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1995

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1824

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of Hybridization Between Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides And Rna In Living Cells, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Krishan L. Taneja, Robert H. Singer Dec 1995

Characterization Of Hybridization Between Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides And Rna In Living Cells, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Krishan L. Taneja, Robert H. Singer

Open Access Articles

Cells internalized synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) in culture. The hybridization of these molecules to target RNA in the living cell was subsequently detected and characterized after fixation of the cells, with or without previous detergent extraction. Hybridized oligo was distinguished from free oligo in the cell using an in situ reverse transcription technique. This assay exploited the ability of the hybridized oligo to prime synthesis of a specific cDNA strand; unhybridized oligo present in the cell could not act as a primer for reverse transcription. Phosphorothioate and fluorochrome-labeled phosphodiester oligo dT were found to enter cells rapidly and hybridize to poly ...


Dynamic Input Demand Functions And Resource Adjustment For U.S. Agriculture: State Evidence, Perry Warjiyo, Wallace E. Huffman Dec 1995

Dynamic Input Demand Functions And Resource Adjustment For U.S. Agriculture: State Evidence, Perry Warjiyo, Wallace E. Huffman

Economic Staff Paper Series

Farmers in the developed countries do not hire their workforce or rent machinery and land afresh each day or week because it is more profitable to have longer term arrangements/contracts. Hiring/training and firing/terminating workers, searching/learning to use and refurbishing/returning machinery, and searching/learning to use and returning land to its original condition are all costs over and above a per-unit time rental rate. These costs insure that farmers* demand for most inputs depend not only on current exogenous factors but also on past use and expectations about future use. These are arguments that agricultural input ...


"Near-Organic" And "Mainstream" Crop-Livestock Production: South Dakota Case Study, Donald Taylor Dec 1995

"Near-Organic" And "Mainstream" Crop-Livestock Production: South Dakota Case Study, Donald Taylor

Economics Research Reports

In this report, results are presented of a case study on alternative strategies for producing crops and beef cattle in South Dakota. The alternative production strategies are termed "nearorganic" and "mainstream." "Near-organic" producers were defined as farmers/ranchers1 expected to substantially meet standards of private "organic" certification authorities in raising crops and livestock, whereas "mainstream" producers were defined as those who generally follow practices recommended by the S.D. Cooperative Extension Service. Four matching pairs of near-organic and mainstream case study farmers from the following locations were selected for study: Morristown in the Northwest Region, Norris in the South Central ...


Nutritional Value Of Grazed Forages And How It Fits The Cow’S Requirement, Don C. Adams, Richard T. Clark, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Jerry D. Volesky Dec 1995

Nutritional Value Of Grazed Forages And How It Fits The Cow’S Requirement, Don C. Adams, Richard T. Clark, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Jerry D. Volesky

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The concept of matching nutrients available in grazed forages with nutrient requirements of the cow has been reviewed and recommended as a means to most efficiently utilize grazed forages (Valentine 1990, Vavra and Raleigh 1976). We further develop the principles and concepts necessary to improve the match between forage quality and the cow's nutrient needs and discuss potential impacts on management and production cost.


Index To Volume 6, Nos. 13-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 1995

Index To Volume 6, Nos. 13-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1995

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Gifts Of Commodities To Charities, Neil Harl Dec 1995

Gifts Of Commodities To Charities, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For farm and ranch taxpayers, gifts of commodities to charitable organizations or family members have become an attractive way to reduce self-employment tax and, for noncharitable donees, to convert what would otherwise be ordinary income into capital gain. Although two private letter rulings, one issued in 1991 and one in 1992, disapproved the gifts of soybeans to the spouses, and have dampened enthusiasm for such transfers, gifts to other family members and to charitable organizations seem to be gaining in popularity.


Cascading Disturbances In Florida Bay, Usa: Cyanobacteria Blooms, Sponge Mortality, And Implications For Juvenile Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, John H. Hunt, William F. Herrnkind, Michael J. Childress, Rodney Bertelsen, William Sharp, Thomas Matthews, Jennifer M. Field, Harold G. Marshall Dec 1995

Cascading Disturbances In Florida Bay, Usa: Cyanobacteria Blooms, Sponge Mortality, And Implications For Juvenile Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, John H. Hunt, William F. Herrnkind, Michael J. Childress, Rodney Bertelsen, William Sharp, Thomas Matthews, Jennifer M. Field, Harold G. Marshall

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Florida Bay, the shallow lagoon separating mainland Florida and the Florida Keys, USA, is experiencing an unprecedented series of ecological disturbances. In 1991, following reports of other ecosystem perturbations, we observed widespread and persistent blooms of cyanobacteria that coincided with the decimation of sponge communities over hundreds of square kilometers. Juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus, among other animals, rely on sponges for shelter; the impact of sponge loss on the abundance of lobsters and their use of shelter, in particular, has been dramatic. The loss of sponges on 27 experimental sites in hard bottom habitat in central Florida Bay ...


Keeping Employees "Positive And Pulling", John Flocchini Dec 1995

Keeping Employees "Positive And Pulling", John Flocchini

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Content:
Personal Introduction
Ranch Description
Ranch History
People
Planning Process
Benefits


The Future Of The Beef Industry – How Can We Stay Competitive?, Jack Maddux Dec 1995

The Future Of The Beef Industry – How Can We Stay Competitive?, Jack Maddux

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The assigned title of this talk -- "The future of the Beef Industry -- How can we stay competitive?" might imply to you that I have some great insight into the future. Anyone who tells you he can foretell the future is blowing smoke. It was Peter Drucker that nailed it when he said, "Forecasting future trends is a futile exercise. The best we can do is extrapolate trends that are already in place into the future." That is the tact I will take.

I’ve had the unique opportunity to have served on both the Industry Concentration and Integration and Long ...


Government Decisions And Policy: Impact On The Cattle Industry, Roy Frederick Dec 1995

Government Decisions And Policy: Impact On The Cattle Industry, Roy Frederick

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Unlike much of the rest of agriculture, almost all public policy that impacts the beef cow industry comes through the back door. You have never asked for price supports, income supplements or production limits like you neighbors who produce wheat, corn, sugar beets or milk. What you have asked for is a chance to compete fairly in the market place.

Some government policies help move toward the objective of good, fair markets for your product. Others don't. It's often a mixed bag, a situation I see being repeated as policymaking winds down for 1995 and we prepare for ...


How Safe Is Our Product – Beef? Do We Have A Story To Tell?, Harlan D. Ritchie Dec 1995

How Safe Is Our Product – Beef? Do We Have A Story To Tell?, Harlan D. Ritchie

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Americans are vitally concerned about the safety of their food supply. Agriculture is likewise concerned about the safety of its products. In fact, the agricultural community agrees that, along with the environment, diet/health, and animal welfare, food safety is a major issue as we approach the 21st century.

Confidence in our food supply was eroded by the alar/apples and cyanide/grapes calamities in February and March of 1989. As the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) survey data in Table 1 illustrate, public confidence in food safety, once shaken, is slow to rebuild.


Our Product, Beef – What Are Consumers Saying?, Mary M. Adolf Dec 1995

Our Product, Beef – What Are Consumers Saying?, Mary M. Adolf

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The beef industry has long recognized the importance of quality and consistency in meeting the demands of customers in the marketplace. The critical nature of these product characteristics was clearly stated in the "War on Fat" report issued by the beef industry’s Value Based Marketing Task Force in 1990. That report expressed the industry’s need to define the most appropriate product mix that would achieve the highest level of consumer satisfaction and thus maximize beef demand.

The need for quality and consistency has resulted in several long range research efforts designed to develop technologies that could be used ...


Cattle Markets And Captive Supplies – Opportunities To Improve True Value Of Cattle, Logan B. Mcclelland Dec 1995

Cattle Markets And Captive Supplies – Opportunities To Improve True Value Of Cattle, Logan B. Mcclelland

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Concentration in the packing industry has resulted in 5 major packers processing over 75 percent of the cattle on feed. During the last cattle cycle, total cattle numbers declined at the same time packers were increasing chain speeds and increasing individual plant volumes. From 1987 through 1992 the cow herd did not expand, therefore, supplies of fed cattle were consumed easily by existing packing facilities. All packers participated in the cash market to some extent, but in order to guarantee sufficient supplies of fed cattle in short supply situations, packers fed their own cattle, actively contracted cattle, and created marketing ...


Futuristic Application Of New Reproductive Technologies, Charles R. Looney Dec 1995

Futuristic Application Of New Reproductive Technologies, Charles R. Looney

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Animal reproduction has enjoyed the most impact and progress of all the animal sciences in the development of new options for cattle producers. With the development of embryo transfer (ET) in the mid-1970's, animal reproduction has entered a new era of technical achievement. During this time a strong embryo transfer industry has enjoyed new advanced techniques of estrous cycle regulation, follicular growth dynamics and improved procedures in embryology. These and other advances in molecular biology will likely lead to changes in the traditional approaches to livestock breeding and further stimulate researcher's interest in areas of genetic engineering.

The ...


Real World Epd Considerations For Seedstock And Commercial Decision-Making, Doug L. Hixon Dec 1995

Real World Epd Considerations For Seedstock And Commercial Decision-Making, Doug L. Hixon

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Working with beef cattle producers over the past 15 plus years, I have become convinced that the genetic component of beef production systems does not receive the time and consideration it should relative to the economic benefit it can provide. Over the past several years we have seen the development of EPDs (Expected Progeny Differences). EPDs are available on various traits of economic importance. They are a tool that can be used to predict an animal’s genetic potential, in a relative sense, and provide the potential for directional change in these traits of economic importance.

Breed associations may differ ...


The Use Of Composite Bulls – Long Term Benefits And Challenges, James A. Gosey Dec 1995

The Use Of Composite Bulls – Long Term Benefits And Challenges, James A. Gosey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Composite bulls won't perform magic or offset poor management but they offer a tool to help solve production/management problems and optimize production for a wide range of environments.

The impact of crossbreeding through heterosis (hybrid vigor) and utilization of breed differences (complementarity) for major traits like reproduction, calf survival, maternal ability, growth, longevity and other fitness traits is powerful. The cumulative effect of crossbreeding can increase calf weight weaned per cow exposed by 20 percent.

Conventional crossbreeding programs fall short in "management ease" because: 1) Rotations tie up several breeding pastures; thus, complicating grazing management, 2) Identification by ...


Management Factors To Improve Health In Newborn Calves, Franklyn B. Garry Dec 1995

Management Factors To Improve Health In Newborn Calves, Franklyn B. Garry

Range Beef Cow Symposium

For most beef cow herds, the single most important means of increasing income is increasing the number of calves weaned and sold relative to the number of cows in the operation, or by definition, increasing reproductive efficiency. While certain production and carcass traits can be most directly influenced by genetic selection, reproductive performance is overwhelmingly influenced by management. Increasing the profitability of a ranch operation therefore relies very heavily on adjusting management practices to improve reproductive efficiency. In order to accomplish this, we first need to know what factors are most influential in reproductive performance. We specifically need to identify ...


New Or Emerging Infectious Diseases In Cattle, Dale M. Grotelueschen Dec 1995

New Or Emerging Infectious Diseases In Cattle, Dale M. Grotelueschen

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Disease is defined as a definite process having a characteristic progression of symptoms that may affect the whole body or any of its parts. Its cause, specific effects, and outcome may or may not be known. Infectious, metabolic, toxic, deficient, genetic and traumatic causes are examples of categories fitting the definition. Infectious processes frequently receive attention due in part to their ability to spread to other animals through various means.

Infectious processes are given "new or emerging" status for various reasons. New or relatively rare entities may become prevalent. Changes in existing infectious disease characteristics have resulted in new clinical ...


Time Of Weaning And Cow Condition, Jack C. Whittier Dec 1995

Time Of Weaning And Cow Condition, Jack C. Whittier

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The primary mission of a beef brood cow is to consistently produce calves. There are numerous management practices designed to assist cows in accomplishing this mission. Young cows frequently require more management attention to be reproductively successful than do older, mature cows.

In recent years attention has been focused on altering time of weaning to manipulate cow body condition as a method of maintaining high reproductive rates while also reducing winter feed requirements. If cows nurse their calves for a longer or shorter period of time than is traditional, a corresponding decrease or increase in body condition may result due ...


Reducing Calving Difficulty By Heifer And Sire Selection And Management, Gene H. Deutscher Dec 1995

Reducing Calving Difficulty By Heifer And Sire Selection And Management, Gene H. Deutscher

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Calf deaths caused by dystocia (calving difficulty) result in a $600 million annual loss to U.S. beef producers (Bellows and Short, 1994). Therefore, methods to reduce dystocia must be investigated, understood, and utilized to decrease the incidence and degree of calving difficulty. A review of early research was presented at the 1989 Range Beef Cow Symposium at Rapid City (Deutscher, 1989) indicating the major cause of dystocia in first calf heifers was a disproportion between the size of calf at birth (birth weight) and the cow's birth canal (pelvic area). A pelvic area/ birth weight ratio developed in ...


Strategic Alliances: Advantages And Challenges...Or What Does It Take To Turn A Marketing Concept Into A Business Practice?, Richard H. Lacey Dec 1995

Strategic Alliances: Advantages And Challenges...Or What Does It Take To Turn A Marketing Concept Into A Business Practice?, Richard H. Lacey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The beef industry has just lost $300 per calf weaned. Industry analysts have rumored that 40% of the beef producers are currently broke and but just don’t know it yet. Bankers tell their clients that they only have two ways to keep out of debt--cut costs, and/or make more money. Simply keeping from spending--doesn’t contribute much to refilling the coffers and satisfying cash flow--therefore cowmen are left with few alternatives. Since we can’t get more for them-- we have to figure a way to get more out of them.

The first strategic alliance study challenged traditions ...


Strategic Alliances: How Can Seed Stock Producers Help?, Roger Dieter Dec 1995

Strategic Alliances: How Can Seed Stock Producers Help?, Roger Dieter

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The reason I have been invited to speak about Strategic Alliances at the Range Beef Cow Symposium is because of our involvement with a couple different Alliances the past two years. As a type of introduction I feel it may be beneficial to provide you with background information about our alliance experiences.

Our first involvement with any type of alliance format was as a participant in the Stragegic Alliance Project that was sponsored by the National Cattlemans Association in 1993. The Stragegic Alliance Project was, in part, a follow up to the National Beef Quality Audit, a project also sponsored ...


What Does The Cattle Buyer Look For In Feeder Cattle?, Robbi H. Pritchard Dec 1995

What Does The Cattle Buyer Look For In Feeder Cattle?, Robbi H. Pritchard

Range Beef Cow Symposium

This subject is steeped with opinion, prejudice and fact in a recipe similar to politics. Some issues are understood, definable and reflected in market prices. We all are aware of body weight, fill, frame, and flesh influences on price and value. Unfortunately, these four factors are inadequate for identifying as much of the profit potential differences between feeder cattle as we would like. As the industry pushes to find sources of profitable cattle, a much broader range of issues is being addressed. The motives and rationales behind these promotions deserve serious scrutiny. We need to distinguish between opinion, prejudice and ...


Understanding Basic Mineral And Vitamin Nutrition, Larry Corah Dec 1995

Understanding Basic Mineral And Vitamin Nutrition, Larry Corah

Range Beef Cow Symposium

In a typical cow-calf operation in the Great Plains, the nutritional focus is on supplying protein and energy to the cows. That focus is appropriate since these two nutrients comprise the major portion of the annual feed cost of maintaining the cow herd. Recent concerns regarding trace mineral deficiencies has resulted in more producers now asking questions about the mineral and vitamin portion of the cow herd nutrition program.

The common sense approach to supplying minerals and vitamins to beef cows should be very similar to the one used in supplying energy and protein to the cows. In other words ...


Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation, Jerry W. Spears Dec 1995

Improving Cattle Health Through Trace Mineral Supplementation, Jerry W. Spears

Range Beef Cow Symposium

A number of trace minerals are required by beef cattle. Feeds consumed by cattle may supply most trace minerals in adequate amounts. However, some minerals may be severely or at least marginally deficient in beef cattle diets. Even marginal mineral deficiencies can reduce growth, reproduction and/or health of cattle showing few if any clinical signs of deficiency. Other trace minerals such as iron and molybdenum may be naturally present in feeds in levels high enough to reduce animal productivity.

Certain trace minerals affect immunity and may affect disease susceptibility in cattle. Selenium, copper, zinc, cobalt and iron have been ...


Improving Re-Breeding Through Protein Supplementation, M. K. Petersen, D. E. Hawkins, I. Tovar, L. A. Appeddu Dec 1995

Improving Re-Breeding Through Protein Supplementation, M. K. Petersen, D. E. Hawkins, I. Tovar, L. A. Appeddu

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Research conducted at Fort Robinson in 1960 and following studies have demonstrated that good body condition supports successful reproduction in both young and older cows. The recommendations from these studies have emphasized the feeding of energy to assist thin cows back into condition. However, in the extensive range conditions of the West, the ranch is intended to supply dietary energy through the range vegetation. When we look at the costs associated with calf production many ranchers have production costs above the national average. Many of these high cost producers have higher than average purchased feed costs. It would be advantageous ...


What Is The Best Energy Supplement For Thin Cows On Low-Quality Roughages?, David W. Sanson Dec 1995

What Is The Best Energy Supplement For Thin Cows On Low-Quality Roughages?, David W. Sanson

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Thin cows on low-quality roughages are the most challenging group of animals to deal with for beef cow producers in the Northern Great Plains. Typically, this situation occurs during the late fall/winter/early spring months, when the additional nutrient requirements for fetal development or lactation are needed. In this region, cows are often exposed to unfavorable weather conditions, which also increases nutrient requirement. Since thin cows have less outside fat, and therefore less insulation, they have to expend more nutrients to maintain body temperature than cows with adequate body condition. When these nutrient requirements are combined with the need ...


The Latest Methods To Determine When To Supplement, Ted Mccollum Iii Dec 1995

The Latest Methods To Determine When To Supplement, Ted Mccollum Iii

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Because feed accounts for a significant portion of operating costs, cattlemen are always interested in getting the most out of the supplemental feed dollar. Two unwanted costs are the costs of overfeeding and the lost opportunities resulting from underfeeding.

Three keys to more efficient supplementation are (1) identifying the most appropriate supplement, (2) determining the proper amount of feed, and (3) identifying the window of opportunity for achieving the desired changes with the minimal feed input. In order to adjust a feeding program, one needs to have an estimate of the nutrient value for the forage being consumed, current cattle ...


Simple Concepts For Long-Term Ranch Success, Patrick E. Reese Dec 1995

Simple Concepts For Long-Term Ranch Success, Patrick E. Reese

Range Beef Cow Symposium

In today’s fast-moving world of information, ranchers frequently suffer from technology overload. There can be enormous temptations to invest excessive amounts of resources on inconsequential activity. Understanding the responsibility of management for long-term success will help ranchers select appropriate technology. Focus on primary objectives will allow ranchers to develop simple and cost effective management strategies. Long-term survival of range livestock enterprises depends on (1) surviving or avoiding environmental extremes, (2) balancing livestock requirements with forage resources, and (3) recovering investments.