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2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 4534

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Hematopoiesis Of Immature Myeloid Dendritic Cells In Stroma-Dependent Spleen Long-Term Cultures Occurs Independently Of Nf-Kb/Relb Function, Jonathan Tan, Keping Ni, Fei Le, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Hematopoiesis Of Immature Myeloid Dendritic Cells In Stroma-Dependent Spleen Long-Term Cultures Occurs Independently Of Nf-Kb/Relb Function, Jonathan Tan, Keping Ni, Fei Le, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

Objective The nuclear factor-κB (NF-KB)/RelB transcription factor plays an essential role in development of some dendritic cell (DC) subsets in mice. In this laboratory, immature myeloid DC are produced in vitro in a stroma-dependent murine spleen long-term culture (LTC) system. In LTC, DC differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors maintained within the stromal cell matrix. Expression and function of RelB in development of LTC-DC has been investigated, with a view to assessing the relationship between DC produced in this system and other known subsets of DC. Materials and Methods RelB expression by LTC-DC was confirmed by detection of protein by Western ...


Concise Review: Dendritic Cell Development In The Context Of The Spleen Microenvironment, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill Sep 2015

Concise Review: Dendritic Cell Development In The Context Of The Spleen Microenvironment, Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Jonathan Tan

The dendritic cell (DC) population in spleen comprises a mixture of cells including endogenous DC progenitors, DC precursors migrating in from blood and bone marrow, and DC in different states of differentiation and activation. A role for different microenvironments in supporting the dynamic development of murine DC of different types or lineages is considered here. Recent evidence for production of DC dependent on splenic stromal cells is reviewed in the light of evidence that cell production is dependent on cells comprising an endothelial niche in spleen. The possibility that self-renewing progenitors in spleen give rise to DC with tolerogenic or ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 2007 To December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 2007 To December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Vegetation Monitoring

Executive Summary

  • The Weed Sentry program surveyed more than 750 miles of federal lands in Clark County for invasive, exotic plant species.
  • Weed Sentry also removed more than 600,000 individual invasive plants from federal
    lands. These removals represent pro-active efforts that may have forestalled large
    infestations difficult and costly to eradicate.
  • In response to a request by the manager of the Fish and Wildlife Service Desert National
    Wildlife Refuge, a major effort of surveying springs for plant community composition
    and invasive plants provided unique knowledge services by the Weed Sentry program.
    No such baseline information existed for the Sheep ...


Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area: Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis, Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 2007 To December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Joint Fire Science Program – Lake Mead National Recreation Area: Revegetating Burned Arid Lands: Identifying Successful Native Species Using Trait And Competition Analysis, Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 2007 To December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Fire Science

The task agreement was awarded to UNLV on October 1, 2007. This report covers the period October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007. The following activities have been conducted toward meeting or exceeding deliverables in the statement of work: hiring and project start and experimental set-up


Interagency Science And Research: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Interagency Science And Research: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Interagency Science and Research Strategy

  • Meetings were held with the SNAP Recreation Team and the SNAP Cultural Resources Team to request assistance in the development of the science strategy. Draft versions of interagency goals, subgoals, science questions, and associated tasks were given to each team for review and input.
  • Plans were prepared for the peer review of science proposals submitted for consideration as Conservations Initiatives in SNPLMA Round 9.
  • Proceedings of the natural resources management workshop held on September 13 were completed and sent to the Science & Research Team for review by members.
  • An important focus of the Science and Research Team was the development ...


Limnological Assistance For The Lake Mead National Recreation Area In Meeting The Challenge Of The Water 2025 Initiative: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending: December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Limnological Assistance For The Lake Mead National Recreation Area In Meeting The Challenge Of The Water 2025 Initiative: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending: December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Limnological Studies

  • The limnologist position has been announced.
  • Project 1: Review of the draft Boulder Basin Adaptive Management Plan is underway.
  • Project 2: Development of a white paper expressing the joint needs of the entities involved in Water 2025 projects is being coordinated.
  • Project 3: A bibliographic reference spreadsheet organizing literature citations related to quagga and zebra mussel research has been completed.
  • Project 4: A comprehensive literature search of Lake Mead limnology is well underway; an Access database has been designed to organize reference citations; and a special collections library at UNLV is being established to house original rare documents and other ...


Seasonal Appearance And Monitoring Of Invasive Species In The Great Bay Estuarine System, Larry G. Harris, Jennifer A. Dijkstra Dec 2007

Seasonal Appearance And Monitoring Of Invasive Species In The Great Bay Estuarine System, Larry G. Harris, Jennifer A. Dijkstra

PREP Reports & Publications

The University of New Hampshire Zoology Department reports on a study designed to synthesize existing data on invasive species in the estuary and the surrounding area, compare succession between two panel studies (1979 to 1982 and 2003 to 2006), seasonally monitor invasive species in the Great Bay Estuary, and identify predators of invasive species. Researchers identified species most likely to invade the Great Bay Estuary, analyzed succession between two long-term panel studies separated by approximately 25 years, collected presence/absence and abundance data of invasive species at four sites within the Great Bay Estuarine System and identified potential predators of ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Wildlife Monitoring

Project 1. Relict Leopard Frog Monitoring, Management, and Research

  • Fall surveys completed at all natural and translocation sites.
  • Coordination for a potential translocation site on BLM lands in the Gold Butte area ongoing – the aim is that this site will be ready for translocations in 2008.
  • Coordination ongoing for evaluation of a translocation site on BLM lands in the Black Mountains, AZ – the plan is to complete compliance in 2008.
  • Coordination and assistance provided to UNLV research efforts on habitat improvements at Blue Point, Rogers, and Pupfish Refuge springs.
  • Relict Leopard Frog Conservation Team meeting held in December.
  • Draft annual ...


Buffer Projects In The Town Of Wakefield And City Of Somersworth, Julie Labranche Dec 2007

Buffer Projects In The Town Of Wakefield And City Of Somersworth, Julie Labranche

PREP Reports & Publications

Participants in the Wakefield Buffer Project include SRPC staff, members of the Acton Wakefield Watershed Alliance (AWWA), local board and commission members, and the Wakefield Town Planner, Kathy Menici. AWWA members included: Linda Schier, Carol Lafond, Marge Kimball and Adam Soukimas. Town Staff included Joe Fluet (Planning board Chair) and Nancy Spencer Smith (Conservation Commission). The goals of AWWA are to educate and inform shoreland property owners about the harmful effects of erosion and uncontrolled stormwater runoff on water quality of its lakes and ponds. AWWA focuses their on- the-ground efforts to repair, restore and preserve healthy functioning buffers and ...


Predicting The Success Of Invasive Species In The Great Bay Estuarine Researve, Jennifer A. Dijkstra, Larry G. Harris Dec 2007

Predicting The Success Of Invasive Species In The Great Bay Estuarine Researve, Jennifer A. Dijkstra, Larry G. Harris

PREP Reports & Publications

The University of New Hampshire Zoology Department reports on a study designed to continue monitoring the distribution of invasive species in the Great Bay Estuary and to carry out laboratory experiments designed to test the effects of salinity on ascidian mortality and determine predators of ascidian species. Researchers collected presence/absence and abundance data of invasive species at four sites within the Great Bay Estuarine System. The report gives a brief description of the results of the monitoring program to compare results obtained from 2006 to 2007 and to assess the response of ascidians to varying salinity and predators. This ...


A Guide To The Tallgrass Prairies Of Eastern Nebraska And Adjacent States, Paul A. Johnsgard Dec 2007

A Guide To The Tallgrass Prairies Of Eastern Nebraska And Adjacent States, Paul A. Johnsgard

Papers in Ornithology

Contents

Part 1: Ecology of the Tallgrass Prairie

Part 2: Plants of the Tallgrass Prairies:
Checklist of Prairie & Grassland Plants of Nebraska; Relative Frequencies of Grasses, Spring Creek and Nine-mile Prairies; Twenty Most Abundant Fall Forbs, Spring Creek and Nine-mile Prairies; Typical Shrubs, Forbs, Grasses & Sedges of Eastern Nebraska Tallgrass Prairies; English: Latin Name Equivalents of 370 Tallgrass Prairie Plants; Latin: English Name Equivalents of 370 Tallgrass Prairie Plants Identification Keys to Some Common Nebraska Grassland Forbs

Part 3: Animals of the Tallgrass Prairies
Greater Prairie-chickens and Native Prairies; Seasonal Checklist of Nebraska Tallgrass Ecoregion Birds (Gage County); Tallgrass Prairie Landbirds of Spring Creek & Konza Prairies; Mammals of Nebraska's Eastern Prairies ...


A Guide To The Natural History Of The Central Platte Valley Of Nebraska, Paul A. Johnsgard Dec 2007

A Guide To The Natural History Of The Central Platte Valley Of Nebraska, Paul A. Johnsgard

Papers in Ornithology

This book has been written in the hope that visitors to the Platte Valley may gain a greater appreciation for it through learning some of its animals and plants in addition to the Platte Valley's star spring attraction, its sandhill cranes. Besides the cranes, we have a world-class migration of geese and ducks, a slightly later migration of shorebirds, including what is probably the buff-breasted sandpiper's most important spring staging area between its South American wintering grounds and its arctic breeding grounds. Nebraska also has what may be the largest surviving population of greater prairie-chickens of any state ...


The Birds Of Nebraska, Revised Edition 2007, Paul A. Johnsgard Dec 2007

The Birds Of Nebraska, Revised Edition 2007, Paul A. Johnsgard

Papers in Ornithology

Persons living in Nebraska often feel that they are living in a cultural wasteland; its citizenry preoccupied with violent sports such as hunting and football. Yet many are unaware that they are actually residing in one of the prime locations in the entire world for observing and enjoying some of the most aesthetically appealing of all the world's biological attractions. The area around Kingsley Dam and Lake McConaughy, for example, is known to have attracted more than 300 bird species, including 104 breeders (plus 17 probable breeders) making it the third-most species-rich bird location in the entire U.S ...


Pioneering Lobster Aquaculture In Rhode Island, Michael A. Rice Dec 2007

Pioneering Lobster Aquaculture In Rhode Island, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

The 1898 establishment and operation of a lobster hatchery in Wickford Harbor under the auspices of the Rhode Island Commission on Inland Fisheries is reviewed. Dr. Herman Carey Bumpus a professor at Brown University and director of the United States Fisheries Commission undertook this effort to culture lobsters as a result of a decline in lobster landings, and concern for the stocks. Work at the hatchery led do considerable information about lobster reproductive and larval biology, and pioneering aquaculture methods for the species. By the mid-1920s, the hatchery was producing upwards of a million larvae per year and releasing them ...


Regional Body Composition In College-Aged Caucasians From Anthropometric Measures, Robert T. Davidson, Cameron B. Ritchie Dec 2007

Regional Body Composition In College-Aged Caucasians From Anthropometric Measures, Robert T. Davidson, Cameron B. Ritchie

Faculty Publications

Quantitating fat and lean tissue in isolated body regions may be helpful or required in obesity and health-outcomes research. However, current methods of regional body composition measurement require specialized, expensive equipment such as that used in computed tomography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Simple body size or circumference measurement relationships to body composition have been developed but are limited to whole-body applications. We investigated relationships between body size measurements and regional body composition. Methods Using DEXA technology we determined the fat and lean tissue composition for six regions of the body in predominantly Caucasian, college-aged men (n = 32) and ...


An Optical Model For Heat And Salt Budget Estimation For Shallow Seas, Hari Warrior, Kendall L. Carder Dec 2007

An Optical Model For Heat And Salt Budget Estimation For Shallow Seas, Hari Warrior, Kendall L. Carder

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations for shallow waters are developed and applied for the region of Bahamas. Most of the general circulation models use a simplified heat budget scheme based on Jerlov water types, and do not account for optical bottom effects. by optical bottom effect, we mean the bottom absorption and reflection of the short-wave radiation, which in turn affects the thermal stratification and heat exchange with the atmosphere. In this paper, this optical bottom effect is added to a 3D turbulence model (a 1D model called GOTM is coupled to a 3D model ...


Front Matter, Vol. 67 No. 4 Dec 2007

Front Matter, Vol. 67 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 67 No. 4 Dec 2007

End Matter, Vol. 67 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


A Comparative Study Of Leptospirosis And Dengue In Thai Children, Daniel H. Libraty, Khin S. A. Myint, Clinton K. Murray, Robert V. Gibbons, Mammen P. Mammen, Timothy P. Endy, Wenjun Li, David W. Vaughn, Ananda Nisalak, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Duane R. Hospenthal, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Francis A. Ennis Dec 2007

A Comparative Study Of Leptospirosis And Dengue In Thai Children, Daniel H. Libraty, Khin S. A. Myint, Clinton K. Murray, Robert V. Gibbons, Mammen P. Mammen, Timothy P. Endy, Wenjun Li, David W. Vaughn, Ananda Nisalak, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Duane R. Hospenthal, Sharone Green, Alan L. Rothman, Francis A. Ennis

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis that is often under-recognized in children and commonly confused with dengue in tropical settings. An enhanced ability to distinguish leptospirosis from dengue in children would guide clinicians and public health personnel in the appropriate use of limited healthcare resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective, hospital-based, study of children with acute febrile illnesses and dengue in Thailand. Among the children without dengue, we identified those with leptospirosis using anti-leptospira IgM and microscopic agglutination titers in paired acute and convalescent blood samples. We then performed a case-control comparison of symptoms, signs, and clinical laboratory ...


Effect Of The Co2 Grinding On Modified Atmosphere And Color Shelf Life Of Ground Beef, Sofiane Ghris Dec 2007

Effect Of The Co2 Grinding On Modified Atmosphere And Color Shelf Life Of Ground Beef, Sofiane Ghris

All Theses

Beef ground under air and carbon dioxide (CO2) conditions were evaluated for their storage stability at 2 ± 1¼C starting after 2 days in the dark to simulate transportation, followed by 7 days in lighted display by measuring color (CIE L*, a*, b*, the hue and chroma), gas headspace, microbiological content, and pigment content. AC (ground in air then packaged in 100% CO2 MAP) and CC (ground in CO2 then packaged in 100% CO2 MAP) treatments showed the highest a* and chroma values from day 3 to 9 compared with AV (ground in air then vacuum packaged) and CV (ground in ...


Development And Evaluation Of Instruments To , Patricia Michaud Dec 2007

Development And Evaluation Of Instruments To , Patricia Michaud

All Theses

The objectives of this study are to provide evidence for and demonstrate the processes used to develop and test tools to measure the effectiveness of a culinary and nutrition education program. This study initially involved a review of literature related to the environmental conditions for and components of nutrition education interventions featuring hands-on cooking skill activities. Based on this literature examination, the Cooking Attitude, Cooking Behavior, Produce Consumption Self-Efficacy, Cooking Self-Efficacy, Self-Efficacy for Using Basic Cooking Techniques, and Self-Efficacy for Using Fruits, Vegetables and Seasonings scales and the Knowledge of Cooking Terms and Techniques evaluation were developed. The Availability and ...


Sara Of Staphylococcus Aureus Binds To The Sara Promoter To Regulate Gene Expression, Ambrose L. Cheung, Koren Nishina, Adhar C. Manna Dec 2007

Sara Of Staphylococcus Aureus Binds To The Sara Promoter To Regulate Gene Expression, Ambrose L. Cheung, Koren Nishina, Adhar C. Manna

Dartmouth Scholarship

The 375-bp sarA open reading frame is driven by three promoters, P1, P3, and P2. Using gel shift and DNase I footprinting assays, we found that SarA binds to two 26-bp sequences and one 31-bp sequence within the P1 and P3 promoters, respectively. Together with the results of transcription analyses, our data indicate that SarA binds to its own promoter to down-regulate sarA expression.


A High Resolution Satellite-Only Grace-Based Mean Dynamic Topography Of The South Atlantic Ocean, Marcio L. Vianna, Viviane V. Menezes, D. Chambers Dec 2007

A High Resolution Satellite-Only Grace-Based Mean Dynamic Topography Of The South Atlantic Ocean, Marcio L. Vianna, Viviane V. Menezes, D. Chambers

Marine Science Faculty Publications

A new filtering method based on Singular Spectrum Analysis has been devised to extract high resolution (0.25° × 0.25° grid) satellite-only Mean Dynamic Ocean Topography(MDT) constructed by differencing of the GGM02 GRACE Gravity Model from the GSFCMSS00 Mean Sea Surface. This data-adaptive interpolation-type filter is adequate for the finite domain MDT processing since it minimizes smoothing and does not lose boundary points. It is applied to the computation of two new MDTs and MDT-derived mean geostrophic circulation maps of the South Atlantic region from 15°N to 50°S. Advantages of these new maps are clarified when contrasted ...


Solution Structure Of Selenoprotein W And Nmr Analysis Of Its Interaction With 14-3-3 Proteins, Finn L. Aachmann, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Alice Soragni, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Alexander Dikiy Dec 2007

Solution Structure Of Selenoprotein W And Nmr Analysis Of Its Interaction With 14-3-3 Proteins, Finn L. Aachmann, Dmitri E. Fomenko, Alice Soragni, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Alexander Dikiy

Vadim Gladyshev Publications

Selenium is a trace element with significant biomedical potential. It is essential in mammals due to its occurrence in several proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). One of the most abundant mamma¬lian Sec-containing proteins is selenoprotein W (SelW). This protein of unknown function has a broad expression pattern and contains a candidate CXXU (where U represents Sec) redox motif. Here, we re¬port the solution structure of the Sec13 →Cys variant of mouse SelW determined through high resolution NMR spectroscopy. The protein has a thioredoxin-like fold with the CXXU motif located in an exposed loop similarly to ...


Natal Dispersal And New Group Formation In Capybaras (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris) In A Seasonally Flooded Savanna Of Venezuela, Elizabeth Rae Congdon Dec 2007

Natal Dispersal And New Group Formation In Capybaras (Hydrochoerus Hydrochaeris) In A Seasonally Flooded Savanna Of Venezuela, Elizabeth Rae Congdon

Dissertations

This study examines natal dispersal and new group formation in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a seasonally flooded savanna in Venezuela. The first section describes a novel approach to the study of dispersal that could be applied to many taxa. Dispersal is considered in three stages (emigration, transience, and immigration) and its proximate and ultimate mechanisms are clearly differentiated. The second chapter describes dispersal behavior in capybaras, including which individuals disperse, when, and to where. In the third chapter, I evaluate dispersal in capybaras with respect to social subordination and social cohesion hypotheses. In this population, some support was found for ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2007, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2007

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2007, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2007 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes weather data, yield comparisons, crop performance trials, corn trials, soybean trials, winter wheat performance testing, Barley Foliar information, weed and pest control, herbicide demonstrations, canola and flax variety trials and more.


Gene Response Profiles For Daphnia Pulex Exposed To The Environmental Stressor Cadmium Reveals Novel Crustacean Metallothioneins, Joseph R. Shaw, John K. Colbourne, Jennifer C. Davey, Stephen P. Glaholt, Thomas H. Hampton, Celia Y. Chen, Carol L. Folt, Joshua W. Hamilton Dec 2007

Gene Response Profiles For Daphnia Pulex Exposed To The Environmental Stressor Cadmium Reveals Novel Crustacean Metallothioneins, Joseph R. Shaw, John K. Colbourne, Jennifer C. Davey, Stephen P. Glaholt, Thomas H. Hampton, Celia Y. Chen, Carol L. Folt, Joshua W. Hamilton

Dartmouth Scholarship

Genomic research tools such as microarrays are proving to be important resources to study the complex regulation of genes that respond to environmental perturbations. A first generation cDNA microarray was developed for the environmental indicator species Daphnia pulex, to identify genes whose regulation is modulated following exposure to the metal stressor cadmium. Our experiments revealed interesting changes in gene transcription that suggest their biological roles and their potentially toxicological features in responding to this important environmental contaminant.


A Chemical And Engineering Approach Towards "Smart" Synthetic Bone Grafts, Jie Song Dec 2007

A Chemical And Engineering Approach Towards "Smart" Synthetic Bone Grafts, Jie Song

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

The design of synthetic bone grafts that possess structural and biochemical microenvironment emulating the extracellular matrix of bone and exhibit good surgical handling characteristics is of significant importance to orthopedic applications. Using a combination of chemical and engineering tools, our lab has developed a number of osteogenic composite bone grafts that possess elastomeric or self-deployable shape memory properties facilitating the repair and regeneration of segmental bony defects.


A Novel Regulatory Mechanism Of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation Via Binding Of 14-3-3 To Myosin Phosphatase, Yasuhiko Koga, Mitsuo Ikebe Dec 2007

A Novel Regulatory Mechanism Of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation Via Binding Of 14-3-3 To Myosin Phosphatase, Yasuhiko Koga, Mitsuo Ikebe

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Myosin II phosphorylation-dependent cell motile events are regulated by myosin light-chain (MLC) kinase and MLC phosphatase (MLCP). Recent studies have revealed myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1), a myosin-binding subunit of MLCP, plays a critical role in MLCP regulation. Here we report the new regulatory mechanism of MLCP via the interaction between 14-3-3 and MYPT1. The binding of 14-3-3beta to MYPT1 diminished the direct binding between MYPT1 and myosin II, and 14-3-3beta overexpression abolished MYPT1 localization at stress fiber. Furthermore, 14-3-3beta inhibited MLCP holoenzyme activity via the interaction with MYPT1. Consistently, 14-3-3beta overexpression increased myosin II phosphorylation in cells. We found ...


Arabian Sea Response To Monsoon Variations, Raghu Murtugudde, Richard Seager, Prasad Thoppil Dec 2007

Arabian Sea Response To Monsoon Variations, Raghu Murtugudde, Richard Seager, Prasad Thoppil

Faculty Publications

This study aims to quantify the impact of strong monsoons on the mixed layer heat budget in the Arabian Sea by contrasting forced ocean general circulation model simulations with composite strong and weak monsoon winds. Strong (weak) monsoons are defined as years with zonal component of the Somali Jet being greater (smaller) by more than a standard deviation of the long-term mean of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis winds. Coastal upwelling is shown to be demonstrably stronger for strong monsoons leading to significant surface cooling, shallower thermoclines, and deeper mixed layers. A coupled ecosystem model shows that surface ...