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2002

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Community Conservation Assistance, Frank Mitchell Dec 2002

Community Conservation Assistance, Frank Mitchell

PREP Reports & Publications

The Community Conservation Assistance Project had the following goal and objectives: Goal: Sustain and protect open space lands identified by communities and land trusts as critical to water quality and biodiversity through voluntary land conservation. Objectives: 1. With the SPNHF and other partners, establish a seacoast office for the Center for Land Conservation Assistance. 2. Provide education to various audiences in the seacoast region. 3. Create a library of relevant materials 4. Develop and compile publications 5. Establish with the SPNHF and other partners and participate in the first annual NH Land Conservation Conference 6. Evaluate program effectiveness 7. Coordinate ...


Shellfish Population And Bed Dimension Assessment In The Great Bay Estuary, Brian Smith Dec 2002

Shellfish Population And Bed Dimension Assessment In The Great Bay Estuary, Brian Smith

PREP Reports & Publications

This final report details a study funded by the NHEP over the course of 2001-02. The NHF&G Department was funded to delineate oyster bed size and density, monitor oyster disease, and examine the density of clam concentrations in the Great Bay Estuary.


Viability Of A Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Variant: Structural Insights For Better Antiviral Therapy, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Nancy M. King, Celia A. Schiffer Dec 2002

Viability Of A Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Variant: Structural Insights For Better Antiviral Therapy, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Nancy M. King, Celia A. Schiffer

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Under the selective pressure of protease inhibitor therapy, patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often develop drug-resistant HIV strains. One of the first drug-resistant mutations to arise in the protease, particularly in patients receiving indinavir or ritonavir treatment, is V82A, which compromises the binding of these and other inhibitors but allows the virus to remain viable. To probe this drug resistance, we solved the crystal structures of three natural substrates and two commercial drugs in complex with an inactive drug-resistant mutant (D25N/V82A) HIV-1 protease. Through structural analysis and comparison of the protein-ligand interactions, we found that Val82 interacts ...


Environmental Indicator Report: Water Quality, Phil Trowbridge Dec 2002

Environmental Indicator Report: Water Quality, Phil Trowbridge

PREP Reports & Publications

During the fall and winter of 2001-2002, the New Hampshire Estuaries Project’s Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) developed a suite of environmental indicators to track progress toward the NHEP’s management goals and objectives. These indicators were fully described in terms of their performance criteria, statistical methods, and measurable goals in the NHEP’s Monitoring Plan published in May 2002. The next step is to use these indicators to produce an updated “State of the Estuaries” report by the spring of 2003. The TAC decided to break this task into three sections: shellfish indicators in the fall of 2002; water ...


Juvenile Clam Mortality Study At Three Intertidal Flats In Hampton Harbor, New Hampshire, Brian F. Beal Dec 2002

Juvenile Clam Mortality Study At Three Intertidal Flats In Hampton Harbor, New Hampshire, Brian F. Beal

PREP Reports & Publications

Soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria L., represent an important recreational fishery along the New Hampshire coast. Intertidal flats in the Hampton-Seabrook Estuary are among the most heavily harvested. As recently as the fall of 1998, the sandy flats in this area supported more than 900 clammers, who, on weekends, easily harvested their 9.5-liter limit (Varney, 1999). Recently, however, quantitative benthic surveys have suggested that the abundance of adult clams (> 50 mm shell length, SL) has dwindled on the three estuarine flats (Brown’s Flat, Common Island, and Middle Ground). Clammers support this contention and many have been disappointed at the ...


Differential Lipid Biosynthesis Underlies A Tradeoff Between Reproduction And Fl Ight Capability In A Wing-Polymorphic Cricket, Zhangwu Zhao, Anthony J. Zera Dec 2002

Differential Lipid Biosynthesis Underlies A Tradeoff Between Reproduction And Fl Ight Capability In A Wing-Polymorphic Cricket, Zhangwu Zhao, Anthony J. Zera

Anthony Zera Publications

The biochemical basis of life-history tradeoffs is a poorly studied aspect of life-history evolution. We used radiotracer and endocrine approaches to investigate the extent to which morphs of a wing-polymorphic insect differ in the biosynthesis of lipid classes important for dispersal capability vs. reproduction (ovarian growth). The flightcapable genotype of Gryllus firmus biosynthesized a greater amount of total lipid and triglyceride (main flight fuel), which was preferentially allocated to somatic tissue during early adulthood. By contrast, the fl ightless genotype biosynthesized a significantly greater amount of phospholipid (important in egg development), which was preferentially allocated to ovaries. Topical application of ...


Estimation Of Relative Abundance Of Recreationally Important Juvenile Finfish In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Project Rfol-3 July 2001 - June 2002, Marcel M. Montaine, Herbert M. Austin, Patrick J. Geer, Wendy A. Lowery Dec 2002

Estimation Of Relative Abundance Of Recreationally Important Juvenile Finfish In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Project Rfol-3 July 2001 - June 2002, Marcel M. Montaine, Herbert M. Austin, Patrick J. Geer, Wendy A. Lowery

Reports

No abstract provided.


Autoantibodies To Centrosomes Are Diagnostic For Human Scleroderma And Can Be Induced By Experimental Mycoplasma Infection In Mice: A Dissertation, Irina Catrinel Gavanescu Dec 2002

Autoantibodies To Centrosomes Are Diagnostic For Human Scleroderma And Can Be Induced By Experimental Mycoplasma Infection In Mice: A Dissertation, Irina Catrinel Gavanescu

Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses

The overall objective of this thesis work was to develop new insights into the etiology of scleroderma, a human systemic autoimmune disease, by analyzing the autoantibodies to centrosome antigens that develop during the disease. Centrosomes are perinuclear organelles that form microtubule arrays, including mitotic spindles that ensure the faithful segregation of chromosomes during mitosis.

These studies used a novel methodology to determine the prevalence of anti-centrosome autoantibodies in patients with scleroderma. Recombinant centrosome antigens were used to determine the antigenic specificity of anti-centrosome antibody subsets by immunoblotting. Centrosome marker antibodies were used in indirect immunofluorescence assays to distinguish centrosomes within ...


Estimating The Latitudinal Origins Of Migratory Birds Using Hydrogen And Sulfur Stable Isotopes In Feathers: Influence Of Marine Prey Base, Casey A. Lott, Timothy D. Meehan, Julie A. Heath Dec 2002

Estimating The Latitudinal Origins Of Migratory Birds Using Hydrogen And Sulfur Stable Isotopes In Feathers: Influence Of Marine Prey Base, Casey A. Lott, Timothy D. Meehan, Julie A. Heath

Julie Heath

Hydrogen stable isotope analysis of feathers is an important tool for estimating the natal or breeding latitudes of nearctic-neotropical migratory birds. This method is based on the latitudinal variation of hydrogen stable isotope ratios in precipitation in North America (iDp) and the inheritance of this variation in newly formed feathers (iDf). We hypothesized that the typically strong relationship between iDp and iDf would be decoupled in birds that forage in marine food webs because marine waters have relatively high iD values compared to iD values for local precipitation. Birds that forage on marine prey bases should also have feathers with ...


Surface And Deep Ocean Circulation In The Subpolar North Atlantic During The Mid-Pleistocene Revolution, Amy K. Wright, Benjamin P. Flower Dec 2002

Surface And Deep Ocean Circulation In The Subpolar North Atlantic During The Mid-Pleistocene Revolution, Amy K. Wright, Benjamin P. Flower

Marine Science Faculty Publications

We investigated surface and deep ocean variability in the subpolar North Atlantic from 1000 to 500 thousand years ago (ka) based on two Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites, Feni drift site 980 (55°29′N, 14°42′W) and Bjorn drift site 984 (61°25′N, 24°04′W). Benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data, planktic foraminiferal faunas, ice‐rafted debris data, and faunally based sea‐surface temperature estimates help test the hypothesis that oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic region were associated with the onset of the 100‐kyr world during the mid‐Pleistocene revolution. Based on percentage of Neogloboquadrina ...


Sea Surface Salinity Measurements In The Historical Database, Frederick M. Bingham, Stephan D. Howden, Chester J. Koblinsky Dec 2002

Sea Surface Salinity Measurements In The Historical Database, Frederick M. Bingham, Stephan D. Howden, Chester J. Koblinsky

Faculty Publications

We have examined historical distributions of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations in a data set consisting of a combination of the World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and a thermosalinograph and bucket salinity database collected from volunteer observing ships. It is well known that SSS in much of the world's ocean is measured infrequently or not at all. We find that 27% of one-degree squares in the world ocean (open and coastal, excluding the Arctic Ocean) had no observations of SSS in the historical database, and 70% had 10 or fewer. Systematic sampling of SSS (more than 10,000 observations ...


Evidence For An Epigenetic Mechanism By Which Hsp90 Acts As A Capacitor For Morphological Evolution, Vincent E. Sollars, Xiangyi Lu, Li Xiao, Xiaoyan Wang, Mark D. Garfinkel, Douglas M. Ruden Dec 2002

Evidence For An Epigenetic Mechanism By Which Hsp90 Acts As A Capacitor For Morphological Evolution, Vincent E. Sollars, Xiangyi Lu, Li Xiao, Xiaoyan Wang, Mark D. Garfinkel, Douglas M. Ruden

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Morphological alterations have been shown to occur in Drosophila melanogaster when function of Hsp90 (heat shock 0-kDa protein 1α, encoded by Hsp83) is compromised during development1. Genetic selection maintains the altered phenotypes in subsequent generations1. Recent experiments have shown, however, that phenotypic variation still occurs in nearly isogenic recombinant inbred strains of Arabidopsis thaliana2. Using a sensitized isogenic D. melanogaster strain, iso-KrIf-1, we confirm this finding and present evidence supporting an epigenetic mechanism for Hsp90’s capacitor function, whereby reduced activity of Hsp90 induces a heritably altered chromatin state. The altered chromatin state is evidenced by ectopic expression ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2002, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2002

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 2002, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2002 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes weather data, yield comparisons, crop performance trials, corn trials, soybean trials, winter wheat performance testing, Barley Foliar information, weed and pest control, herbicide demonstrations, canola and flax variety trials and more.


Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia, Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 1999-2003 Annual Report, 1 September 2001 - 31 October 2002, Philip W. Sadler, Robert J. Latour, Robert E. Harris, Kristin L. Maki, John E. Olney Dec 2002

Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia, Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 1999-2003 Annual Report, 1 September 2001 - 31 October 2002, Philip W. Sadler, Robert J. Latour, Robert E. Harris, Kristin L. Maki, John E. Olney

Reports

This report presents the results of striped bass (Marone saxatilis) tagging and monitoring activities in Virginia during the penod 1 September 2001 through 31 October 2002. It includes an assessment of the biological characteristics of striped bass taken from the 2002 spring spawning run, estimates of annual survtval based on annual spring tagging, and the results of the fall 2001 directed mortality study that is cooperative with the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. The information contained in this report is required by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and is used to implement a coordinated management plan for striped bass ...


West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 2002, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 2002

West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 2002, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2002 progress report of the West River Crops and Soils Research Projects, South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. This document includes reports on: weather and climate, wheat and grain variety trials, management and tillage, and weed and pest control.


Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Integration In B-Cell Lymphoma Identifies A Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene On Human Chromosome 15q151, Julia Beatty, Anne Terry, Julie Macdonald, Elizabeth Gault, Stanley Cevario, Stephen J. O'Brien, Ewan Cameron, James C. Neil Dec 2002

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Integration In B-Cell Lymphoma Identifies A Candidate Tumor Suppressor Gene On Human Chromosome 15q151, Julia Beatty, Anne Terry, Julie Macdonald, Elizabeth Gault, Stanley Cevario, Stephen J. O'Brien, Ewan Cameron, James C. Neil

Biology Faculty Articles

Infection with immunosuppressive lentiviruses is associated with increased cancer risk,but most studies have implicated indirect mechanisms as the tumor cells generally lack integrated viral sequences.An exception wasfound in a B-cell lymphoma (Q254) where the tumor cells contained a single integrated feline immunodeficiency virus genome. Additional analysis now indicates that feline immunodeficiency virus integration in lymphoma Q254 resulted in promoter insertion and truncation of a conserved gene on feline chromosome B3, whereas the unaffected allele of the gene appeared to be transcriptionally down-regulated. The orthologous human gene (FLJ12973), is expressed ubiquitously and encodes a WD-repeat protein with structural similarity ...


The Effects Of Prescribed Fire On Millipede And Salamander Populations In A Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forest., Alison Baird Gagan Dec 2002

The Effects Of Prescribed Fire On Millipede And Salamander Populations In A Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forest., Alison Baird Gagan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed fire has increased as a forest management practice in southern Appalachia, but investigations into the effects of this silvicultural treatment on non-game wildlife inhabiting the region is limited. This study investigated the effects of prescribed fire on millipede and salamander populations. Seventeen sites within the Cherokee National Forest in east Tennessee that were treated once with prescribed fire between 1998 and 2002 were examined in the spring of 2002. Each burned plot was paired with an adjacent unburned plot.

The number of individual millipedes and salamanders collected from burned plots was compared to the corresponding control plot. Millipedes declined ...


Breed Comparisons Of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Sahiwal, And Tarentaise For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck Dec 2002

Breed Comparisons Of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Sahiwal, And Tarentaise For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Data from topcross cows (n = 468) from six breeds of sire (Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Pinzgauer, Sahiwal, Tarentaise) and two breeds of dam (Angus and Hereford) of Cycle III of the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) comprising cow weight (CW, n = 9,012), height (CH, n = 9,010), and condition score (CS, n = 8,991) recorded in four seasons per year from 2 to 6 yr of age were used to estimate breed-group differences. The mixed models included cow age, season of measurement and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and ...


Breed Comparisons Of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Simmental, And South Devon For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score Of Cows, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck Dec 2002

Breed Comparisons Of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Simmental, And South Devon For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score Of Cows, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Breed means and differences for weight (CW, n = 19,851), height (CH, n = 14,553), and condition scores (CS, n = 19,536) recorded in four seasons per year were evaluated for 881 cows ranging from 2 to 7 yr of age from Cycle I of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Cows were straightbred Herefords and Angus and top-crosses from mating of Hereford, Angus, South Devon, Jersey, Simmental, Limousin, and Charolais sires to Hereford and Angus dams. The model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, with year of birth, pregnancy-lactation (PL ...


Comparisons Of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, And Red Poll-Sired Cows For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck Dec 2002

Comparisons Of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, And Red Poll-Sired Cows For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score, Jesus Arango, L. V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Data from Angus, Hereford, and topcross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS ...


Estimates Of Genetic Parameters And Genetic Change For Reproduction, Weight, And Wool Characteristics Of Columbia Sheep, Kathryn J. Hanford, L. Dale Van Vleck, G. D. Snowder Dec 2002

Estimates Of Genetic Parameters And Genetic Change For Reproduction, Weight, And Wool Characteristics Of Columbia Sheep, Kathryn J. Hanford, L. Dale Van Vleck, G. D. Snowder

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Genetic parameters from both single-trait and bivariate analyses for prolificacy, weight and wool traits were estimated using REML with animal models for Columbia sheep from data collected from 1950 to 1998 at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station (USSES), Dubois, ID. Breeding values from both single-trait and seven-trait analyses calculated using the parameters estimated from the single-trait and bivariate analyses were compared with respect to genetic trends. Number of observations were 31,401 for litter size at birth and litter size at weaning, 24,741 for birth weight, 23,903 for weaning weight, 29,572 for fleece weight and fleece ...


Estimates Of Parameters Between Direct And Maternal Genetic Effects For Weaning Weight And Direct Genetic Effects For Carcass Traits In Crossbred Cattle, R. K. Splan, Larry V. Cundiff, M. E. Dikeman, L. Dale Van Vleck Dec 2002

Estimates Of Parameters Between Direct And Maternal Genetic Effects For Weaning Weight And Direct Genetic Effects For Carcass Traits In Crossbred Cattle, R. K. Splan, Larry V. Cundiff, M. E. Dikeman, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations were obtained for weaning weight records of 23,681 crossbred steers and heifers and carcass records from 4,094 crossbred steers using animal models. Carcass traits included hot carcass weight; retail product percentage; fat percentage; bone percentage; ribeye area; adjusted fat thickness; marbling score, Warner- Bratzler shear force and kidney, pelvic and heart fat percentage. Weaning weight was modeled with fixed effects of age of dam, sex, breed combination, and birth year, with calendar birth day as a covariate and random direct and maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. The models for carcass ...


Genetic Parameters For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score In Beef Cows, Jesus Arango, Larry V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck Dec 2002

Genetic Parameters For Weight, Weight Adjusted For Body Condition Score, Height, And Body Condition Score In Beef Cows, Jesus Arango, Larry V. Cundiff, L. Dale Van Vleck

Faculty Papers and Publications in Animal Science

Weight (CW, n = 61,798), weight adjusted for condition score (WA), hip height (CH, n = 56,494), and condition score (CS, n = 61,434) of cows (2 through 8 yr of age) produced by crosses of 22 sire breeds with Angus and Hereford dams in the first four cycles of the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center were used to estimate genetic parameters with REML. The model included sire breed, dam breed, age in years, season of measurement (1 to 4) and their interactions, and year of birth and pregnancy-lactation code (PL) as fixed ...


Epigenetic History Of An Arabidopsis Trans-Silencer Locus And A Test For Relay Of Trans-Silencing Activity, Huaxia Qin, Albrecht G. Von Arnim Dec 2002

Epigenetic History Of An Arabidopsis Trans-Silencer Locus And A Test For Relay Of Trans-Silencing Activity, Huaxia Qin, Albrecht G. Von Arnim

Plant Sciences Publications and Other Works

Background

Meiotically heritable epimutations affecting transgene expression are not well understood, even and in particular in the plant model species, Arabidopsis thaliana. The Arabidopsis trans-silencer locus, C73, which encodes a fusion protein between the repressor of photomorphogenesis, COP1, and green fluorescent protein (GFP-COP1), heritably modifies the expression pattern and cop1-like cosuppression phenotypes of multiple GFP-COP1 target loci by transcriptional gene silencing.

Results

Here we describe three additional features of trans-silencing by the C73 locus. First, the silencing phenotype of C73 and of similar complex loci was acquired epigenetically over the course of no more than two plant generations via ...


What Makes An Animal Choose A Forage, Elizabeth A. Burritt, Frederick D. Provenza Dec 2002

What Makes An Animal Choose A Forage, Elizabeth A. Burritt, Frederick D. Provenza

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Consider the following scenarios: To cut the costs of ranching a researcher explores feeding cattle ammoniated straw in winter. Some of the cows maintain themselves on the diet while others lose weight, produce less milk and fail to conceive. A producer in Missouri plants a pasture rich in legumes and high in crude protein, yet his cattle prefer moldy hay and endophyte infected tall fescue to the legumes. Why do animals behave this way? Animals are thought to prefer foods that are palatable but what is palatability? We define palatability as the interrelationship between a food's flavor and postingestive ...


Biodiversity And Ecosystem Function: The Consumer Connection, J. Emmett Duffy Dec 2002

Biodiversity And Ecosystem Function: The Consumer Connection, J. Emmett Duffy

VIMS Articles

Proposed links between biodiversity and ecosystem processes have generated intense interest and controversy in recent years. With few exceptions, however, empirical studies have focused on grassland plants and laboratory aquatic microbial systems, whereas there has been little attention to how changing animal diversity may influence ecosystem processes. Meanwhile, a separate research tradition has demonstrated strong top‐down forcing in many systems, but has considered the role of diversity in these processes only tangentially. Integration of these research directions is necessary for more complete understanding in both areas. Several considerations suggest that changing diversity in multi‐level food webs can have ...


Electricity Production By Geobacter Sulfurreducens Attached To Electrodes, Daniel R. Bond, Derek Lovley Dec 2002

Electricity Production By Geobacter Sulfurreducens Attached To Electrodes, Daniel R. Bond, Derek Lovley

Derek Lovley

Previous studies have suggested that members of the Geobacteraceae can use electrodes as electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. In order to better understand this electron transfer process for energy production, Geobacter sulfurreducens was inoculated into chambers in which a graphite electrode served as the sole electron acceptor and acetate or hydrogen was the electron donor. The electron-accepting electrodes were maintained at oxidizing potentials by connecting them to similar electrodes in oxygenated medium (fuel cells) or to potentiostats that poised electrodes at +0.2 V versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode (poised potential). When a small inoculum of G. sulfurreducens was ...


Characteristic Genome Rearrangements In Experimental Evolution Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Maitreya J. Dunham, Hassan Badrane, Tracy Ferea, Julian Adams, Patrick O. Brown, Frank Rosenzweig, David Botstein Dec 2002

Characteristic Genome Rearrangements In Experimental Evolution Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Maitreya J. Dunham, Hassan Badrane, Tracy Ferea, Julian Adams, Patrick O. Brown, Frank Rosenzweig, David Botstein

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Genome rearrangements, especially amplifications and deletions, have regularly been observed as responses to sustained application of the same strong selective pressure in microbial populations growing in continuous culture. We studied eight strains of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) isolated after 100-500 generations of growth in glucose-limited chemostats. Changes in DNA copy number were assessed at single-gene resolution by using DNA microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. Six of these evolved strains were aneuploid as the result of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Most of the aneuploid regions were the result of translocations, including three instances of a shared breakpoint on chromosome 14 immediately adjacent to ...


The Insulation Of Genes From External Enhancers And Silencing Chromatin, Bonnie Burgess-Beusse, Catherine Farrell, Miklos Gaszner, Michael Litt, Vesco Mutskov, Felix Recillas - Targa, Melanie Simpson, Adam West, Gary Felsenfeld Dec 2002

The Insulation Of Genes From External Enhancers And Silencing Chromatin, Bonnie Burgess-Beusse, Catherine Farrell, Miklos Gaszner, Michael Litt, Vesco Mutskov, Felix Recillas - Targa, Melanie Simpson, Adam West, Gary Felsenfeld

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Insulators are DNA sequence elements that can serve in some cases as barriers to protect a gene against the encroachment of adjacent inactive condensed chromatin. Some insulators also can act as blocking elements to protect against the activating influence of distal enhancers associated with other genes. Although most of the insulators identified so far derive from Drosophila, they also are found in vertebrates. An insulator at the 5′ end of the chicken β -globin locus marks a boundary between an open chromatin domain and a region of constitutively condensed chromatin. Detailed analysis of this element shows that it possesses both ...


Defining A New Ethical Standard For Human In Vitro Embryos In The Context Of Stem Cell Research, Sina A. Muscati Dec 2002

Defining A New Ethical Standard For Human In Vitro Embryos In The Context Of Stem Cell Research, Sina A. Muscati

Duke Law & Technology Review

This iBrief discusses some of the social, ethical and legal considerations surrounding the use of unimplanted, in vitro embryos in stem cell research. It proposes that a new ethical standard be elucidated for these embryos. The iBrief gives an overview of two proposals for such a standard at opposite ends of the spectrum: treating the in vitro embryo as a legal person versus treating it as mere property. It argues against both approaches. The former can have undesirable social implications including undue interference with female reproductive autonomy, while the latter would objectify potential human life and reproductive potential. The iBrief ...