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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 7065

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Background Spleen as a lymphoid tissue is specialized for monitoring blood and mounting immunity against blood-borne antigens. Antigen-presenting cells present in spleen commonly develop from bone marrow-derived precursors that enter blood circulation. However, a distinct splenic myeloid antigen-presenting cell subset described in this laboratory, namely “dendritic-like cells” (L-DC), has been hypothesized not to share a bone marrow origin. Methods In this study, the presence of endogenous hematopoietic progenitors in spleen was investigated by transplanting intact spleen into allotype-distinct recipients and monitoring development of progeny cells in grafted tissues. Results Successful engraftment of donor spleens was achieved for up to 4 ...


Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Hematopoietic cell lineages are best described in terms of distinct progenitors with limited differentiative capacity. To distinguish cell lineages, it is necessary to define progenitors and induce their differentiation in vitro. We previously reported in vitro development of immature dendritic-like cells (DCs) in long-term cultures (LTCs) of murine spleen, and in cocultures of spleen or bone marrow (BM) over splenic endothelial cell lines derived from LTCs. Cells produced are phenotypically distinct CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)CD8(-)MHC-II(-) cells, tentatively named L-DCs. Here we delineate L-DC progenitors as different from known DC progenitors in BM and DC precursors in spleen. The ...


Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Dendritic cells (DC) are known to develop from macrophage dendritic progenitors (MDP) in bone marrow (BM), which give rise to conventional (c)DC and monocytes, both dominant antigen presenting cell (APC) subsets in spleen. This laboratory has however defined a distinct dendritic-like cell subset in spleen (L-DC), which can also be derived in long-term cultures of spleen. In line with the restricted in vitro development of only L-DC in these stromal cultures, we questioned whether self-renewing HSC or progenitors exist in spleen with restricted differentiative capacity for only L-DC. Neonatal spleen and BM were compared for their ability to reconstitute ...


Expression Of Acetate Permease-Like (Apl) Genes In Subsurface Communities Of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations, Derek Lovley, Hila Elifantz, Lucie N'Guessan, Paula Mouser, Kenneth Williams, Michael Wilkins, Carla Risso, Dawn Holmes, Philip Long Apr 2012

Expression Of Acetate Permease-Like (Apl) Genes In Subsurface Communities Of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations, Derek Lovley, Hila Elifantz, Lucie N'Guessan, Paula Mouser, Kenneth Williams, Michael Wilkins, Carla Risso, Dawn Holmes, Philip Long

Carla Risso

The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high ...


Body Mass Index Prevalence Estimates Of A Statewide Monitoring Initiative In Idaho, David Paul, Philip Scruggs, Grace Karp, Lynda Ransdell, Clay Robinson, Mike Lester, Laura Petranek, Helen Brown, Terry-Ann Gibson, Jane Shimon, Tyler Johnson, John Fitzpatrick, Kathy Browder, Zambak Sahin Feb 2012

Body Mass Index Prevalence Estimates Of A Statewide Monitoring Initiative In Idaho, David Paul, Philip Scruggs, Grace Karp, Lynda Ransdell, Clay Robinson, Mike Lester, Laura Petranek, Helen Brown, Terry-Ann Gibson, Jane Shimon, Tyler Johnson, John Fitzpatrick, Kathy Browder, Zambak Sahin

Jane Shimon

Given the significant health consequences associated with childhood obesity, many states have developed legislation to initiate school-based obesity monitoring programs. Idaho is one of many states without a monitoring program, so collaborations between the State Department of Education and four state universities were developed to institute a body mass index (BMI) monitoring program in grades 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11.


Lamprey Watershed Education And Outreach, Lamprey River Watershed Association, Dawn Genes, Lamprey River Watershed Association. Lamprey River Nominating Committee Dec 2010

Lamprey Watershed Education And Outreach, Lamprey River Watershed Association, Dawn Genes, Lamprey River Watershed Association. Lamprey River Nominating Committee

PREP Reports & Publications

The Lamprey River Nomination Committee sought the assistance of the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) to complete an extensive and detailed information package to nominate the Lamprey River and its major tributaries to the NH Rivers Management and Protection Program. The nomination package was due at DES on June 1, 2010, was reviewed and accepted by the State Rivers Management Committee in September and forwarded to the Commissioner of DES. The nomination is now working through the NH legislature with hearings anticipated during the spring 2011 session. If passed, the bill should be signed by Governor Lynch in July of ...


Enhancement Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production And Chlamydial Infection By The Mitochondrial Nod-Like Family Member Nlrx1, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Najwene Saïd-Sadier, Verissa M. Lam, Bhavni Singh, Matthew A. Pettengill, Fraser Soares, Ivan Tattoli, Simone Lipinski, Stephen E. Girardin, Philip Rosenstiel, David M. Ojcius Dec 2010

Enhancement Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production And Chlamydial Infection By The Mitochondrial Nod-Like Family Member Nlrx1, Ali A. Abdul-Sater, Najwene Saïd-Sadier, Verissa M. Lam, Bhavni Singh, Matthew A. Pettengill, Fraser Soares, Ivan Tattoli, Simone Lipinski, Stephen E. Girardin, Philip Rosenstiel, David M. Ojcius

All Dugoni School of Dentistry Faculty Articles

Chlamydia trachomatis infections cause severe and irreversible damage that can lead to infertility and blindness in both males and females. Following infection of epithelial cells, Chlamydia induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Unconventionally, Chlamydiae use ROS to their advantage by activating caspase-1, which contributes to chlamydial growth. NLRX1, a member of the Nod-like receptor family that translocates to the mitochondria, can augment ROS production from the mitochondria following Shigella flexneri infections. However, in general, ROS can also be produced by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. Given the importance of ROS-induced caspase-1 activation in growth of the chlamydial vacuole, we investigated the ...


Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Final Report, Scott R. Abella Dec 2010

Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Final Report, Scott R. Abella

Fire Science

Species selection can make the difference between successful revegetation projects and costly failures. Candidate native species for revegetating burned arid lands in the southwestern United States must meet at least two criteria. These species must: (1) be competitive in postfire environments typically dominated by exotic grasses, and (2) be able to become established reliably by seeding or planting. In response to Manager’s Request Task 3 (reestablishment of native vegetation after fires on arid lands) in the 2006 JFS announcement for proposals, this research tackled the problem of selecting native species with the greatest chance of revegetation success by conducting ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Monitoring And Evaluation Of Sensitive Wildlife: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2010, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2010

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Monitoring And Evaluation Of Sensitive Wildlife: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2010, Margaret N. Rees

Wildlife Monitoring

Project 1. Relict Leopard Frog Monitoring, Management, and Research

  • Final milestones and deliverables for this project were completed this quarter.
  • Fall monitoring surveys were completed at all sites.
  • Habitat actions to improve breeding pools were conducted at one site.
  • Data and associated metadata were compiled and quality assured.
  • Final and annual reports were written and submitted in required formats for Clark County

and the Relict Leopard Frog Conservation Team.

Project 2. Bald Eagle Winter Monitoring and Evaluation

  • This project was previously completed and all associated deliverables met.
  • Efforts were provided this quarter in support of the 2011 winter count.

Project ...


Toll-Like Receptor Signaling In Liver Diseases, Gyongyi Szabo, Timothy R. Billiar, Keigo Machida, Ian Nicholas Crispe, Ekihiro Seki Dec 2010

Toll-Like Receptor Signaling In Liver Diseases, Gyongyi Szabo, Timothy R. Billiar, Keigo Machida, Ian Nicholas Crispe, Ekihiro Seki

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

No abstract provided.


Optimization Of Application Of Delactosed Whey Permeate Treatment To Extend The Shelf-Life Of Fresh Cut Tomato Using Response Surface Methodology., Lubna Ahmed, Ana Belen Martin-Diana, Daniel Rico, Catherine Barry-Ryan Dec 2010

Optimization Of Application Of Delactosed Whey Permeate Treatment To Extend The Shelf-Life Of Fresh Cut Tomato Using Response Surface Methodology., Lubna Ahmed, Ana Belen Martin-Diana, Daniel Rico, Catherine Barry-Ryan

Articles

Optimization of delactosed whey permeate (DWP) treatment for fresh-cut tomato was accomplished by evaluating different quality, nutritional and microbial markers. Response surface methodology was applied to obtain polynomial model equations. DWP concentration (0 - 5 %) and storage (0 - 10 days) were used as independent factors in order to optimize the process. The analyses showed that increases in DWP concentration extended the quality of the fresh-cut tomato significantly (p3 % were scored unacceptable by the sensory panel due to perceived off-odours. DWP treatment also improved retention of ascorbic acid and lycopene over storage. The total aerobic counts and yeast and moulds were reduced ...


Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan Dec 2010

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan

Articles

Dental caries is a highly prevalent disease caused by colonisation of tooth surfaces by cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius. Reducing initial adherence of such bacteria to teeth may delay onset of caries. Many foods, such as milk, can inhibit microbial adherence. In this investigation, the effect of untreated (UT) and enzyme-treated (ET) dairy powders on adherence of S. sobrinus and S. salivarius to hydroxylapatite (HA), an analogue of tooth enamel, was examined. Untreated (UT) acid whey protein concentrate (AWPC) 80 inhibited streptococcal adherence to phosphate-buffered saline-coated HA (PBS-HA) and saliva-coated HA (S-HA) by >80% at ⩾31 ...


Global Patterns And Predictions Of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests, Chih-Lin Wei, Gilbert T. Rowe, Elva Escobar-Briones, Antje Boetius, Thomas Soltwedel, M. Julian Caley, Yousria Soliman, Falk Huettmann, Fangyuan Qu, Zishan Yu, C. Roland Pitcher, Richard L. Haedrich, Mary K. Wicksten, Michael A. Rex, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Jyotsna Sharma, Roberto Danovaro, Ian R. Macdonald, Clifton C. Nunnally, Jody W. Deming, Paul Montagna, Mélanie Lévesque, Jan Marcin Weslawski, Maria Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Baban S. Ingole, Brian J. Bett, David S. M. Billett, Andrew Yool, Bodil A. Bluhm, Katrin Iken, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy Dec 2010

Global Patterns And Predictions Of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests, Chih-Lin Wei, Gilbert T. Rowe, Elva Escobar-Briones, Antje Boetius, Thomas Soltwedel, M. Julian Caley, Yousria Soliman, Falk Huettmann, Fangyuan Qu, Zishan Yu, C. Roland Pitcher, Richard L. Haedrich, Mary K. Wicksten, Michael A. Rex, Jeffrey G. Baguley, Jyotsna Sharma, Roberto Danovaro, Ian R. Macdonald, Clifton C. Nunnally, Jody W. Deming, Paul Montagna, Mélanie Lévesque, Jan Marcin Weslawski, Maria Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Baban S. Ingole, Brian J. Bett, David S. M. Billett, Andrew Yool, Bodil A. Bluhm, Katrin Iken, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy

Biology Faculty Publication Series

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive ...


A Study To Minimize Or Eliminate Hardbottom And Reef Impacts From Anchoring Activities In Designated Anchorages At The Ports Of Miami And Palm Beach, Brian K. Walker Dec 2010

A Study To Minimize Or Eliminate Hardbottom And Reef Impacts From Anchoring Activities In Designated Anchorages At The Ports Of Miami And Palm Beach, Brian K. Walker

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Reports

No abstract provided.


Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles For Effective Sirna Delivery To Tobacco By-2 Protoplasts, Asitha T. Silva, Alien Nguyen, Changming Ye, Jeanmarie Verchot, Joong Ho Moon Dec 2010

Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles For Effective Sirna Delivery To Tobacco By-2 Protoplasts, Asitha T. Silva, Alien Nguyen, Changming Ye, Jeanmarie Verchot, Joong Ho Moon

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Background

Post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a mechanism harnessed by plant biologists to knock down gene expression. siRNAs contribute to PTGS that are synthesized from mRNAs or viral RNAs and function to guide cellular endoribonucleases to target mRNAs for degradation. Plant biologists have employed electroporation to deliver artificial siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study gene expression mechanisms at the single cell level. One drawback of electroporation is the extensive loss of viable protoplasts that occurs as a result of the transfection technology.

Results

We employed fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) to deliver siRNAs and knockdown a target gene in ...


Spatial Distribution Of Calcium-Gated Chloride Channels In Olfactory Cilia, Donald A. French, Dorjsuren Badamdorj, Steven J. Kleene Dec 2010

Spatial Distribution Of Calcium-Gated Chloride Channels In Olfactory Cilia, Donald A. French, Dorjsuren Badamdorj, Steven J. Kleene

Mathematical Sciences Faculty Research

Background

In vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons, sensory cilia transduce odor stimuli into changes in neuronal membrane potential. The voltage changes are primarily caused by the sequential openings of two types of channel: a cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) cationic channel and a calcium-gated chloride channel. In frog, the cilia are 25 to 200 µm in length, so the spatial distributions of the channels may be an important determinant of odor sensitivity.

Principal Findings

To determine the spatial distribution of the chloride channels, we recorded from single cilia as calcium was allowed to diffuse down the length of the cilium and activate the channels ...


Conclusions About Niche Expansion In Introduced Impatiens Walleriana Populations Depend On Method Of Analysis, Lisa Mandle, Dan L. Warren, Matthias H. Hoffman, A. Townsend Peterson, Johanna Schmitt, Eric J. Von Wettberg Dec 2010

Conclusions About Niche Expansion In Introduced Impatiens Walleriana Populations Depend On Method Of Analysis, Lisa Mandle, Dan L. Warren, Matthias H. Hoffman, A. Townsend Peterson, Johanna Schmitt, Eric J. Von Wettberg

Department of Biological Sciences

Determining the degree to which climate niches are conserved across plant species’ native and introduced ranges is valuable to developing successful strategies to limit the introduction and spread of invasive plants, and also has important ecological and evolutionary implications. Here, we test whether climate niches differ between native and introduced populations of Impatiens walleriana, globally one of the most popular horticultural species. We use approaches based on both raw climate data associated with occurrence points and ecological niche models (ENMs) developed with Maxent. We include comparisons of climate niche breadth in both geographic and environmental spaces, taking into account differences ...


Oregon Aspen Project, Forest Restoration Partnership Dec 2010

Oregon Aspen Project, Forest Restoration Partnership

Aspen Bibliography

The Oregon Aspen Project was initiated in response to the decline of aspen groves in Oregon and throughout the Western United States, and the lack of information to guide managers interested in stewardship to enhance this resource. There were three central goals and accompanying objectives for this project which are listed below. The project accomplishments are provided below each bulleted objective


Strategies To Resolve The Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Genome Of Small Single-Stranded Icosahedral Viruses, Eduardo Sanz Garcia Dec 2010

Strategies To Resolve The Three-Dimensional Structure Of The Genome Of Small Single-Stranded Icosahedral Viruses, Eduardo Sanz Garcia

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study is the three-dimensional structural characterization of the genome packaging inside viral capsids via cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. The genome of some single-stranded viruses can be densely packaged within their capsid shells. Several stretches of the genome are known to adopt stable secondary structures, however, to date, little is known about the three-dimensional organization of the genome inside their capsid shells. Two techniques have been developed to facilitate the structural elucidation of genome packaging: the asymmetric random-model method, and the symmetry-mismatch, random model method. Both techniques were successfully tested with model and experimental data. The ...


Biphasic Targeting And Cleavage Furrow Ingression Directed By The Tail Of A Myosin Ii, X. Fang, J. Y. Luo, R. Nishihama, C. Wloka, C. Dravis, M. Travaglia, M. Iwase, Elizabeth Ann Vallen, E. Bi Dec 2010

Biphasic Targeting And Cleavage Furrow Ingression Directed By The Tail Of A Myosin Ii, X. Fang, J. Y. Luo, R. Nishihama, C. Wloka, C. Dravis, M. Travaglia, M. Iwase, Elizabeth Ann Vallen, E. Bi

Biology Faculty Works

Cytokinesis in animal and fungal cells utilizes a contractile actomyosin ring (AMR). However, how myosin II is targeted to the division site and promotes AMR assembly, and how the AMR coordinates with membrane trafficking during cytokinesis, remains poorly understood. Here we show that Myo1 is a two-headed myosin II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and that Myo1 localizes to the division site via two distinct targeting signals in its tail that act sequentially during the cell cycle. Before cytokinesis, Myo1 localization depends on the septin-binding protein Bni5. During cytokinesis, Myo1 localization depends on the IQGAP Iqg1. We also show that the Myo1 ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2010, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2010

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2010, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2010 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes weather data, yield comparisons, crop performance trials, corn trials, soybean trials, winter wheat performance testing, Barley Foliar information, weed and pest control, herbicide demonstrations, canola and flax variety trials and more.


Complexity Through Recombination: From Chemistry To Biology, Niles Lehman, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Wesley A. White, Francis J. Schmidt Dec 2010

Complexity Through Recombination: From Chemistry To Biology, Niles Lehman, Carolina Diaz Arenas, Wesley A. White, Francis J. Schmidt

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Recombination is a common event in nature, with examples in physics, chemistry, and biology. This process is characterized by the spontaneous reorganization of structural units to form new entities. Upon reorganization, the complexity of the overall system can change. In particular the components of the system can now experience a new response to externally applied selection criteria, such that the evolutionary trajectory of the system is altered. In this work we explore the link between chemical and biological forms of recombination. We estimate how the net system complexity changes, through analysis of RNA-RNA recombination and by mathematical modeling. Our results ...


Reduction Of Iron (Iii) And Humic Substances Plays A Major Role In Anaerobic Respiration In An Arctic Peat Soil, David A. Lipson, Mony Jha, Ted K. Raab, Walter C. Oechel Dec 2010

Reduction Of Iron (Iii) And Humic Substances Plays A Major Role In Anaerobic Respiration In An Arctic Peat Soil, David A. Lipson, Mony Jha, Ted K. Raab, Walter C. Oechel

Ted K. Raab

Arctic peat soils contain vast reserves of organic C and are largely anaerobic. However, anaerobic respiration, particularly the role of Fe(III) and humic substances as electron acceptors, is not well understood in such ecosystems. We investigated these processes in a drained thaw lake basin on the Arctic coastal plain near Barrow, Alaska. We measured concentrations of soluble Fe and other potential electron acceptors, described the microbial community, and performed experiments in the laboratory and field to measure net rates of Fe(III) reduction and the relationship of this process to C cycling. In most areas within the basin, aerobic ...


Smokejumper Obituary: Steiner, Robert Carl (Boise 1971), National Smokejumper Association Dec 2010

Smokejumper Obituary: Steiner, Robert Carl (Boise 1971), National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper Obituaries

No abstract provided.


Role For Sumoylation In Systemic Inflammation And Immune Homeostasis In Drosophila Larvae, Indira Paddibhatla, Mark J. Lee, Marta E. Kalamarz, Roberto Ferrarese, Shubha Govind Dec 2010

Role For Sumoylation In Systemic Inflammation And Immune Homeostasis In Drosophila Larvae, Indira Paddibhatla, Mark J. Lee, Marta E. Kalamarz, Roberto Ferrarese, Shubha Govind

Publications and Research

To counter systemic risk of infection by parasitic wasps, Drosophila larvae activate humoral immunity in the fat body and mount a robust cellular response resulting in encapsulation of the wasp egg. Innate immune reactions are tightly regulated and are resolved within hours. To understand the mechanisms underlying activation and resolution of the egg encapsulation response and examine if failure of the latter develops into systemic inflammatory disease, we correlated parasitic wasp-induced changes in the Drosophila larva with systemic chronic conditions in sumoylation-deficient mutants. We have previously reported that loss of either Cactus, the Drosophila (IkB) protein or Ubc9, the SUMO-conjugating ...


Development Of Temperature Regulation In Nestling Tree Swallows, Richard Marsh Dec 2010

Development Of Temperature Regulation In Nestling Tree Swallows, Richard Marsh

Richard Marsh

No abstract provided.


Adaptations Of The Gray Catbird Dumetella Carolinensis To Long Distance Migration: Energy Stores And Substrate Concentrations In Plasma, Richard Marsh Dec 2010

Adaptations Of The Gray Catbird Dumetella Carolinensis To Long Distance Migration: Energy Stores And Substrate Concentrations In Plasma, Richard Marsh

Richard Marsh

The major body components (water, lean dry, and fat) were measured in the carcasses of Gray Catbirds from which the flight muscles had been removed. Birds were collected from May through October near Ann Arbor, Michigan and during September and October near Gainesville, Florida. Additionally, the glycogen content of muscle and liver and the concentrations of glucose and triglycerides in plasma were determined in catbirds sampled during fall migration in Florida. Catbirds attained maximum body masses of ∼50 g in Florida, largely due to the addition of fat. Relatively lean birds (∼3-4% body fat) in spring through fall weighed approximately ...


Minimum Description Length Measures Of Evidence For Enrichment, Zhenyu Yang, David R. Bickel Dec 2010

Minimum Description Length Measures Of Evidence For Enrichment, Zhenyu Yang, David R. Bickel

COBRA Preprint Series

In order to functionally interpret differentially expressed genes or other discovered features, researchers seek to detect enrichment in the form of overrepresentation of discovered features associated with a biological process. Most enrichment methods treat the p-value as the measure of evidence using a statistical test such as the binomial test, Fisher's exact test or the hypergeometric test. However, the p-value is not interpretable as a measure of evidence apart from adjustments in light of the sample size. As a measure of evidence supporting one hypothesis over the other, the Bayes factor (BF) overcomes this drawback of the p-value but ...


Lin28b, Let-7, And The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Colon Cancer, Catrina E. King Dec 2010

Lin28b, Let-7, And The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Colon Cancer, Catrina E. King

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Lin28b is an RNA-binding protein that inhibits biogenesis of tumor-suppressive microRNAs of the let-7 family, and is involved in induction of pluripotency. Although LIN28B has been implicated in cancer, a specific role in colon tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. We have determined that colon tumors exhibit decreased levels of mature let-7 isoforms, and that constitutive let-7 expression inhibits migration and invasion of colon cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, down-regulation of let-7a and let-7b in colon tumors correlates with increased expression of LIN28B, suggesting tumor-promoting properties of this let-7 inhibitor. In order to determine the role of LIN28B in colon cancer ...


Wnt2 Signaling In Lung Development, Ashley M. Goss Dec 2010

Wnt2 Signaling In Lung Development, Ashley M. Goss

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Development of the vertebrate lung is a complex process involving the input of signaling pathways to coordinate the specification and differentiation of multiple cell types. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a critical role in the development of many vertebrate tissue types, including the lung. However, the functions of individual Wnt ligands during the specification and development of respiratory lineages have not been fully addressed. In this dissertation, I combine mouse genetic models and ex vivo tissue culture assays to determine the function of Wnt2 signaling in lung development. These studies reveal critical roles for Wnt2 signaling during the specification of ...