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1995

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2119

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Stress Corrosion And Stress Induced Surface Morphology Of Epitaxial Films, Michael Grinfeld Dec 1995

Stress Corrosion And Stress Induced Surface Morphology Of Epitaxial Films, Michael Grinfeld

Scanning Microscopy

In addition to several new predictions, the general theory of thermodynamic stability of heterogeneous systems with rearrangement has allowed us to understand the roots of several experimental and theoretical results of the past. One of them is an outstanding paper of Asaro and Tiller on stress corrosion cracking by surface diffusion published two decades ago. We compare results of Asaro and Tiller with conclusions of thermodynamic theory of solids with rearrangement and develop some Asaro-Tiller results in the directions dictated by the needs of thin films technology and experiment. A surface diffusion model in a prestressed elastic solid is studied ...


Utilization Of An Electron-Beam Tester For Determining Internal Electric Field Profiles In Micro-Structured Thin-Film Semiconductor Devices, A. Jank, M. Jung, M. Lambert, G. Lichter, H. Schmoranzer Dec 1995

Utilization Of An Electron-Beam Tester For Determining Internal Electric Field Profiles In Micro-Structured Thin-Film Semiconductor Devices, A. Jank, M. Jung, M. Lambert, G. Lichter, H. Schmoranzer

Scanning Microscopy

An electron-beam tester was used to determine the depth profile of the internal potential distribution in an a-Si:H solar cell and hence the internal electric field profile. The a-Si:H solar cells were prepared for the measurements with the electron-beam tester by low-energy chemical plasma beam etching through a plasma-resistant mask structured by electron-beam lithography. In contrast to an earlier work, the solar cells were in situ illuminated and the electric field profiles were determined for new, degraded and in situ annealed solar cells at various cell temperatures. The measuring results demonstrate that the electron-beam testing technique in combination ...


Comparative Scanning, Transmission And Atomic Force Microscopy Of The Microtubular Cytoskeleton In Fenestrated Liver Endothelial Cells, Filip Braet, Ronald De Zanger, Wouter Kalle, Anton Raap, Hans Tanke, Eddie Wisse Dec 1995

Comparative Scanning, Transmission And Atomic Force Microscopy Of The Microtubular Cytoskeleton In Fenestrated Liver Endothelial Cells, Filip Braet, Ronald De Zanger, Wouter Kalle, Anton Raap, Hans Tanke, Eddie Wisse

Scanning Microscopy

Endothelial fenestrae control the exchange of fluids, solutes and particles between the sinusoidal lumen and the microvillous surface of the parenchymal cells. Fenestrae have a critical dimension in the order of 150-200 nm, making it necessary to use microscopes with a resolution better than the light microscope. Comparative whole-mount preparations of isolated, purified and cultured rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LEC) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Examination of detergent-extracted LEC by SEM and TEM shows an integral cytoskeleton: sieve plates are delineated by a sieve plate-associated cytoskeleton ring and ...


Characterization Of Hybridization Between Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides And Rna In Living Cells, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Krishan L. Taneja, Robert H. Singer Dec 1995

Characterization Of Hybridization Between Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides And Rna In Living Cells, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Krishan L. Taneja, Robert H. Singer

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Cells internalized synthetic oligonucleotides (oligos) in culture. The hybridization of these molecules to target RNA in the living cell was subsequently detected and characterized after fixation of the cells, with or without previous detergent extraction. Hybridized oligo was distinguished from free oligo in the cell using an in situ reverse transcription technique. This assay exploited the ability of the hybridized oligo to prime synthesis of a specific cDNA strand; unhybridized oligo present in the cell could not act as a primer for reverse transcription. Phosphorothioate and fluorochrome-labeled phosphodiester oligo dT were found to enter cells rapidly and hybridize to poly ...


Characterizing The Outlines Of Degraded Fine-Particles By Fractal Dimension, Andrew Hunt, David L. Johnson Dec 1995

Characterizing The Outlines Of Degraded Fine-Particles By Fractal Dimension, Andrew Hunt, David L. Johnson

Scanning Microscopy

Fractal dimension has been used extensively as a descriptor of the rugged outlines of fine-particles. Potentially, it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the outlines of fine-particles which have been subjected to some form of chemical degradation. Here, fractal dimension values have been computed for the outlines of microscopic lead fine-particles both before and after weak hydrochloric acid dissolution experiments. Values obtained for the post-dissolution rugged profiles were greater than those of the pristine fracture grains which had a Euclidean form. The profiles of the degraded fine-particles could be characterized by a single fractal dimension value, or they exhibited ...


Dynamic Input Demand Functions And Resource Adjustment For U.S. Agriculture: State Evidence, Perry Warjiyo, Wallace E. Huffman Dec 1995

Dynamic Input Demand Functions And Resource Adjustment For U.S. Agriculture: State Evidence, Perry Warjiyo, Wallace E. Huffman

Economic Staff Paper Series

Farmers in the developed countries do not hire their workforce or rent machinery and land afresh each day or week because it is more profitable to have longer term arrangements/contracts. Hiring/training and firing/terminating workers, searching/learning to use and refurbishing/returning machinery, and searching/learning to use and returning land to its original condition are all costs over and above a per-unit time rental rate. These costs insure that farmers* demand for most inputs depend not only on current exogenous factors but also on past use and expectations about future use. These are arguments that agricultural input ...


Recognition And Phagocytosis Of Apoptotic Cells, Luciana Dini, Maria Teresa Ruzittu, Laura Falasca Dec 1995

Recognition And Phagocytosis Of Apoptotic Cells, Luciana Dini, Maria Teresa Ruzittu, Laura Falasca

Scanning Microscopy

Physiological elimination of unwanted cells within the organism occurs via cell death by apoptosis and phagocytosis of these cells represents a key event in the apoptotic process. Macrophages, which are the dedicated phagocytes, and other occasionally phagocytic cells ingest the apoptotic cells while they are still intact, thus preventing the leakage of potentially harmful materials from the dying cells. Although evidence has been presented that the elimination of apoptotic bodies from the tissue operates by means of specific recognition systems, the molecular mechanisms by which an apoptotic cell is recognized are poorly understood. Recent data indicate that phagocyte recognition of ...


Scanning Electron Microscopic Study Of The Postnatal Development Of The Rabbit Cochlea, With An Emphasis On Innervation, Hirofumi Morita, Tomoyuki Hoshino, Kunihiro Mizuta, Satoshi Iwasaki Dec 1995

Scanning Electron Microscopic Study Of The Postnatal Development Of The Rabbit Cochlea, With An Emphasis On Innervation, Hirofumi Morita, Tomoyuki Hoshino, Kunihiro Mizuta, Satoshi Iwasaki

Scanning Microscopy

The development of nerve fiber arrangements of the organ of Corti was studied in rabbits 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12-days-old using thick sections from celloidin-embedded cochleas which were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The arrangements of nerve fibers varied with developmental age. The tunnel spiral bundle was thick and loosely collected in the immature cochlea. The outer spiral fibers were recognized even in the narrow space of Nuel in the one-day-old cochlea. As Nuel's space is extending, the fibers course along the medial side of Deiters' cells. The arrangement of the outer spiral fibers was irregular and ...


"Near-Organic" And "Mainstream" Crop-Livestock Production: South Dakota Case Study, Donald Taylor Dec 1995

"Near-Organic" And "Mainstream" Crop-Livestock Production: South Dakota Case Study, Donald Taylor

Economics Research Reports

In this report, results are presented of a case study on alternative strategies for producing crops and beef cattle in South Dakota. The alternative production strategies are termed "nearorganic" and "mainstream." "Near-organic" producers were defined as farmers/ranchers1 expected to substantially meet standards of private "organic" certification authorities in raising crops and livestock, whereas "mainstream" producers were defined as those who generally follow practices recommended by the S.D. Cooperative Extension Service. Four matching pairs of near-organic and mainstream case study farmers from the following locations were selected for study: Morristown in the Northwest Region, Norris in the South Central ...


Nutritional Value Of Grazed Forages And How It Fits The Cow’S Requirement, Don C. Adams, Richard T. Clark, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Jerry D. Volesky Dec 1995

Nutritional Value Of Grazed Forages And How It Fits The Cow’S Requirement, Don C. Adams, Richard T. Clark, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Jerry D. Volesky

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The concept of matching nutrients available in grazed forages with nutrient requirements of the cow has been reviewed and recommended as a means to most efficiently utilize grazed forages (Valentine 1990, Vavra and Raleigh 1976). We further develop the principles and concepts necessary to improve the match between forage quality and the cow's nutrient needs and discuss potential impacts on management and production cost.


Index To Volume 6, Nos. 13-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 1995

Index To Volume 6, Nos. 13-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr. Dec 1995

Cases, Regulations And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr.

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Gifts Of Commodities To Charities, Neil Harl Dec 1995

Gifts Of Commodities To Charities, Neil Harl

Agricultural Law Digest

For farm and ranch taxpayers, gifts of commodities to charitable organizations or family members have become an attractive way to reduce self-employment tax and, for noncharitable donees, to convert what would otherwise be ordinary income into capital gain. Although two private letter rulings, one issued in 1991 and one in 1992, disapproved the gifts of soybeans to the spouses, and have dampened enthusiasm for such transfers, gifts to other family members and to charitable organizations seem to be gaining in popularity.


Cascading Disturbances In Florida Bay, Usa: Cyanobacteria Blooms, Sponge Mortality, And Implications For Juvenile Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, John H. Hunt, William F. Herrnkind, Michael J. Childress, Rodney Bertelsen, William Sharp, Thomas Matthews, Jennifer M. Field, Harold G. Marshall Dec 1995

Cascading Disturbances In Florida Bay, Usa: Cyanobacteria Blooms, Sponge Mortality, And Implications For Juvenile Spiny Lobsters Panulirus Argus, Mark J. Butler Iv, John H. Hunt, William F. Herrnkind, Michael J. Childress, Rodney Bertelsen, William Sharp, Thomas Matthews, Jennifer M. Field, Harold G. Marshall

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Florida Bay, the shallow lagoon separating mainland Florida and the Florida Keys, USA, is experiencing an unprecedented series of ecological disturbances. In 1991, following reports of other ecosystem perturbations, we observed widespread and persistent blooms of cyanobacteria that coincided with the decimation of sponge communities over hundreds of square kilometers. Juvenile Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus, among other animals, rely on sponges for shelter; the impact of sponge loss on the abundance of lobsters and their use of shelter, in particular, has been dramatic. The loss of sponges on 27 experimental sites in hard bottom habitat in central Florida Bay ...


Meeting Minutes, December 12th, 1995, National Smokejumper Association Executive Committee Dec 1995

Meeting Minutes, December 12th, 1995, National Smokejumper Association Executive Committee

National Smokejumper Association Meeting Minutes

Agenda: The Minutes of the Oct. 10 and Nov. 14; Treasurer's report; membership report; Committee reports:; NSA cleanup day in the Adopt a Highway Program; the future of the NSA; researching the availability of land/ facilities; New Business:; 1. Earl Cooley's offer of office space free of charge, to the NSA; 2. electric typewriter; 3. computer-on-line operations, and its potential usefullness to the NSA; 4. NSA nomination form for review by NSA Executive Committe; meeting adjourned; next meeting is scheduled;


Volume Determination Of Human Metaphase Chromosomes By Scanning Force Microscopy, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Eric Henderson Dec 1995

Volume Determination Of Human Metaphase Chromosomes By Scanning Force Microscopy, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Eric Henderson

Scanning Microscopy

The scanning force microscope (SFM) yields the topography of the investigated surface. A procedure was developed which starts from this three-dimensional information to estimate the volume of a biological specimen. The volume of spread human metaphase chromosomes was determined in air and rehydrated in aqueous buffer. A difference of the determined volume of a air-dried metaphase chromosome set was found compared to values from electron microscopic investigations, and could be correlated with differences in the hydration state of the chromosomes. SFM-based relative volumes of air-dried chromosomes resembles literature data regarding volume range and distribution. Possible application of SFM-based relative volume ...


The Phase Effect In Electronic Stopping: A Survey Of The Contributing Physical Processes, P. Bauer, E. Steinbauer, F. Kastner Dec 1995

The Phase Effect In Electronic Stopping: A Survey Of The Contributing Physical Processes, P. Bauer, E. Steinbauer, F. Kastner

Scanning Microscopy

The phase effect in electronic stopping deals with the question whether the energy loss of an ion due to the interaction with electrons depends on the state of aggregation of the target. It is commonly accepted that charge changing collisions of the projectile and changes in the electronic states of the target contribute to the phase effect In addition, the energy loss measurements might possibly be influenced by different impact parameter selection in the two experiments (solid and gas phase). Quantitative results of our calculations show that generally the impact parameter selection inherently present in a transmission experiment is quenched ...


Evaluation Of The Surface Changes In Enamel And Dentin Due To Possibility Of Thermal Overheating Induced By Erbium:Yag Laser Radiation, Tat̂Jana Dostálová, Helena Jelíková, Otakar Krejsa, Karel Hamal Dec 1995

Evaluation Of The Surface Changes In Enamel And Dentin Due To Possibility Of Thermal Overheating Induced By Erbium:Yag Laser Radiation, Tat̂Jana Dostálová, Helena Jelíková, Otakar Krejsa, Karel Hamal

Scanning Microscopy

This study investigates the thermal danger of Erbium (Er):YAG laser ablation. Classical preparation techniques have many disadvantages caused by unfavorable changes of temperature, pressure, and by mechanical vibrations. The effect of mechanical vibrations and pressure is eliminated by use of laser ablation technique. The purpose of this study was to analyze the side effects resulting from thermal changes of enamel and dentin in extracted human teeth subjected to pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation using both wet and dry ablation methods.

The micrographs of the sections were checked and measured afterwards. The effect of the investigated laser irradiation on the ...


Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus, T-Lymphocyte Mitogenic Responses To Outer Membrane Proteins And Lps Of The Gram Negative Rod Bacterium, Edwardsiella Ictaluri, Barry Revis Hamilton Dec 1995

Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus, T-Lymphocyte Mitogenic Responses To Outer Membrane Proteins And Lps Of The Gram Negative Rod Bacterium, Edwardsiella Ictaluri, Barry Revis Hamilton

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Biology by Barry Revis Hamilton on December 8, 1995.


Keeping Employees "Positive And Pulling", John Flocchini Dec 1995

Keeping Employees "Positive And Pulling", John Flocchini

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Content:
Personal Introduction
Ranch Description
Ranch History
People
Planning Process
Benefits


Spatial Dependence Of Electron-Hole Pair Creation In Ion-Solid And Electron-Solid Interactions, F. J. García De Abajo Dec 1995

Spatial Dependence Of Electron-Hole Pair Creation In Ion-Solid And Electron-Solid Interactions, F. J. García De Abajo

Scanning Microscopy

The problem of electron excitation induced by interaction of charged particles with solids is investigated on theoretical grounds. The excitation probability is calculated both in homogeneous media and at surfaces. The surface wake potential, needed in the latter, is reviewed. The cases of transmission and aloof geometries are considered separately. Surface plasmons are shown to play a crucial role in the latter. An application to coincidence scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) experiments is also discussed. Finally, a spatial representation of the excitation probability is presented.


The Future Of The Beef Industry – How Can We Stay Competitive?, Jack Maddux Dec 1995

The Future Of The Beef Industry – How Can We Stay Competitive?, Jack Maddux

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The assigned title of this talk -- "The future of the Beef Industry -- How can we stay competitive?" might imply to you that I have some great insight into the future. Anyone who tells you he can foretell the future is blowing smoke. It was Peter Drucker that nailed it when he said, "Forecasting future trends is a futile exercise. The best we can do is extrapolate trends that are already in place into the future." That is the tact I will take.

I’ve had the unique opportunity to have served on both the Industry Concentration and Integration and Long ...


How Safe Is Our Product – Beef? Do We Have A Story To Tell?, Harlan D. Ritchie Dec 1995

How Safe Is Our Product – Beef? Do We Have A Story To Tell?, Harlan D. Ritchie

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Americans are vitally concerned about the safety of their food supply. Agriculture is likewise concerned about the safety of its products. In fact, the agricultural community agrees that, along with the environment, diet/health, and animal welfare, food safety is a major issue as we approach the 21st century.

Confidence in our food supply was eroded by the alar/apples and cyanide/grapes calamities in February and March of 1989. As the Food Marketing Institute (FMI) survey data in Table 1 illustrate, public confidence in food safety, once shaken, is slow to rebuild.


Our Product, Beef – What Are Consumers Saying?, Mary M. Adolf Dec 1995

Our Product, Beef – What Are Consumers Saying?, Mary M. Adolf

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The beef industry has long recognized the importance of quality and consistency in meeting the demands of customers in the marketplace. The critical nature of these product characteristics was clearly stated in the "War on Fat" report issued by the beef industry’s Value Based Marketing Task Force in 1990. That report expressed the industry’s need to define the most appropriate product mix that would achieve the highest level of consumer satisfaction and thus maximize beef demand.

The need for quality and consistency has resulted in several long range research efforts designed to develop technologies that could be used ...


Cattle Markets And Captive Supplies – Opportunities To Improve True Value Of Cattle, Logan B. Mcclelland Dec 1995

Cattle Markets And Captive Supplies – Opportunities To Improve True Value Of Cattle, Logan B. Mcclelland

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Concentration in the packing industry has resulted in 5 major packers processing over 75 percent of the cattle on feed. During the last cattle cycle, total cattle numbers declined at the same time packers were increasing chain speeds and increasing individual plant volumes. From 1987 through 1992 the cow herd did not expand, therefore, supplies of fed cattle were consumed easily by existing packing facilities. All packers participated in the cash market to some extent, but in order to guarantee sufficient supplies of fed cattle in short supply situations, packers fed their own cattle, actively contracted cattle, and created marketing ...


Futuristic Application Of New Reproductive Technologies, Charles R. Looney Dec 1995

Futuristic Application Of New Reproductive Technologies, Charles R. Looney

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Animal reproduction has enjoyed the most impact and progress of all the animal sciences in the development of new options for cattle producers. With the development of embryo transfer (ET) in the mid-1970's, animal reproduction has entered a new era of technical achievement. During this time a strong embryo transfer industry has enjoyed new advanced techniques of estrous cycle regulation, follicular growth dynamics and improved procedures in embryology. These and other advances in molecular biology will likely lead to changes in the traditional approaches to livestock breeding and further stimulate researcher's interest in areas of genetic engineering.

The ...


Just How Important Are Carcass Epds?, Ronnie D. Green Dec 1995

Just How Important Are Carcass Epds?, Ronnie D. Green

Range Beef Cow Symposium

The National Beef Quality Audit, conducted by Colorado State, Texas A&M and Texas Tech Universities in 1992, was a "wake-up" call to the beef cattle industry. The results of the audit of the slaughter cattle population, conducted in 28 plants from across the U.S., indicated a total of some $280 in inefficiencies for each fed steer and heifer produced in the beef business. Furthermore, when these inefficiencies were categorized, it became apparent that the majority of these losses occur due to excess fat production with lower consistency in taste than desired. If the industry is to remain a ...


Real World Epd Considerations For Seedstock And Commercial Decision-Making, Doug L. Hixon Dec 1995

Real World Epd Considerations For Seedstock And Commercial Decision-Making, Doug L. Hixon

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Working with beef cattle producers over the past 15 plus years, I have become convinced that the genetic component of beef production systems does not receive the time and consideration it should relative to the economic benefit it can provide. Over the past several years we have seen the development of EPDs (Expected Progeny Differences). EPDs are available on various traits of economic importance. They are a tool that can be used to predict an animal’s genetic potential, in a relative sense, and provide the potential for directional change in these traits of economic importance.

Breed associations may differ ...


The Use Of Composite Bulls – Long Term Benefits And Challenges, James A. Gosey Dec 1995

The Use Of Composite Bulls – Long Term Benefits And Challenges, James A. Gosey

Range Beef Cow Symposium

Composite bulls won't perform magic or offset poor management but they offer a tool to help solve production/management problems and optimize production for a wide range of environments.

The impact of crossbreeding through heterosis (hybrid vigor) and utilization of breed differences (complementarity) for major traits like reproduction, calf survival, maternal ability, growth, longevity and other fitness traits is powerful. The cumulative effect of crossbreeding can increase calf weight weaned per cow exposed by 20 percent.

Conventional crossbreeding programs fall short in "management ease" because: 1) Rotations tie up several breeding pastures; thus, complicating grazing management, 2) Identification by ...


Management Factors To Improve Health In Newborn Calves, Franklyn B. Garry Dec 1995

Management Factors To Improve Health In Newborn Calves, Franklyn B. Garry

Range Beef Cow Symposium

For most beef cow herds, the single most important means of increasing income is increasing the number of calves weaned and sold relative to the number of cows in the operation, or by definition, increasing reproductive efficiency. While certain production and carcass traits can be most directly influenced by genetic selection, reproductive performance is overwhelmingly influenced by management. Increasing the profitability of a ranch operation therefore relies very heavily on adjusting management practices to improve reproductive efficiency. In order to accomplish this, we first need to know what factors are most influential in reproductive performance. We specifically need to identify ...