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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 6290

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Splenic Stromal Niches Support Hematopoiesis Of Dendritic-Like Cells From Precursors In Bone Marrow And Spleen., Pravin Periasamy, Jonathan Tan, Kristin Griffiths, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Splenic Stromal Niches Support Hematopoiesis Of Dendritic-Like Cells From Precursors In Bone Marrow And Spleen., Pravin Periasamy, Jonathan Tan, Kristin Griffiths, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Objective The aims of this study are to test the ability of stromal cells from murine spleen to support hematopoiesis, to define the tissue source of precursors that seed these hematopoietic niches, and to determine the type of cells produced. Materials and Methods Cloned isolates of murine spleen stroma have been developed that support hematopoiesis. Analysis has been investigated in terms of tissue source of progenitors. Type and number of cells produced were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Hematopoietic precursors that seed cocultures exist in spleen and bone marrow (BM), but not thymus. Cell production is highest if overlay cells ...


Lysophosphatidylcholine Activates A Novel Pkd2-Mediated Signaling Pathway That Controls Monocyte Migration, M Tan, F Hao, Xuemin Xu, Gm Chisholm, Mei-Zhen Cui Jun 2013

Lysophosphatidylcholine Activates A Novel Pkd2-Mediated Signaling Pathway That Controls Monocyte Migration, M Tan, F Hao, Xuemin Xu, Gm Chisholm, Mei-Zhen Cui

Mei-Zhen Cui

OBJECTIVE: Monocyte activation and migration are crucial events in the development of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. This study examined the role of protein kinase D (PKD) in monocyte migration. Method and Results- PKD2 is the predominant isoform of PKD expressed in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a prominent component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, induces rapid and marked PKD activation in these cells. Using multiple approaches, including dominant-negative mutants and small interfering RNA knock-down, we found that lysoPC-induced PKD2 activation was required for the activation of both ERK and p38 MAPK. p38 MAPK mediation of lysoPC-induced ...


Residues At P2-P1 Positions Of Epsilon- And Zeta-Cleavage Sites Are Important In Formation Of Beta-Amyloid Peptide, Jianxin Tan, Guozhang Mao, Mei-Zhen Cui, Bruce Lamb, Man-Sun Sy, Xuemin Xu Jun 2013

Residues At P2-P1 Positions Of Epsilon- And Zeta-Cleavage Sites Are Important In Formation Of Beta-Amyloid Peptide, Jianxin Tan, Guozhang Mao, Mei-Zhen Cui, Bruce Lamb, Man-Sun Sy, Xuemin Xu

Mei-Zhen Cui

Most of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), which cause abnormal production of beta-amyloid (Abeta), are localized at the major beta-secretase-and gamma-secretase cleavage sites. In this study, using an APP-knockout mouse neuronal cell line, our data demonstrated that at the P2-P1 positions of the epsilon-cleavage site at Abeta49 and the zeta-cleavage site at Abeta46, aromatic amino acids caused a strong reduction in total Abeta. On the other hand, residues with a long side chain caused a decrease in Abeta(40) and a concomitant increase in Abeta(42) and Abeta(38). These findings indicate that ...


The Gxxxg Motif In The Transmembrane Domain Of Abetapp Plays An Essential Role In The Interaction Of Ctf Beta With The Gamma-Secretase Complex And The Formation Of Amyloid-Beta, Guozhang Mao, Jianxin Tan, Mei-Zhen Cui, Dehua Chui, Xuemin Xu Jun 2013

The Gxxxg Motif In The Transmembrane Domain Of Abetapp Plays An Essential Role In The Interaction Of Ctf Beta With The Gamma-Secretase Complex And The Formation Of Amyloid-Beta, Guozhang Mao, Jianxin Tan, Mei-Zhen Cui, Dehua Chui, Xuemin Xu

Mei-Zhen Cui

Gamma-secretase-mediated processing of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) is a crucial step in the formation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta), but little is known about how the substrate AbetaPP interacts with the gamma-secretase complex. To understand the molecular events involved in gamma-secretase-mediated AbetaPP processing and Abeta formation, in the present study we determined the role of a well conserved GxxxG motif in the transmembrane domain of AbetaPP. Our data clearly demonstrate that substitution of aspartic acid for the key glycine residues in the GxxxG motif almost completely abolished the formation of Abeta. Furthermore, our data revealed that substitution of aspartic ...


Reporter Proteins In Whole-Cell Optical Bioreporter Detection Systems, Biosensor Integrations, And Biosensing Applications, Dan Close, Steven Ripp, Gary Sayler Jun 2013

Reporter Proteins In Whole-Cell Optical Bioreporter Detection Systems, Biosensor Integrations, And Biosensing Applications, Dan Close, Steven Ripp, Gary Sayler

Gary S. Sayler

Whole-cell, genetically modified bioreporters are designed to emit detectable signals in response to a target analyte or related group of analytes. When integrated with a transducer capable of measuring those signals, a biosensor results that acts as a self-contained analytical system useful in basic and applied environmental, medical, pharmacological, and agricultural sciences. Historically, these devices have focused on signaling proteins such as green fluorescent protein, aequorin, firefly luciferase, and/or bacterial luciferase. The biochemistry and genetic development of these sensor systems as well as the advantages, challenges, and common applications of each one will be discussed.

doi:10.3390/s91109147


Use Of Interfering Rnas Targeted Against Feline Herpesvirus 1 Glycoprotein D For Inhibition Of Feline Herpesvirus 1 Infection Of Feline Kidney Cell, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania Oct 2012

Use Of Interfering Rnas Targeted Against Feline Herpesvirus 1 Glycoprotein D For Inhibition Of Feline Herpesvirus 1 Infection Of Feline Kidney Cell, Rebecca Wilkes, Stephen Kania

Rebecca P. Wilkes DVM, PhD, DACVM

Objective - To evaluate the use of RNA interference targeted against feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) glycoprotein D for inhibition of FHV-1 infection of feline kidney cells. Sample Population - Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells. Procedures - Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that were designed to inhibit expression of FHV-1 glycoprotein D. The effectiveness of the treatment was determined via measurement of amounts of glycoprotein D mRNA, intracellular glycoprotein D, and glycoprotein D expressed on the surface of infected cells and comparison with appropriate control sample data. Results - 2 of 6 siRNAs tested were highly effective in reducing expression ...


Development And Validation Of A Taqman Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr For Rapid Detection Of Feline Calicivirus, M Abd-Eldaim, Rebecca Wilkes, K Thomas, Melissa Kennedy Oct 2012

Development And Validation Of A Taqman Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Pcr For Rapid Detection Of Feline Calicivirus, M Abd-Eldaim, Rebecca Wilkes, K Thomas, Melissa Kennedy

Rebecca P. Wilkes DVM, PhD, DACVM

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats and is associated with interstitial pneumonia, oral ulceration and polyarthritis. Recently, outbreaks have involved a highly virulent FCV that leads to multisystemic signs. Virus isolation and conventional RT-PCR are the most common methods used for FCV diagnosis. However, real-time RT-PCR offers a rapid, sensitive, specific and easy tool for nucleic acid detection. The objective of this study was to design a TaqMan probe-based, real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of FCV. It was determined in our previous study that the first 120 nucleotides of the 5' region ...


The Role Of Key Adipokines In Obesity And Insulin Resistance In Cats, Angela Lusby, Claudia Kirk, Joe Bartges Jan 2012

The Role Of Key Adipokines In Obesity And Insulin Resistance In Cats, Angela Lusby, Claudia Kirk, Joe Bartges

Angela L Witzel (Lusby) DVM, PhD, DACVN

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of A Human Portable Blood Glucose Meter, Veterinary Portable Blood Glucose Meter, And Automated Chemistry Analyzer For Measurement Of Blood Glucose Concentrations In Dogs, Beth Johnson, Michael Fry, Bente Flatland, Claudia Kirk Jan 2012

Comparison Of A Human Portable Blood Glucose Meter, Veterinary Portable Blood Glucose Meter, And Automated Chemistry Analyzer For Measurement Of Blood Glucose Concentrations In Dogs, Beth Johnson, Michael Fry, Bente Flatland, Claudia Kirk

Bente Flatland

OBJECTIVE: To compare blood glucose concentrations measured with 2 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) validated for use in dogs (PBGM-D) and humans (PBGM-H) and an automated chemistry analyzer. DESIGN: Validation study. SAMPLE POPULATION: 92 samples of fresh whole blood and plasma from 83 dogs with various diseases. PROCEDURES: Each PBGM was used to measure whole blood glucose concentration, and the automated analyzer was used to measure plasma glucose concentration. Passing-Bablok linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine correlations and bias between the PBGMs and the automated analyzer. Calculated acceptability limits based on combined inherent instrument imprecision were used ...


Investing In Maine Research Infrastructure: Sustainable Forest Bioproducts, Michael Eckardt, Stephen Shaler, Hemant P. Pendse, Adriaan R. P. Van Heiningen, Robert G. Wagner Dec 2009

Investing In Maine Research Infrastructure: Sustainable Forest Bioproducts, Michael Eckardt, Stephen Shaler, Hemant P. Pendse, Adriaan R. P. Van Heiningen, Robert G. Wagner

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

The University of Maine, the University of Southern Maine, several baccalaureate institutions in the state, along with other federal, state and local public, private, and non-profit institutions will collaborate to create the Forest Bioproducts Research Institute (FBRI) at the University of Maine. The vision of the FBRI is to advance understanding about the scientific underpinnings, system behavior, and policy implications for the production of forest-based bioproducts that meet societal needs for materials, chemicals, and fuels in an economically and ecologically sustainable manner.

The research plans Integrate three themes. They are (1) forest sustainability modeling of life cycle assessment, (2) integrated ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2009, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2009

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2009, Margaret N. Rees

Wildlife Monitoring

Project 1. Relict Leopard Frog Monitoring, Management, and Research

  • All milestones and deliverables are on schedule
  • Fall surveys at all sites have been completed
  • Mark-recapture surveys scheduled for fall were completed
  • Short-term habitat improvements at two sites were conducted
  • RLFCT meeting was hosted
  • Draft annual report was written and presented at the RLFCT meeting

Project 2. Bald Eagle Winter Monitoring and Evaluation

  • All milestones and deliverables are on schedule
  • An annual project review presentation was given to Clark County
  • A draft final report was written and submitted to Clark County
  • All data for this project was transferred to the County ...


Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: October 1 — December 31, 2009, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2009

Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Time Period: October 1 — December 31, 2009, Margaret N. Rees

Fire Science

• Article accepted for publication in Journal of Arid Environments.

• Recharged irrigation gel packs for outplanting and watered seed plots at Goodsprings site.

• Completed full year of seed granivory trials at Goodsprings site.

• Presented information on this Task Agreement to 4th International Fire Ecology and Management Congress.

• Maintained nursery plots and added installment of nitrogen treatment.


In Silico Prediction Of Non-Coding Rnas Using Supervised Learning And Feature Ranking Methods, Stephen J. Griesmer Dec 2009

In Silico Prediction Of Non-Coding Rnas Using Supervised Learning And Feature Ranking Methods, Stephen J. Griesmer

Theses

This thesis presents a novel method, RNAMultifold, for development of a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) classification model based on features derived from folding the consensus sequence of multiple sequence alignments using different folding programs: RNAalifold, CentroidFold, and RSpredict. The method ranks these folding features according to a Class Separation Measure (CSM) that quantifies the ability of the features to differentiate between samples from positive and negative test sets. The set of top-ranked features is then used to construct classification models: Naive Bayes, Fisher Linear Discriminant, and Support Vector Machine (SVM). These models are compared to the performance of the same models ...


A Constant Light-Genetic Screen Identifies Kismet As A Regulator Of Circadian Photoresponses, Raphaëlle Dubruille, Alejandro D. Murad, Michael Rosbash, Patrick Emery Dec 2009

A Constant Light-Genetic Screen Identifies Kismet As A Regulator Of Circadian Photoresponses, Raphaëlle Dubruille, Alejandro D. Murad, Michael Rosbash, Patrick Emery

Open Access Articles

Circadian pacemakers are essential to synchronize animal physiology and behavior with the dayrationight cycle. They are self-sustained, but the phase of their oscillations is determined by environmental cues, particularly light intensity and temperature cycles. In Drosophila, light is primarily detected by a dedicated blue-light photoreceptor: CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). Upon light activation, CRY binds to the pacemaker protein TIMELESS (TIM) and triggers its proteasomal degradation, thus resetting the circadian pacemaker. To understand further the CRY input pathway, we conducted a misexpression screen under constant light based on the observation that flies with a disruption in the CRY input pathway remain robustly rhythmic ...


Anomalous Constitutive Src Kinase Activity Promotes B Lymphoma Survival And Growth, Jiyuan Ke, R. Lakshman Chelvarajan, Vishal Sindhava, Darrell A. Robertson, Lazaros Lekakis, C. Darrell Jennings, Subbarao Bondada Dec 2009

Anomalous Constitutive Src Kinase Activity Promotes B Lymphoma Survival And Growth, Jiyuan Ke, R. Lakshman Chelvarajan, Vishal Sindhava, Darrell A. Robertson, Lazaros Lekakis, C. Darrell Jennings, Subbarao Bondada

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Previously we have shown that B cell receptor (BCR) expression and B cell receptor signaling pathways are important for the basal growth of B lymphoma cells. In particular we have shown that the activation of Syk, a non-src family protein tyrosine kinase and the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK), ERK and JNK that mediate BCR signals are required for the constitutive growth of B lymphoma cells. Since src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) like Lyn are known to be needed for the phosphorylation of BCR co-receptors, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, we hypothesized that one or more SFKs will be constitutively ...


Recommendations For Managing Soybean White Mold In 2010, Xiao-Bing Yang Dec 2009

Recommendations For Managing Soybean White Mold In 2010, Xiao-Bing Yang

Integrated Crop Management News

The 2009 growing season had record cool weather in July that was ideal for soybean white mold occurrence. The disease was widespread in the north central region of the U.S. and agronomists even in southern Iowa observed this disease in many soybean fields. In northern Iowa, patches of soybean killed by this disease were obvious in many soybean fields along the highways. Some farmers reported losses totaling more than $10,000 from this disease.


A Laser Pointer Driven Microheater For Precise Local Heating And Conditional Gene Regulation In Vivo. Microheater Driven Gene Regulation In Zebrafish, Mike Placinta, Meng-Chieh Shen, Marc Achermann, Rolf O. Karlstrom Dec 2009

A Laser Pointer Driven Microheater For Precise Local Heating And Conditional Gene Regulation In Vivo. Microheater Driven Gene Regulation In Zebrafish, Mike Placinta, Meng-Chieh Shen, Marc Achermann, Rolf O. Karlstrom

Rolf O Karlstrom

Background - Tissue heating has been employed to study a variety of biological processes, including the study of genes that control embryonic development. Conditional regulation of gene expression is a particularly powerful approach for understanding gene function. One popular method for mis-expressing a gene of interest employs heat-inducible heat shock protein (hsp) promoters. Global heat shock of hsp-promoter-containing transgenic animals induces gene expression throughout all tissues, but does not allow for spatial control. Local heating allows for spatial control of hsp-promoter-driven transgenes, but methods for local heating are cumbersome and variably effective. Results - We describe a simple, highly controllable, and versatile ...


The Acidic Domains Of The Toc159 Chloroplast Preprotein Receptor Family Are Instrinsically Disordered Protein Domains, Lynn G.L. Richardson, Masoud Jelokhani-Niaraki, Matthew D. Smith Dec 2009

The Acidic Domains Of The Toc159 Chloroplast Preprotein Receptor Family Are Instrinsically Disordered Protein Domains, Lynn G.L. Richardson, Masoud Jelokhani-Niaraki, Matthew D. Smith

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The Toc159 family of proteins serve as receptors for chloroplast-destined preproteins. They directly bind to transit peptides, and exhibit preprotein substrate selectivity conferred by an unknown mechanism. The Toc159 receptors each include three domains: C-terminal membrane, central GTPase, and N-terminal acidic (A-) domains. Although the function(s) of the A-domain remains largely unknown, the amino acid sequences are most variable within these domains, suggesting they may contribute to the functional specificity of the receptors.

Results: The physicochemical properties of the A-domains are characteristic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Using CD spectroscopy we show that the A-domains of two Arabidopsis ...


The Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Bbsome Is An Ift Cargo Required For Export Of Specific Signaling Proteins From Flagella, Karl-Ferdinand Lechtreck, Eric C. Johnson, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Deborah A. Cochran, Bryan A. Ballif, John Rush, Gregory J. Pazour, Mitsuo Ikebe, George B. Witman Dec 2009

The Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Bbsome Is An Ift Cargo Required For Export Of Specific Signaling Proteins From Flagella, Karl-Ferdinand Lechtreck, Eric C. Johnson, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Deborah A. Cochran, Bryan A. Ballif, John Rush, Gregory J. Pazour, Mitsuo Ikebe, George B. Witman

Witman Lab Publications

In humans, seven evolutionarily conserved genes that cause the cilia-related disorder Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) encode proteins that form a complex termed the BBSome. The function of the BBSome in the cilium is not well understood. We purified a BBSome-like complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and found that it contains at least BBS1, -4, -5, -7, and -8 and undergoes intraflagellar transport (IFT) in association with a subset of IFT particles. C. reinhardtii insertional mutants defective in BBS1, -4, and -7 assemble motile, full-length flagella but lack the ability to phototax. In the bbs4 mutant, the assembly and transport of IFT ...


Mir319a Targeting Of Tcp4 Is Critical For Petal Growth And Development In Arabidopsis, Anwesha Nag, Stacey King, Thomas Jack Dec 2009

Mir319a Targeting Of Tcp4 Is Critical For Petal Growth And Development In Arabidopsis, Anwesha Nag, Stacey King, Thomas Jack

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In a genetic screen in a drnl-2 background, we isolated a loss-of-function allele in miR319a (miR319a129). Previously, miR319a has been postulated to play a role in leaf development based on the dramatic curled-leaf phenotype of plants that ectopically express miR319a (jaw-D). miR319a129 mutants exhibit defects in petal and stamen development; petals are narrow and short, and stamens exhibit defects in anther development. The miR319a129 loss-of-function allele contains a single-base change in the middle of the encoded miRNA, which reduces the ability of miR319a to recognize targets. Analysis of the expression patterns of the three members of the ...


Rearrangement Of The Rna Polymerase Subunit H And The Lower Jaw In Archaeal Elongation Complexes, Sebastian Grünberg, Christoph Reich, Mirijam E. Zeller, Michael S. Bartlett, Michael Thomm Dec 2009

Rearrangement Of The Rna Polymerase Subunit H And The Lower Jaw In Archaeal Elongation Complexes, Sebastian Grünberg, Christoph Reich, Mirijam E. Zeller, Michael S. Bartlett, Michael Thomm

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The lower jaws of archaeal RNA polymerase and eukaryotic RNA polymerase II include orthologous subunits H and Rpb5, respectively. The tertiary structure of H is very similar to the structure of the C-terminal domain of Rpb5, and both subunits are proximal to downstream DNA in pre-initiation complexes. Analyses of reconstituted euryarchaeal polymerase lacking subunit H revealed that H is important for open complex formation and initial transcription. Eukaryotic Rpb5 rescues activity of the ΔH enzyme indicating a strong conservation of function for this subunit from archaea to eukaryotes. Photochemical cross-linking in elongation complexes revealed a striking structural rearrangement of RNA ...


Proteolytic Regulation Of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems By Clppc In Staphylococcus Aureus, Niles P. Donegan, Earl T. Thompson, Zhibiao Fu, Ambrose L. Cheung Dec 2009

Proteolytic Regulation Of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems By Clppc In Staphylococcus Aureus, Niles P. Donegan, Earl T. Thompson, Zhibiao Fu, Ambrose L. Cheung

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems typically consist of a small, labile antitoxin that inactivates a specific longer-lived toxin. In Escherichia coli, such antitoxins are proteolytically regulated by the ATP-dependent proteases Lon and ClpP. Under normal conditions, antitoxin synthesis is sufficient to replace this loss from proteolysis, and the bacterium remains protected from the toxin. However, if TA production is interrupted, antitoxin levels decrease, and the cognate toxin is free to inhibit the specific cellular component, such as mRNA, DnaB, or gyrase. To date, antitoxin degradation has been studied only in E. coli, so it remains unclear whether similar mechanisms of regulation ...


Sympatric Ecological Speciation Meets Pyrosequencing: Sampling The Transcriptome Of The Apple Maggot Rhagoletis Pomonella, Dietmar Schwarz, Hugh M. Robertson, Jeffrey L. Feder, Kranthi Varala, Matthew E. Hudson, Gregory J. Ragland, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher Dec 2009

Sympatric Ecological Speciation Meets Pyrosequencing: Sampling The Transcriptome Of The Apple Maggot Rhagoletis Pomonella, Dietmar Schwarz, Hugh M. Robertson, Jeffrey L. Feder, Kranthi Varala, Matthew E. Hudson, Gregory J. Ragland, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher

Biology Faculty and Staff Publications

Background

The full power of modern genetics has been applied to the study of speciation in only a small handful of genetic model species - all of which speciated allopatrically. Here we report the first large expressed sequence tag (EST) study of a candidate for ecological sympatric speciation, the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella, using massively parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-FLX platform. To maximize transcript diversity we created and sequenced separate libraries from larvae, pupae, adult heads, and headless adult bodies.

Results

We obtained 239,531 sequences which assembled into 24,373 contigs. A total of 6810 unique protein coding genes ...


2008-2009 Annual Report Dec 2009

2008-2009 Annual Report

Annual Report Archive from UNL Extension in Lancaster County

Know how. Know now.
15-to-1 Return on Investment
2009 Program Highlights
Research Confirms 4-H Youth Are Leaders and Contribute to Our Community
From NU to You
http://lancaster.unl.edu is Your 24/7 Local Extension Connection
4-H Youth Learn Life Skills Through Learning-by-Doing
AmericCorps Member is part of Go-Green Initiative
Honors, Awards and Accomplishments
Lancaster Extension Education Center Conference Facilities
Yard & Garden
Plant and Pest Diagnostic Services
Pests & Wildlife
Home & Family Living
Farms & Acreages
Nutrition & Food Safety
Family & Community Education (FCE) Clubs


A Unique Role For The Host Escrt Proteins In Replication Of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus, Daniel Barajas, Yi Jiang, Peter D. Nagy Dec 2009

A Unique Role For The Host Escrt Proteins In Replication Of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus, Daniel Barajas, Yi Jiang, Peter D. Nagy

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Plus-stranded RNA viruses replicate in infected cells by assembling viral replicase complexes consisting of viral- and host-coded proteins. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host revealed the involvement of seven ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. In this paper, we show that the expression of dominant negative Vps23p, Vps24p, Snf7p, and Vps4p ESCRT factors inhibited virus replication in the plant host, suggesting that tombusviruses co-opt selected ESCRT proteins for the assembly of the viral replicase complex. We also show that TBSV p33 replication protein interacts with Vps23p ESCRT-I ...


Role And Regulation Of The Actin-Regulatory Protein Hs1 In Tcr Signaling, Esteban Carrizosa Dec 2009

Role And Regulation Of The Actin-Regulatory Protein Hs1 In Tcr Signaling, Esteban Carrizosa

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Numerous aspects of T cell function, including TCR signaling, migration, and execution of effector functions, depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletal rearrangements are driven by the action of actin-regulatory proteins, which promote or antagonize the assembly of actin filaments in response to external cues. In this work, we have examined the regulation and function of HS1, a poorly-understood actin regulatory protein, in T cells. This protein, which becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon T cell activation, is thought to function primarily by stabilizing existing branched actin filaments. Loss of HS1 results in unstable actin responses upon TCR engagement and defective Ca2+ responses ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2009, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2009

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2009, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2009 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes weather data, yield comparisons, crop performance trials, corn trials, soybean trials, winter wheat performance testing, Barley Foliar information, weed and pest control, herbicide demonstrations, canola and flax variety trials and more.


Crop Advantage Series Provides Latest Crop Production Information, Brent A. Pringnitz Dec 2009

Crop Advantage Series Provides Latest Crop Production Information, Brent A. Pringnitz

Integrated Crop Management News

If you’re involved in crop production in Iowa, plan to attend one of the 2010 Crop Advantage Series meetings near you. Sponsored by Iowa State University Extension, the meetings will be held at 13 locations across Iowa in January.


Nuclear Receptor Unfulfilled Regulates Axonal Guidance And Cell Identity Of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons, Suewei Lin, Yaling Huang, Tzumin Lee Dec 2009

Nuclear Receptor Unfulfilled Regulates Axonal Guidance And Cell Identity Of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons, Suewei Lin, Yaling Huang, Tzumin Lee

Open Access Articles

Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that control diverse critical biological processes including various aspects of brain development. Eighteen NR genes exist in the Drosophila genome. To explore their roles in brain development, we knocked down individual NRs through the development of the mushroom bodies (MBs) by targeted RNAi. Besides recapitulating the known MB phenotypes for three NRs, we found that unfulfilled (unf), an ortholog of human photoreceptor specific nuclear receptor (PNR), regulates axonal morphogenesis and neuronal subtype identity. The adult MBs develop through remodeling of gamma neurons plus de-novo elaboration of both alpha'/beta' and ...


Chromatin 'Programming' By Sequence - Is There More To The Nucleosome Code Than %Gc, Amanda Hughes, Oliver J. Rando Dec 2009

Chromatin 'Programming' By Sequence - Is There More To The Nucleosome Code Than %Gc, Amanda Hughes, Oliver J. Rando

Open Access Articles

The role of genomic sequence in directing the packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has been the subject of considerable recent debate. A new paper from Tillo and Hughes shows that the intrinsic thermodynamic preference of a given sequence in the yeast genome for the histone octamer can largely be captured with a simple model, and in fact is mostly explained by %GC. Thus, the rules for predicting nucleosome occupancy from genomic sequence are much less complicated than has been claimed.