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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timothy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache Dec 2014

Design, Assessment, And In Vivo Evaluation Of A Computational Model Illustrating The Role Of Cav1 In Cd4+ T-Lymphocytes, Brittany D. Conroy, Tyler A. Herek, Timothy D. Shew, Matthew Latner, Joshua J. Larson, Laura Allen, Paul H. Davis, Tomáš Helikar, Christine E. Cutucache

Biology Faculty Publications

Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a vital scaffold protein heterogeneously expressed in both healthy and malignant tissue. We focus on the role of CAV1 when overexpressed in T-cell leukemia. Previously, we have shown that CAV1 is involved in cell-to-cell communication, cellular proliferation, and immune synapse formation; however, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the role of CAV1 in immune synapse formation contributes to immune regulation during leukemic progression, thereby warranting studies of the role of CAV1 in CD4+ T-cells in relation to antigen-presenting cells. To address this need, we developed a computational model of a CD4+ immune effector ...


A Novel Method For Simulating Insulin Mediated Glut4 Translocation, Andrew Jezewski, Joshua Larson, Beata Wysocki, Paul H. Davis, Tadeusz Wysocki Dec 2014

A Novel Method For Simulating Insulin Mediated Glut4 Translocation, Andrew Jezewski, Joshua Larson, Beata Wysocki, Paul H. Davis, Tadeusz Wysocki

Biology Faculty Publications

Glucose transport in humans is a vital process which is tightly regulated by the endocrine system. Specifically, the insulin hormone triggers a cascade of intracellular signals in target cells mediating the uptake of glucose. Insulin signaling triggers cellular relocalization of the glucose transporter protein GLUT4 to the cell surface, which is primarily responsible for regulated glucose import. Pathology associated with the disruption of this pathway can lead to metabolic disorders, such as type II diabetes mellitus, characterized by the failure of cells to appropriately uptake glucose from the blood. We describe a novel simulation tool of the insulin intracellular response ...


Limited Sex-Biased Neural Gene Expression Patterns Across Strains In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Ryan Y. Wong, Melissa M. Mcleod, John Godwin Oct 2014

Limited Sex-Biased Neural Gene Expression Patterns Across Strains In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Ryan Y. Wong, Melissa M. Mcleod, John Godwin

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Male and female vertebrates typically differ in a range of characteristics, from morphology to physiology to behavior, which are influenced by factors such as the social environment and the internal hormonal and genetic milieu. However, sex differences in gene expression profiles in the brains of vertebrates are only beginning to be understood. Fishes provide a unique complement to studies of sex differences in mammals and birds given that fish show extreme plasticity and lability of sexually dimorphic characters and behaviors during development and even adulthood. Hence, teleost models can give additional insight into sexual differentiation. The goal of this ...


Molecular Variation In Avp And Avpr1a In New World Monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini): Evolution And Implications For Social Monogamy, Dongren Ren, Kelvin R. Chin, Jeffrey French Oct 2014

Molecular Variation In Avp And Avpr1a In New World Monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini): Evolution And Implications For Social Monogamy, Dongren Ren, Kelvin R. Chin, Jeffrey French

Biology Faculty Publications

The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays important roles in fluid regulation and vascular resistance. Differences in AVP receptor expression, particularly mediated through variation in the noncoding promoter region of the primary receptor for AVP (AVPR1a), may play a role in social phenotypes, particularly social monogamy, in rodents and humans. Among primates, social monogamy is rare, but is common among New World monkeys (NWM). AVP is a nonapeptide and generally conserved among eutherian mammals, although a recent paper demonstrated that some NWM species possess a novel form of the related neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin. We therefore characterized variation in the AVP ...


Hypogammaglobulinemia In Blt Humanized Mice – An Animal Model Of Primary Antibody Deficiency, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Paul W. Denton Oct 2014

Hypogammaglobulinemia In Blt Humanized Mice – An Animal Model Of Primary Antibody Deficiency, Francisco Martinez-Torres, Tomonori Nochi, Angela Wahl, J. Victor Garcia, Paul W. Denton

Biology Faculty Publications

Primary antibody deficiencies present clinically as reduced or absent plasma antibodies without another identified disorder that could explain the low immunoglobulin levels. Bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice also exhibit primary antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia. Comprehensive characterization of B cell development and differentiation in BLT mice revealed other key parallels with primary immunodeficiency patients. We found that B cell ontogeny was normal in the bone marrow of BLT mice but observed an absence of switched memory B cells in the periphery. PC-KLH immunizations led to the presence of switched memory B cells in immunized BLT mice although plasma cells producing PCor ...


Height And Clonality Traits Determine Plant Community Responses To Fertilization, Timothy L. Dickson, Gary G. Mittelbach, Heather L. Reynolds, Katherine L. Gross Sep 2014

Height And Clonality Traits Determine Plant Community Responses To Fertilization, Timothy L. Dickson, Gary G. Mittelbach, Heather L. Reynolds, Katherine L. Gross

Biology Faculty Publications

Fertilization via agricultural inputs and nutrient deposition is one of the major threats to global terrestrial plant richness, yet we still do not fully understand the mechanisms by which fertilization decreases plant richness. Tall clonal species have recently been proposed to cause declines in plant species richness by increasing in abundance in response to fertilization and competing strongly with other species. We tested this hypothesis in a fertilization experiment in a low productivity grassland by using a novel experimental manipulation of the presence vs. absence of clonal species and by examining the role of height within these treatments. We found ...


Major Alteration In Coxsackievirus B3 Genomic Rna Structure Distinguishes A Virulent Strain From An A Virulent Strain, Jerome Prusa, Johanna Missak, Jeff Kittrell, John J. Evans, William Tapprich Jul 2014

Major Alteration In Coxsackievirus B3 Genomic Rna Structure Distinguishes A Virulent Strain From An A Virulent Strain, Jerome Prusa, Johanna Missak, Jeff Kittrell, John J. Evans, William Tapprich

Biology Faculty Publications

Coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) is a cardiovirulent enterovirus that utilizes a 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) to complete critical viral processes. Here, we directly compared the structure of a 5′UTR from a virulent strain with that of a naturally occurring avirulent strain. Using chemical probing analysis, we identified a structural difference between the two 5′UTRs in the highly substituted stem-loop II region (SLII). For the remainder of the 5′UTR, we observed conserved structure. Comparative sequence analysis of 170 closely related enteroviruses revealed that the SLII region lacks conservation. To investigate independent folding and function, two chimeric CV-B3 strains ...


Estimating Bacterial Diversity In Scirtothrips Dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Via Next Generation Sequencing, Aaron M. Dickey, Andrew J. Trease, Antonella Jara-Cavieres, Vivek Kumar, Matthew K. Christenson, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, J. Kent Morgan, Robert G. Shatters Jr., Cindy L. Mckenzie, Paul H. Davis, Lance S. Osborne Jun 2014

Estimating Bacterial Diversity In Scirtothrips Dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Via Next Generation Sequencing, Aaron M. Dickey, Andrew J. Trease, Antonella Jara-Cavieres, Vivek Kumar, Matthew K. Christenson, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, J. Kent Morgan, Robert G. Shatters Jr., Cindy L. Mckenzie, Paul H. Davis, Lance S. Osborne

Biology Faculty Publications

The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The ...


Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells In A Lymph Node Microenvironment Depict Molecular Signature Associated With An Aggressive Disease, Amit K. Mittal, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi, Karan J. Rai, Christine E. Gilling-Cutucache, Tara M. Nordgren, Margaret Moragues, Runqing Lu, Rene Opavsky, Greg R. Bociek, Dennis D. Weisenburger, Javeed Iqbal, Shantaram S. Joshi Apr 2014

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells In A Lymph Node Microenvironment Depict Molecular Signature Associated With An Aggressive Disease, Amit K. Mittal, Nagendra K. Chaturvedi, Karan J. Rai, Christine E. Gilling-Cutucache, Tara M. Nordgren, Margaret Moragues, Runqing Lu, Rene Opavsky, Greg R. Bociek, Dennis D. Weisenburger, Javeed Iqbal, Shantaram S. Joshi

Biology Faculty Publications

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells survive longer in vivo than in vitro, suggesting that the tissue microenvironment provides prosurvival signals to tumor cells. Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues are involved in the pathogenesis of CLL, and the role of these tissue microenvironments has not been explored completely. To elucidate host-tumor interactions, we performed gene expression profiling (GEP) of purified CLL cells from peripheral blood (PB; n = 20), bone marrow (BM; n = 18), and lymph node (LN; n = 15) and validated key pathway genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and/or TCL1 trans-genic mice. Gene signatures representing several pathways critical ...


Analysis Of The Skin Transcriptome In Two Oujiang Color Varieties Of Common Carp, Chenghui Wang, Michael Wachholtz, Jun Wang, Xiaolin Liao, Guoqing Lu Mar 2014

Analysis Of The Skin Transcriptome In Two Oujiang Color Varieties Of Common Carp, Chenghui Wang, Michael Wachholtz, Jun Wang, Xiaolin Liao, Guoqing Lu

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding.

Methodology/Principal Findings: In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of ...


Perennial Grasslands Enhance Biodiversity And Multiple Ecosystem Services In Bioenergy Landscapes, Ben P. Werling, Timothy L. Dickson, Rufus Isaacs, Hannah Gaines, Claudio Gratton, Katherine L. Gross, Heidi Liere, Carolyn M. Malmstrom, Timothy D. Meehan, Leilei Ruan, Bruce A. Robertson, G. Philip Robertson, Thomas M. Schmidt, Abbie C. Schrotenboer, Tracy K. Teal, Julianna K. Wilson, Douglas A. Landis Jan 2014

Perennial Grasslands Enhance Biodiversity And Multiple Ecosystem Services In Bioenergy Landscapes, Ben P. Werling, Timothy L. Dickson, Rufus Isaacs, Hannah Gaines, Claudio Gratton, Katherine L. Gross, Heidi Liere, Carolyn M. Malmstrom, Timothy D. Meehan, Leilei Ruan, Bruce A. Robertson, G. Philip Robertson, Thomas M. Schmidt, Abbie C. Schrotenboer, Tracy K. Teal, Julianna K. Wilson, Douglas A. Landis

Biology Faculty Publications

Agriculture is being challenged to provide food, and increasingly fuel, for an expanding global population. Producing bioenergy crops on marginal lands—farmland suboptimal for food crops—could help meet energy goals while minimizing competition with food production. However, the ecological costs and benefits of growing bioenergy feedstocks—primarily annual grain crops—on marginal lands have been questioned. Here we show that perennial bioenergy crops provide an alternative to annual grains that increases biodiversity of multiple taxa and sustain a variety of ecosystem functions, promoting the creation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We found that switchgrass and prairie plantings harbored significantly greater ...


Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting Hiv Infected Cells During Art, Paul W. Denton, Julie M. Long, Stephen W. Wietgrefe, Craig Sykes, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Olivia D. Snyder, Katherine Perkey, Nancie M. Archin, Shailesh K. Choudhary, Kuo Yang, Michael G. Hudgens, Ira Pastan, Ashley T. Haase, Angela D. Kashuba, Edward A. Berger, David M. Margolis, J. Victor Garcia Jan 2014

Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting Hiv Infected Cells During Art, Paul W. Denton, Julie M. Long, Stephen W. Wietgrefe, Craig Sykes, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Olivia D. Snyder, Katherine Perkey, Nancie M. Archin, Shailesh K. Choudhary, Kuo Yang, Michael G. Hudgens, Ira Pastan, Ashley T. Haase, Angela D. Kashuba, Edward A. Berger, David M. Margolis, J. Victor Garcia

Biology Faculty Publications

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART ...


Biotic Mechanisms Of Community Stability Shift Along A Precipitation Gradient, Lauren M. Hallett, Joanna S. Hsu, Elisa E. Cleland, Scott L. Collins, Timothy L. Dickson, Emily C. Farrer, Laureano A. Gherardi, Katherine L. Gross, Richard J. Hobbs, Laura Turnball, Katharine N. Suding Jan 2014

Biotic Mechanisms Of Community Stability Shift Along A Precipitation Gradient, Lauren M. Hallett, Joanna S. Hsu, Elisa E. Cleland, Scott L. Collins, Timothy L. Dickson, Emily C. Farrer, Laureano A. Gherardi, Katherine L. Gross, Richard J. Hobbs, Laura Turnball, Katharine N. Suding

Biology Faculty Publications

Understanding how biotic mechanisms confer stability in variable environments is a fundamental quest in ecology, and one that is becoming increasingly urgent with global change. Several mechanisms, notably a portfolio effect associated with species richness,compensatory dynamics generated by negative species covariance and selection for stable dominant species populations can increase the stability of the overall community. While the importance of these mechanisms is debated, few studies have contrasted their importance in an environmental context. We analyzed nine long-term data sets of grassland species compositiont o investigate how two key environmental factors, precipitation amount and variability, may directly influence community ...


De Novo Assembly And Analysis Of The Northern Leopard Frog Rana Pipiens Transcriptome, Matthew K. Christenson, Andrew J. Trease, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, Andrew Jezewski, Vincent M. Davis, Lindsey A. Knight, Alan Kolok, Paul H. Davis Jan 2014

De Novo Assembly And Analysis Of The Northern Leopard Frog Rana Pipiens Transcriptome, Matthew K. Christenson, Andrew J. Trease, Lakshmi-Prasad Potluri, Andrew Jezewski, Vincent M. Davis, Lindsey A. Knight, Alan Kolok, Paul H. Davis

Biology Faculty Publications

The northern leopard frog Rana (Lithobates) pipiens is an important animal model, being used extensively in cancer, neurology, physiology, and biomechanical studies. R. pipiens is a native North American frog whose range extends from northern Canada to southwest United States, but over the past few decades its populations have declined significantly and is now considered uncommon in large portions of the United States and Canada. To aid in the study and conservation of R. pipiens, this paper describes the first R. pipiens transcriptome. The R. pipiens transcriptome was annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ...