerging hub of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Ovarian adenocarcinomas commonly harbor supernumerary centrosomes that drive chromosomal instability. A centrosome clustering molecule, KIFC1, is indispensable for the viability of extra centrosome-bearing cancer cells, and may underlie progression of ovarian cancers.
Methods: Centrosome amplification in low- and high- grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas was quantitated employing confocal imaging. KIFC1 expression was analyzed in ovarian tumors using publically-available databases. Associated grade, stage and clinical information from these databases were plotted for KIFC1 gene expression values. Furthermore, interactions and functional ...


Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions And Applications, Charles D. Derby May 2014

Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions And Applications, Charles D. Derby

Biology Faculty Publications

One of the most distinctive and defining features of coleoid cephalopods—squid, cuttlefish and octopus—is their inking behavior. Their ink, which is blackened by melanin, but also contains other constituents, has been used by humans in various ways for millennia. This review summarizes our current knowledge of cephalopod ink. Topics include: (1) the production of ink, including the functional organization of the ink sac and funnel organ that produce it; (2) the chemical components of ink, with a focus on the best known of these—melanin and the biochemical pathways involved in its production; (3) the neuroecology of the ...


Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells In A Lymph Node Microenvironment Depict Molecular Signature Associated With An Aggressive Disease, Amit K. Mittal, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi, Karan J. Rai, Christine E. Gilling-Cutucache, Tara M. Nordgren, Margaret Moragues, Runqing Lu, Rene Opavsky, Greg R. Bociek, Dennis D. Weisenburger, Javeed Iqbal, Shantaram S. Joshi Apr 2014

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells In A Lymph Node Microenvironment Depict Molecular Signature Associated With An Aggressive Disease, Amit K. Mittal, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi, Karan J. Rai, Christine E. Gilling-Cutucache, Tara M. Nordgren, Margaret Moragues, Runqing Lu, Rene Opavsky, Greg R. Bociek, Dennis D. Weisenburger, Javeed Iqbal, Shantaram S. Joshi

Biology Faculty Publications

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells survive longer in vivo than in vitro, suggesting that the tissue microenvironment provides prosurvival signals to tumor cells. Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues are involved in the pathogenesis of CLL, and the role of these tissue microenvironments has not been explored completely. To elucidate host-tumor interactions, we performed gene expression profiling (GEP) of purified CLL cells from peripheral blood (PB; n = 20), bone marrow (BM; n = 18), and lymph node (LN; n = 15) and validated key pathway genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and/or TCL1 trans-genic mice. Gene signatures representing several pathways critical ...


Sex Ratio Bias And Extinction Risk In An Isolated Population Of Tuatara (Sphenodon Punctatus), Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Joanne M. Monks, Susan N. Keall, Joanna N. Wilson, Nicola J. Nelson Apr 2014

Sex Ratio Bias And Extinction Risk In An Isolated Population Of Tuatara (Sphenodon Punctatus), Kristine L. Grayson, Nicola J. Mitchell, Joanne M. Monks, Susan N. Keall, Joanna N. Wilson, Nicola J. Nelson

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding the mechanisms underlying population declines is critical for preventing the extinction of endangered populations. Positive feedbacks can hasten the process of collapse and create an ‘extinction vortex,’ particularly in small, isolated populations. We provide a case study of a male-biased sex ratio creating the conditions for extinction in a natural population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on North Brother Island in the Cook Strait of New Zealand. We combine data from long term mark-recapture surveys, updated model estimates of hatchling sex ratio, and population viability modeling to measure the impacts of sex ratio skew. Results from the mark-recapture surveys show ...


Humming Birds: Pollination Facts And Fancy, W. John Hayden Apr 2014

Humming Birds: Pollination Facts And Fancy, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens), the 2014 VNPS Wildflower of the Year, is a classic example of a hummingbird-pollinated flower: bright red petals, often with contrasting yellow tones in the corolla throat, provide visual attraction, drawing hummingbirds to the flowers, where they are rewarded with a rich supply of nectar. Whereas hummingbirds have good color vision, they have a poor sense of smell. So it is not surprising that coral honeysuckle flowers are nearly scentless, at least to the human nose; even modern analytical instruments detect only traces of volatile molecules emanating from them. And open coral honeysuckle flowers, like those ...


Evolutionary Change In Continuous Reaction Norms, Courtney J. Murren, Heidi J. Maclean, Sarah E. Diamond, Ulrich K. Steiner, Mary A. Heskel, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Josh R. Auld, Hilary S. Callahan, David W. Pfennig, Rick A. Relyea, Carl D. Schlichting, Joel Kingsolver Apr 2014

Evolutionary Change In Continuous Reaction Norms, Courtney J. Murren, Heidi J. Maclean, Sarah E. Diamond, Ulrich K. Steiner, Mary A. Heskel, Corey A. Handelsman, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Josh R. Auld, Hilary S. Callahan, David W. Pfennig, Rick A. Relyea, Carl D. Schlichting, Joel Kingsolver

Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Replacing Fishmeal With Squash Seed Meal (Cucurbita Maxima) On Performance Of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Janice A. Ragaza, Jonni Fay C. Teves, Marie Noelle Fernandez Apr 2014

Effects Of Replacing Fishmeal With Squash Seed Meal (Cucurbita Maxima) On Performance Of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Janice A. Ragaza, Jonni Fay C. Teves, Marie Noelle Fernandez

Biology Faculty Publications

The effects of replacing fishmeal with squash (Cucurbita maxima) seed meal (SSM) on Oreochromis niloticus juveniles were investigated on a 30-day feeding trial. Triplicate groups of ten (10) O. niloticus juveniles (2.54±0.949 g) stocked in polyethylene tanks received iso-nitrogenous diets with SSM inclusion levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Fish fed 5% SSM inclusion level showed the highest average weight gain (202.25±36.26%) and specific growth rate (3.76±0.42%) among the fish fed SSM-containing diets. However, there were no significant differences between the average weight gain and specific growth rate of ...


Characterization Of In Vitro Transcriptional Responses Of Dorsal Root Ganglia Cultured In The Presence And Absence Of Blastema Cells From Regenerating Salamander Limbs, Antony Athippozhy, Jeffrey Lehrberg, James R. Monaghan, David M. Gardiner, S. Randal Voss Apr 2014

Characterization Of In Vitro Transcriptional Responses Of Dorsal Root Ganglia Cultured In The Presence And Absence Of Blastema Cells From Regenerating Salamander Limbs, Antony Athippozhy, Jeffrey Lehrberg, James R. Monaghan, David M. Gardiner, S. Randal Voss

Biology Faculty Publications

During salamander limb regeneration, nerves provide signals that induce the formation of a mass of proliferative cells called the blastema. To better understand these signals, we developed a blastema-dorsal root ganglia (DRG) co-culture model system to test the hypothesis that nerves differentially express genes in response to cues provided by the blastema. DRG with proximal and distal nerve trunks were isolated from axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum), cultured for five days, and subjected to microarray analysis. Relative to freshly isolated DRG, 1,541 Affymetrix probe sets were identified as differentially expressed and many of the predicted genes are known to function in ...


Do Omnivorous Shrimp Influence Mayfly Nymphs In A Tropical Island Stream?, Nicholas A. Macías, J. Checo Colón-Gaud, Jonathan W. Duggins, Alonso Ramírez Apr 2014

Do Omnivorous Shrimp Influence Mayfly Nymphs In A Tropical Island Stream?, Nicholas A. Macías, J. Checo Colón-Gaud, Jonathan W. Duggins, Alonso Ramírez

Biology Faculty Publications

Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory ...


Evolutionary Relationships Of The Critically Endangered Frog Ericabatrachus Baleensis Largen, 1991 With Notes On Incorporating Previously Unsampled Taxa Into Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analyses, Karen Siu-Ting, David J. Gower, Davide Pisani, Roman Kassahun, Fikirte Gebresenbet, Michele Menegon, Abebe A. Mengistu, Samy A. Saber, Rafael O. De Sá, Mark Wilkinson, Simon P. Loader Mar 2014

Evolutionary Relationships Of The Critically Endangered Frog Ericabatrachus Baleensis Largen, 1991 With Notes On Incorporating Previously Unsampled Taxa Into Large-Scale Phylogenetic Analyses, Karen Siu-Ting, David J. Gower, Davide Pisani, Roman Kassahun, Fikirte Gebresenbet, Michele Menegon, Abebe A. Mengistu, Samy A. Saber, Rafael O. De Sá, Mark Wilkinson, Simon P. Loader

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The phylogenetic relationships of many taxa remain poorly known because of a lack of appropriate data and/or analyses. Despite substantial recent advances, amphibian phylogeny remains poorly resolved in many instances. The phylogenetic relationships of the Ethiopian endemic monotypic genus Ericabatrachus has been addressed thus far only with phenotypic data and remains contentious.

Results: We obtained fresh samples of the now rare and Critically Endangered Ericabatrachus baleensis and generated DNA sequences for two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Analyses of these new data using de novo and constrained-tree phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support a close relationship between Ericabatrachus and Petropedetes ...


Analysis Of The Skin Transcriptome In Two Oujiang Color Varieties Of Common Carp, Chenghui Wang, Michael Wachholtz, Jun Wang, Xiaolin Liao, Guoqing Lu Mar 2014

Analysis Of The Skin Transcriptome In Two Oujiang Color Varieties Of Common Carp, Chenghui Wang, Michael Wachholtz, Jun Wang, Xiaolin Liao, Guoqing Lu

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding.

Methodology/Principal Findings: In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of ...


The Drrab System Of Streptomyces Peucetius Is A Multi-Drug Transporter Of Broad Substrate Specificity, Wen Li, Madhu Sharma, Parjit Kaur Mar 2014

The Drrab System Of Streptomyces Peucetius Is A Multi-Drug Transporter Of Broad Substrate Specificity, Wen Li, Madhu Sharma, Parjit Kaur

Biology Faculty Publications

The soil bacterium Streptomyces peucetius produces two widely used anticancer antibiotics doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Present within the biosynthesis gene cluster in S. peucetius is the drrAB operon which codes for a dedicated ABC-type transporter for the export of these two closely related antibiotics. Because of its dedicated nature, the DrrAB system is believed to belong to the category of single-drug transporters. However, whether it also contains specificity for other known substrates of multidrug transporters has never been tested. In this study, we demonstrate under both in vivo and in vitro conditions that the DrrAB system can transport not only doxorubicin ...


Intestinal Cgi-58 Deficiency Reduces Postprandial Lipid Absorption, Ping Xie, Feng Guo, Yinyan Ma, Hongling Xhu, Freddy Wang, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Jian Yang, Liqing Yu Mar 2014

Intestinal Cgi-58 Deficiency Reduces Postprandial Lipid Absorption, Ping Xie, Feng Guo, Yinyan Ma, Hongling Xhu, Freddy Wang, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Jian Yang, Liqing Yu

Biology Faculty Publications

Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase ...


Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotopes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. Dejong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Gregory P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull Mar 2014

Cluster M Mycobacteriophages Bongo, Pegleg, And Rey With Unusually Large Repertoires Of Trna Isotopes, Welkin H. Pope, Kirk R. Anders, Madison Baird, Charles A. Bowman, Michelle M. Boyle, Gregory W. Broussard, Tiffany Chow, Kari L. Clase, Shannon Cooper, Kathleen A. Cornely, Randall J. Dejong, Veronique A. Delesalle, Lisa Deng, David Dunbar, Nicholas P. Edgington, Christina M. Ferreira, Kathleen Weston Hafer, Grant A. Hartzog, J. Robert Hatherill, Lee E. Hughes, Khristina Ipapo, Gregory P. Krukonis, Christopher G. Meier, Denise L. Monti, Matthew R. Olm, Shallee T. Page, Craig L. Peebles, Claire A. Rinehart, Michael R. Rubin, Daniel A. Russell, Erin R. Sanders, Morgan Schoer, Christopher D. Shaffer, James Wherley, Edwin Vazquez, Han Yuan, Daiyuan Zhang, Steven G. Cresawn, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Roger W. Hendrix, Graham F. Hatfull

Biology Faculty Publications

Genomic analysis of a large set of phages infecting the common hostMycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 shows that they span considerable genetic diversity. There are more than 20 distinct types that lack nucleotide similarity with each other, and there is considerable diversity within most of the groups. Three newly isolated temperate mycobacteriophages, Bongo, PegLeg, and Rey, constitute a new group (cluster M), with the closely related phages Bongo and PegLeg forming subcluster M1 and the more distantly related Rey forming subcluster M2. The cluster M mycobacteriophages have siphoviral morphologies with unusually long tails, are homoimmune, and have larger than average ...


Utilization Of The Invasive Alga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss By The Native Mud Snail Ilyanassa Obsoleta (Say), Michele Guidone, Christine Newton, Carol S. Thornber Mar 2014

Utilization Of The Invasive Alga Gracilaria Vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss By The Native Mud Snail Ilyanassa Obsoleta (Say), Michele Guidone, Christine Newton, Carol S. Thornber

Biology Faculty Publications

The recent invasions of the red alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, to the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans have the potential to significantly alter intertidal and subtidal soft sediment communities. In particular, G. vermiculophylla increases habitat complexity and provides a novel hard substrate in an otherwise two dimensional habitat. Following our observations that the native omnivorous mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta utilizes G. vermiculophylla for egg capsule deposition, our field surveys demonstrated that the in situ abundance of egg capsules on G. vermiculophylla matched abundances on a native alga Ceramium virgatumandwere at least 11–50 times greater than on all other co-occurring macrophytes ...


What Kind Of Seed Dormancy Might Palms Have?, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin Mar 2014

What Kind Of Seed Dormancy Might Palms Have?, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin

Biology Faculty Publications

Palm diaspores are reported to have various kinds of dormancy. However, (1) the embryo is underdeveloped; (2) the endocarp is water permeable; and (3) the diaspores take a long time to germinate. Thus, we conclude that the diaspores of the majority of palm species have morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). The ones that do not have MPD are morphologically dormant.


Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak Mar 2014

Chip-Seq And Rna-Seq Reveal An Amrz-Mediated Mechanism For Cyclic Di-Gmp Synthesis And Biofilm Development By Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Christopher J. Jones, David Newsom, Benjamin Kelly, Yasuhiko Irie, Laura K. Jennings, Binjie Xu, Dominique H. Limoli, Joe J. Harrison, Matthew R. Parsek, Peter White, Daniel J. Wozniak

Biology Faculty Publications

The transcription factor AmrZ regulates genes important for P. aeruginosa virulence, including type IV pili, extracellular polysaccharides, and the flagellum; however, the global effect of AmrZ on gene expression remains unknown, and therefore, AmrZ may directly regulate many additional genes that are crucial for infection. Compared to the wild type strain, a ΔamrZ mutant exhibits a rugose colony phenotype, which is commonly observed in variants that accumulate the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Cyclic di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE). We hypothesized that AmrZ limits the intracellular accumulation of c-di-GMP through transcriptional repression ...