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1999

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Method For Estimating Marine Habitat Values Based On Fish Guilds, With Comparisons Between Sites In The Southern California Bight, Alan Bond, John Stephens, Daniel Pondella, James Allen, Mark Helvey May 2013

A Method For Estimating Marine Habitat Values Based On Fish Guilds, With Comparisons Between Sites In The Southern California Bight, Alan Bond, John Stephens, Daniel Pondella, James Allen, Mark Helvey

Alan B. Bond

Habitat valuation is an essential tool for tracking changes in habitat quality and in adjudicating environmental mitigation. All current methods for estimating habitat values of coastal marine sites rely heavily on the opinion of experts or on data variables that can readily be manipulated to influence the outcome. As a result, unbiased, quantitative comparisons between the values of different marine habitats are generally unavailable. We report here on a robust, objective technique for the valuation of marine habitats that makes use of data that are commonly gathered in surveys of marine fish populations: density, fidelity, and mean size. To insure ...


Stratification And Light Improve Germination Of Katsura Tree Seed, Michael S. Dosmann, Jeffery K. Iles, Mark P. Widrlechner Dec 1999

Stratification And Light Improve Germination Of Katsura Tree Seed, Michael S. Dosmann, Jeffery K. Iles, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

Germinability of two, half-sib seed sources of Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. & Zucc. and one seed source of Cercidiphyllum magnificum (Nakai) Nakai was determined after not stratifying or stratifying seeds at 3.5 ± 0.5 °C (38.3 ± 0.9 °F) for 8 days followed by germination for 21 days at 25 °C (77 °F) in darkness or under a 15-hour photoperiod. Stratification was not required for germination, but increased germination percentage, peak value, and germination value for both species. Stratification increased germination of C. japonicum from 42% to 75%, and germination of C. magnificum from 12% to 24%. Light enhanced germination ...


Integration Of Calcium And Cyclic Amp Signaling Pathways By 14-3-3, Chi-Wing Chow, Roger J. Davis Dec 1999

Integration Of Calcium And Cyclic Amp Signaling Pathways By 14-3-3, Chi-Wing Chow, Roger J. Davis

Open Access Articles

Calcium-stimulated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription activity at the interleukin-2 promoter is negatively regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). This effect of cAMP is mediated, in part, by protein kinase A phosphorylation of NFAT. The mechanism of regulation involves the creation of a phosphorylation-dependent binding site for 14-3-3. Decreased NFAT phosphorylation caused by the calcium-stimulated phosphatase calcineurin, or mutation of the PKA phosphorylation sites, disrupted 14-3-3 binding and increased NFAT transcription activity. In contrast, NFAT phosphorylation caused by cAMP increased 14-3-3 binding and reduced NFAT transcription activity. The regulated interaction between NFAT and 14-3-3 provides a mechanism for ...


Structure And Function Analysis Of Lin-14, A Temporal Regulator Of Postembryonic Developmental Events In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Yang Hong, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros Dec 1999

Structure And Function Analysis Of Lin-14, A Temporal Regulator Of Postembryonic Developmental Events In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Yang Hong, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

During postembryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans, the heterochronic gene lin-14 controls the timing of developmental events in diverse cell types. Three alternativelin-14 transcripts are predicted to encode isoforms of a novel nuclear protein that differ in their amino-terminal domains. In this paper, we report that the alternative amino-terminal domains of LIN-14 are dispensable and that a carboxy-terminal region within exons 9 to 13 is necessary and sufficient for in vivo LIN-14 function. A transgene capable of expressing only one of the three alternativelin-14 gene products rescues a lin-14 null mutation and is developmentally regulated by lin-4. This shows ...


The Ccaat Displacement Protein/Cut Homeodomain Protein Represses Osteocalcin Gene Transcription And Forms Complexes With The Retinoblastoma Protein-Related Protein P107 And Cyclin A, Maria F. Van Gurp, Jitesh Pratap, Mai X. Luong, Amjad Javed, Heidi M. Hoffmann, Antonio Giordano, Janet L. Stein, Ellis J. Neufeld, Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen Dec 1999

The Ccaat Displacement Protein/Cut Homeodomain Protein Represses Osteocalcin Gene Transcription And Forms Complexes With The Retinoblastoma Protein-Related Protein P107 And Cyclin A, Maria F. Van Gurp, Jitesh Pratap, Mai X. Luong, Amjad Javed, Heidi M. Hoffmann, Antonio Giordano, Janet L. Stein, Ellis J. Neufeld, Jane B. Lian, Gary S. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen

Open Access Articles

Developmental control of bone tissue-specific genes requires positive and negative regulatory factors to accommodate physiological requirements for the expression or suppression of the encoded proteins. Osteocalcin (OC) gene transcription is restricted to the late stages of osteoblast differentiation. OC gene expression is suppressed in nonosseous cells and osteoprogenitor cells and during the early proliferative stages of bone cell differentiation. The rat OC promoter contains a homeodomain recognition motif within a highly conserved multipartite promoter element (OC box I) that contributes to tissue-specific transcription. In this study, we demonstrate that the CCAAT displacement protein (CDP), a transcription factor related to the ...


The T(8;21) Chromosomal Translocation In Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Modifies Intranuclear Targeting Of The Aml1/Cbfalpha2 Transcription Factor, Sandra Marie Mcneil, Congmei Zeng, Kimberly Stacy Harrington, Scott W. Hiebert, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Gary S. Stein Dec 1999

The T(8;21) Chromosomal Translocation In Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Modifies Intranuclear Targeting Of The Aml1/Cbfalpha2 Transcription Factor, Sandra Marie Mcneil, Congmei Zeng, Kimberly Stacy Harrington, Scott W. Hiebert, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Gary S. Stein

GSBS Student Publications

Targeting of gene regulatory factors to specific intranuclear sites may be critical for the accurate control of gene expression. The acute myelogenous leukemia 8;21 (AML1/ETO) fusion protein is encoded by a rearranged gene created by the ETO chromosomal translocation. This protein lacks the nuclear matrix-targeting signal that directs the AML1 protein to appropriate gene regulatory sites within the nucleus. Here we report that substitution of the chromosome 8-derived ETO protein for the multifunctional C terminus of AML1 precludes targeting of the factor to AML1 subnuclear domains. Instead, the AML1/ETO fusion protein is redirected by the ETO component ...


Emissions Of Formaldehyde, Acetic Acid, Methanol, And Other Trace Gases From Biomass Fires In North Carolina Measured By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Robert J. Yokelson, Jon G. Goode, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Ronald E. Babbitt, D. D. Wade, Issac T. Bertschi, David W. T. Griffith, Wei Min Hao Dec 1999

Emissions Of Formaldehyde, Acetic Acid, Methanol, And Other Trace Gases From Biomass Fires In North Carolina Measured By Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Robert J. Yokelson, Jon G. Goode, Darold E. Ward, Ronald A. Susott, Ronald E. Babbitt, D. D. Wade, Issac T. Bertschi, David W. T. Griffith, Wei Min Hao

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Biomass burning is an important source of many trace gases in the global troposphere. We have constructed an airborne trace gas measurement system consisting of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) coupled to a “flow-through” multipass cell (AFTIR) and installed it on a U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service King Air B-90. The first measurements with the new system were conducted in North Carolina during April 1997 on large, isolated biomass fire plumes. Simultaneous measurements included Global Positioning System (GPS); airborne sonde; particle light scattering, CO, and CO2; and integrated filter and canister samples. AFTIR spectra acquired within ...


Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 1999

Northeast Research Station Watertown, South Dakota Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 1999 annual progress report for the Northeast Research Station in Watertown, South Dakota. This report is issued by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the South Dakota State University Plant Science Department. This report includes information on the 1999 crop season, including: precipitation summary, crop performance results, canola and flax variety trials, alfalfa production, cool and warm season annual forages, oat research, spring wheat breeding, fertilizer influence on yields, corn and soybean breeding, weed control, oat and spring wheat foliar fungicide trials.


The Effect Of Shelterwood-Cut Oak Forestry Practices On Breeding Bird Success, Patrick Lee Collins Dec 1999

The Effect Of Shelterwood-Cut Oak Forestry Practices On Breeding Bird Success, Patrick Lee Collins

Theses, Dissertations & Honors Papers

Populations of breeding birds were studied on two shelterwood-cut oak stands in Buckingham County, Virginia. These two tracts, Harris East and Harris West, were cut in 1996 and a Breeding Bird Census has been conducted on these tracts since 1997. This study is part of an ongoing effort to collect pre-bum data, and document the diversity of avian species utilizing this habitat. The changes in avian species present on the Harris East and Harris West plots is important to know so that the effects of shelterwood-cut forestry practices can be understood better. The data collected showed that, by changing the ...


Reduction Of Fe(Iii), Mn(Iv), And Toxic Metal At 100 Degrees C By Pyrobaculum Islandicum, Kazem Kashefi, Derek Lovley Dec 1999

Reduction Of Fe(Iii), Mn(Iv), And Toxic Metal At 100 Degrees C By Pyrobaculum Islandicum, Kazem Kashefi, Derek Lovley

Derek Lovley

It has recently been noted that a diversity of hyperthermophilic microorganisms have the ability to reduce Fe(III) with hydrogen as the electron donor, but the reduction of Fe(III) or other metals by these organisms has not been previously examined in detail. When Pyrobaculum islandicum was grown at 100 degrees C in a medium with hydrogen as the electron donor and Fe(III)-citrate as the electron acceptor, the increase in cell numbers of P. islandicum per mole of Fe(III) reduced was found to be ca. 10-fold higher than previously reported. Poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide could also ...


West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 1999

West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 1999, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 1999 progress report of the West River Crops and Soils Research Projects, South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. This document includes reports on: weather and climate, wheat and grain variety trials, management and tillage, and weed and pest control.


Pricing Corn In 2000, Mike Turner Dec 1999

Pricing Corn In 2000, Mike Turner

Cornhusker Economics

Begin thinking about pricing next year抯 corn crop (2000) as an important New Year抯 Resolution. For the third consecutive year, harvest time prices may be below the cost of production for even the most efficient Nebraska producers. As a result, producers will again be obliged to combine cash receipts from the sale of corn along with government program benefits (i.e., loan deficiency payments, transition payments and potential agricultural emergency program benefits) in an attempt to cover the cost of production.


The Lin-4 Regulatory Rna Controls Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans By Blocking Lin-14 Protein Synthesis After The Initiation Of Translation, Philip Olsen, Victor Ambros Dec 1999

The Lin-4 Regulatory Rna Controls Developmental Timing In Caenorhabditis Elegans By Blocking Lin-14 Protein Synthesis After The Initiation Of Translation, Philip Olsen, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

lin-4 encodes a small RNA that is complementary to sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA and that acts to developmentally repress the accumulation of LIN-14 protein. This repression is essential for the proper timing of numerous events of Caenorhabditis elegans larval development. We have investigated the mechanism of lin-4 RNA action by examining the fate of lin-14 mRNA in vivo during the time that lin-4 RNA is expressed. Our results indicate that the rate of synthesis of lin-14 mRNA, its state of polyadenylation, its abundance in the cytoplasmic fraction, and its polysomal sedimentation profile do not ...


Beyond 1998: Achieving Buyer Expectations, A Restaurant Perspective, Chet England Dec 1999

Beyond 1998: Achieving Buyer Expectations, A Restaurant Perspective, Chet England

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Content:
NCCR: Who Are We?
The Restaurant Industry Overall
Things About Which Americans Are Afraid
Why Do We Are?
What Are We Doing for Our Part?
We Need to Minimize Pathogen Incidence
CCP's at Quick Service Restaurants
Why Should You Care?
Protecting Your Customers by Managing Food Safety is the Right Thing To Do!
"Toxin" by Robin Cook


Convenience Beef Products: Trials And Tribulations In Development And Marketing, Jonathan Rocke Dec 1999

Convenience Beef Products: Trials And Tribulations In Development And Marketing, Jonathan Rocke

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The evolution of convenient beef products is not only an exciting phenomenon that is occurring within the beef industry but is an essential strategy and revolution that must take place if beef is to reverse its downward demand curve. It is not a matter of if, but when, not how, but how fast and certainly it is not a matter of telling the consumer how they will like their beef but rather listening as they tell us "How they would like their beef". It has begun and their will be no retreat.


Techniques To Identify Palatable Beef Carcasses: Marc Tenderness Classification, Sdsu Colorimeter And Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry (Nir) Systems, Duane M. Wulf Dec 1999

Techniques To Identify Palatable Beef Carcasses: Marc Tenderness Classification, Sdsu Colorimeter And Near-Infrared Spectrophotometry (Nir) Systems, Duane M. Wulf

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The value of any product is determined by a customer's willingness to pay for that product, which is determined by that customer's wants and needs. The value of beef is therefore ultimately determined according to beef customers' desires. There are three basic beef carcass characteristics that affect value.


Techniques To Identify Palatable Beef Carcasses: Hunterlab Beefcam™, Keith E. Belk Dec 1999

Techniques To Identify Palatable Beef Carcasses: Hunterlab Beefcam™, Keith E. Belk

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Most cattlemen agree that instrument technology, combined with mechanisms to trace livestock through the processing chain, would assist in developing a true "value- or qualitybased" marketing system--where economic signals are transmitted across the entire production chain so that customer preferences are communicated to producers. Tatum et al. (1999) demonstrated the importance of being able to sort beef carcasses, based on an accurate measurement of their subsequent eating quality, if true quality management practices are to ever be implemented to reduce variation and inconsistency in beef palatability. Because Video Image Analysis (VIA) technology has been a priority for commercial testing by ...


Managing Forage Resources For Bigger Profits, Kit Pharo Dec 1999

Managing Forage Resources For Bigger Profits, Kit Pharo

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Our ranch is known as Pharo Cattle Company and is located eight miles north of Cheyenne Wells, which is on the central high plains of Eastern Colorado. This is short-grass country with very limited and unpredictable rainfall. We have a commercial cow herd, as well as a registered cow herd. Our seedstock program consists of Red Angus, Black Angus, Tarentaise, and Composites. Our Composite cattle are 50% Tarentaise, 30% Red or Black Angus and 20% Hereford.

Since our ranch provides our only source of income, our ranching practices must be both sustainable and profitable. Recently I've heard a lot ...


Reducing Harvesting Costs Using Windrow Grazing, Weldon V. Thomson Dec 1999

Reducing Harvesting Costs Using Windrow Grazing, Weldon V. Thomson

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Dr. Robert Taylor, of Colorado State University, at the 1995 NCA meeting stated, "…after the current cycle 30% of today’s beef producers will not be in business." A colleague, Paul Gehno, now with the King Ranch in Florida, once stated, "the industry that emerges from this down phase will be leaner, smaller and more competitive." Another quote, of which I am afraid I do not have the author states, "in times of change, learners inherit the earth while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to work in a world that no longer exists."

We live in a world of ...


Complementing A Forage Program With Annual Forages, Ken Remmington Dec 1999

Complementing A Forage Program With Annual Forages, Ken Remmington

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Economists tell us that in a mature industry you must be a low cost producer to survive. The meat industry is ending the century much more mature than it began. Sophisticated production of pork and poultry with the benefit of cheap grain is putting pressure on beef producers. The long-term trend in grain prices is downward because the cost of producing grain is being reduced by three ongoing trends. The continuing enrichment of the atmosphere by CO2 and other greenhouse gases is crop production friendly despite what you may have heard of few years back. Secondly, bio-tech seeds are increasing ...


Genetic Predictors Of Reproduction, Kent Andersen Dec 1999

Genetic Predictors Of Reproduction, Kent Andersen

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Genetic predictions in the form of expected progeny differences (EPDs) represent the beef industry's most powerful source of information for selection and genetic improvement. While EPDs are widely available for traits associated with calving ease, growth, milk and carcass traits, EPDs for reproductive traits are limited. Given the relative economic importance, development of EPDs for reproductive traits should be a priority for the beef industry. Fortunately, recent breakthroughs in analytical procedures have opened the door for potential development of genetic predictions for reproductive traits.


Some Effects Of Feeding Supplemental Fat To Beef Cattle, R. A. Bellows Dec 1999

Some Effects Of Feeding Supplemental Fat To Beef Cattle, R. A. Bellows

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Meeting nutrient requirements of the replacement of heifer and the pregnant or lactating heifer and cow is of critical importance in assuring optimum reproductive performance. It is well recognized that these nutrients include protein, energy, minerals, vitamins, dry matter, and water. Recent research has indicated adequate fat may be an additional nutrient that needs to be present in the diet. This presentation will review some of our recent work on the effects of feeding additional fat on potential cold tolerance in the newborn calf, development of the replacement heifer, rebreeding of the lactating dam, and weaning weight of her calf.


Imminent Commercialization Of Sexed Bovine Sperm, J. L. Schenk, G. E. Seidel Jr. Dec 1999

Imminent Commercialization Of Sexed Bovine Sperm, J. L. Schenk, G. E. Seidel Jr.

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Cattle breeders demand products and services that improve efficiency and maximize profits. Research and development for these products, once done primarily in academic settings, now is occurring more within the private corporate sector who now fund research that was previously funded from public sources. These products often are patented and licensed to individual companies. Product availability is hastened, but sometimes at higher costs. Sex-specific sperm soon will be available to the cattle industry for use in high profile, genetically elite herds. Widespread availability of sex-specific sperm for commercial herds should follow within 2 years.

Sex-specific sperm for use with artificial ...


New Approach To Estimating Bull Fertility, R. L. Ax, M. E. Bellin, H. M. Zhang, H. E. Hawkins Dec 1999

New Approach To Estimating Bull Fertility, R. L. Ax, M. E. Bellin, H. M. Zhang, H. E. Hawkins

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Breeding soundness evaluations (BSE) are conducted to qualify bulls as potential satisfactory breeders. Guidelines for acceptable measures of scrotal circumference, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and the frequency of sperm with morphological abnormalities are compiled and published by the American Society for Theriogenology (Chenoweth et al., 1992). Unfortunately, according to statistics available from USDA, only 40% of eligible bulls are subjected to a BSE. In the real world, bulls with identical outcomes in terms of physical quality of semen will still vary in actual fertility whether used for natural mating or artificial insemination (A.I).


Ranching With Regulations, Ron Micheli Dec 1999

Ranching With Regulations, Ron Micheli

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Unfortunately, in today's world, ranchers are feeling the frustration portrayed in the above story. On a daily basis, the agriculture community is being over run by zealots from the federal government who are enforcing such things as the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, the National Environmental Protection Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and on, and on, and on. More and more time and expense are being required to deal with these issues, all the while, fears of being able to make management decisions on the ranch are being threatened.

This seems to be particularly true ...


Fence Posts Talking To Each Other, Ronald J. Hanson Dec 1999

Fence Posts Talking To Each Other, Ronald J. Hanson

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Sometimes rather simple misunderstandings as well as the stress of daily life can quite easily damage the personal relationships between family members. Too often the inability to openly share personal feelings and the failure to discuss expectations can ruin any family relationship. This is most often caused by an actual breakdown in communications between family members, especially during periods of stress (i.e. whether financial, work or even personal) when individuals withdraw or hide their emotions from each other. Juggling the current demands of ranch work, family and personal needs can become quite a challenge to anyone. Persons get so ...


Going Home To The Family Ranch, Sara F. Hebbert Dec 1999

Going Home To The Family Ranch, Sara F. Hebbert

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Going home to the family ranch is a multi-faceted decision to be made following careful analysis of the whole picture. It is important to identify all the players, choose the right timing, define individual roles, and measure what is most valuable. Combined with these factors is the need to establish partnerships with unlikely partners. The plague of urban sprawl threatening every ag enterprise in the nation makes it continually important that we in the beef industry establish a positive relationship with those not associated with ag. The information that follows is a combination of personal history and observation.


Sharing The Range – What Diseases Do Wild Ruminants And Beef Cattle Share?, Elizabeth S. Williams Dec 1999

Sharing The Range – What Diseases Do Wild Ruminants And Beef Cattle Share?, Elizabeth S. Williams

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Our western rangelands support a wide variety of species including ruminants that are exquisitely suited to make use of these renewable resources. Domestic ruminants utilizing these rangelands include cattle, domestic sheep, and less frequently, at least in the northern Great Plains and intermountain west, domestic goats. Wild ruminants, in numbers, variety, and quality not found anywhere else in North America, include mule deer, pronghorn, and elk. White-tailed deer frequent the riparian areas, moose are found in low numbers in forest lands, bighorn sheep inhabit rough breaks and the higher altitudes, and free-ranging bison are found around the national parks in ...


Vaccines And Dewormers – Do We Need Them All?, Dale M. Grotelueschen Dec 1999

Vaccines And Dewormers – Do We Need Them All?, Dale M. Grotelueschen

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Consumers are the ultimate beneficiaries of improved animal health. Costs and potential benefits from use of vaccines and dewormers affect returns to individual producers or operations as well as the beef industry as a whole. Vaccines that positively influence average daily gain, improve carcass quality, lower costs of production and improve efficiency, and that reduce treatments, decreasing reliance on antibiotics, and that decrease treatment costs contribute to success of the beef industry.

Consideration for use by individual operations often involves shorter time perspectives, especially if cattle are marketed or if products administered affect only production systems on the premises. When ...


Lifetime Effects Of Respiratory And Liver Disease On Cattle, Bill Epperson Dec 1999

Lifetime Effects Of Respiratory And Liver Disease On Cattle, Bill Epperson

Range Beef Cow Symposium

In cattle, the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are the main systems affected with disease. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) contributes the majority of illness and death loss in the feedlot segment. Historically, 15-45% of feedlot cattle have been affected with BRD, with 1-5% of total cattle placed dying of BRD (Kelly 1986). Respiratory disease, alone, accounts for 44.1% of deaths in beef feedlot cattle (Vogel 1994). Apart from death loss, the Texas Ranch to Rail Program has suggested that clinical disease (most of which is BRD), even if treated successfully, results in treatment cost ($37.90/affected), decreased average daily ...