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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Crowdfunding For Biotechs: How The Sec’S Proposed Rule May Undermine Capital Formation For Startups, Brian J. Farnkoff Dec 2013

Crowdfunding For Biotechs: How The Sec’S Proposed Rule May Undermine Capital Formation For Startups, Brian J. Farnkoff

Journal of Contemporary Health Law & Policy (1985-2015)

No abstract provided.


Role Of Genetic Aspect In Pathogenesis Of Atopic Dermatitis, Martyna Wesserlking Dec 2013

Role Of Genetic Aspect In Pathogenesis Of Atopic Dermatitis, Martyna Wesserlking

Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Biologica et Oecologica

The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very complicated process that involves an intricate array of molecules. Nowadays it is generally accepted that cytokines play an important role in the progression of the clinical presentation of atopic dermatitis. However, emerging data point to the possible involvement of cornified envelope proteins in the development of skin barrier dysfunction and illness. Unfortunately, our knowledge on relation of particular genotype to progression of AD is very limited. Therefore, intensive studies are needed to increase our understanding of genetic background of atopic dermatitis. Hopefully the future research will identify new factors that help ...


Net Primary Productivity Of Subalpine Meadows In Yosemite National Park In Relation To Climate Variability, Peggy E. Moore, Jan W. Van Wagtendonk, Julie L. Yee, Mitchel P. Mcclaran, David N. Cole, Neil K. Mcdougald, Matthew L. Brooks Dec 2013

Net Primary Productivity Of Subalpine Meadows In Yosemite National Park In Relation To Climate Variability, Peggy E. Moore, Jan W. Van Wagtendonk, Julie L. Yee, Mitchel P. Mcclaran, David N. Cole, Neil K. Mcdougald, Matthew L. Brooks

Western North American Naturalist

Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate. Our objective was to describe patterns and variability in aboveground live vascular plant biomass in relation to climatic factors. We harvested aboveground biomass at peak growth from four 64-m2 plots each in xeric, mesic, and hydric meadows annually from 1994 to 2000. Data from nearby weather stations provided independent variables ...


Impact Of Livestock Grazing On Plant And Small Mammal Communities In The Ruby Mountains, Northeastern Nevada, Eric A. Rickart, Klaus G. Bienek, Rebecca J. Rowe Dec 2013

Impact Of Livestock Grazing On Plant And Small Mammal Communities In The Ruby Mountains, Northeastern Nevada, Eric A. Rickart, Klaus G. Bienek, Rebecca J. Rowe

Western North American Naturalist

We assessed the effects of livestock grazing on vegetation and small mammals in semiarid habitat at a site in northeastern Nevada. Habitat within a fenced exclosure that had been protected from grazing for more than 50 years supported more vegetation and had greater plant diversity compared to habitat immediately outside the exclosure. Likewise, species richness and abundance of small mammals were greater in ungrazed areas. Results suggest that grazing regulation in recent decades may account for some of the changes seen in regional plants and small mammals over the past century. The incorporation of long-term exclosures in a comparative framework ...


Long-Distance Movement In A Dusky Great Horned Owl And Limits To Phylogeography For Establishing Provenance, Robert W. Dickerman, Sabrina M. Mcnew, Christopher C. Witt Dec 2013

Long-Distance Movement In A Dusky Great Horned Owl And Limits To Phylogeography For Establishing Provenance, Robert W. Dickerman, Sabrina M. Mcnew, Christopher C. Witt

Western North American Naturalist

The Dusky Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus saturatus) of the Pacific Northwest region of North America is generally considered to be nonmigratory. Here we report a specimen of a Dusky Great Horned Owl that was salvaged in New Mexico and identified based on comparison of its plumage with a large series of museum skins. We attempted to corroborate this identification by comparing mitochondrial DNA sequences between the specimen and a representative sample of 5 Great Horned Owl subspecies from western North America. This analysis revealed minimal mitochondrial genetic variation and no evidence of population genetic structure, suggesting that the marked ...


Influence Of Boulders On Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis Reticulata) Growth And Distribution In The Wasatch Foothills, Alex Argyle, Michael T. Stevens Dec 2013

Influence Of Boulders On Netleaf Hackberry (Celtis Reticulata) Growth And Distribution In The Wasatch Foothills, Alex Argyle, Michael T. Stevens

Western North American Naturalist

In a landscape, abiotic features, such as boulders, influence microhabitats and consequently affect patterns of vegetation. We hypothesized that boulders in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains east of Provo, Utah, affected the growth patterns of netleaf hackberry (Celtis reticulata) by providing shade on their north faces. To test this hypothesis, we set up 3 transects 6 m wide and up to 50 m long. Along these transects, we measured all hackberries taller than 30 cm (n = 249). We recorded whether the hackberries grew within 0.5 m of a boulder that was at least 0.5 m along one ...


New Records Of Marginal Locations For American Pika (Ochotona Princeps) In The Western Great Basin, Constance I. Millar, Robert D. Westfall, Diane L. Delany Dec 2013

New Records Of Marginal Locations For American Pika (Ochotona Princeps) In The Western Great Basin, Constance I. Millar, Robert D. Westfall, Diane L. Delany

Western North American Naturalist

We describe 46 new site records documenting occupancy by American pika (Ochotona princeps) at 21 locations from 8 mountain regions in the western Great Basin, California, and Nevada. These locations comprise a subset of sites selected from regional surveys to represent marginal, isolated, or otherwise atypical pika locations, and to provide information for assessing environmental tolerance limits. Several locations are known from historic observations (Madeline Plain, Bodie Mtns., Wassuk Mtns., Mono Craters) and are included here to update current status. Site elevations range from 1848 m to 3392 m; relative to the broad range of pika sites in the region ...


Front Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4 Dec 2013

Front Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4 Dec 2013

End Matter, Vol. 73 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Rodent-Mediated Interactions Among Seed Species Of Differing Quality In A Shrubstepe Ecosystem, Karen H. Beard, Craig A. Faulhaber, Frank P. Howe, Thomas C. Edwards Jr. Dec 2013

Rodent-Mediated Interactions Among Seed Species Of Differing Quality In A Shrubstepe Ecosystem, Karen H. Beard, Craig A. Faulhaber, Frank P. Howe, Thomas C. Edwards Jr.

Western North American Naturalist

Interactions among seeds, mediated by granivorous rodents, are likely to play a strong role in shrubsteppe ecosystem restoration. Past studies typically consider only pairwise interactions between preferred and less preferred seed species, whereas rangeland seedings are likely to contain more than 2 seed species, potentially leading to complex interactions. We examined how the relative proportion of seeds in a 3-species polyculture changes rodent seed selectivity (i.e., removal) and indirect interactions among seeds. We presented 2 rodent species, Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice) andPerognathus parvus (pocket mice), in arenas with 3-species seed mixtures that varied in the proportion of a ...


Insect Prey Eaten By Hoary Bats (Lasiurus Cinereus) Prior To Fatal Collisions With Wind Turbines, Ernest W. Valdez, Paul M. Cryan Dec 2013

Insect Prey Eaten By Hoary Bats (Lasiurus Cinereus) Prior To Fatal Collisions With Wind Turbines, Ernest W. Valdez, Paul M. Cryan

Western North American Naturalist

Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the ...


Seed-Feeding Beetles (Bruchinae, Curculionidae, Brentidae) From Legumes (Dalea Ornata, Astragalus Filipes) And Other Forbs Needed For Restoring Rangelands Of The Intermountain West, James H. Cane, Clarence Johnson, Jesus Romero Napoles, Douglas A. Johnson, Robert Hammon Dec 2013

Seed-Feeding Beetles (Bruchinae, Curculionidae, Brentidae) From Legumes (Dalea Ornata, Astragalus Filipes) And Other Forbs Needed For Restoring Rangelands Of The Intermountain West, James H. Cane, Clarence Johnson, Jesus Romero Napoles, Douglas A. Johnson, Robert Hammon

Western North American Naturalist

Seed-feeding beetles of the genera Acanthoscelides, Apion, and occasionally Tychiuswere commonly found occurring in seeds from wild populations of Astragalus filipesand Dalea ornata across rangelands of the United States Intermountain West, resulting in many new state, county, and host records. These 2 legumes, as well as other perennial herbaceous species, are being commercially farmed to produce seed supplies to rehabilitate sagebrush-steppe and adjoining juniper woodlands following wildfires. Most of the seeds examined in this study hosted one or more seed-feeding beetles; beetles that pupate and overwinter in the seeds pose the risk of being transported to storage warehouses ...


An Arizona Bark Scorpion (Centruroides Sculpturatus) Found Consuming A Venomous Prey Item Nearly Twice Its Length, Michael M. Webber, Matthew R. Graham Dec 2013

An Arizona Bark Scorpion (Centruroides Sculpturatus) Found Consuming A Venomous Prey Item Nearly Twice Its Length, Michael M. Webber, Matthew R. Graham

Western North American Naturalist

Arizona bark scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing) are commonly found throughout the Sonoran Desert in southwestern North America, and they are well known for being the most venomous scorpion in the United States. Despite their medical significance, C. sculpturatus remains ecologically understudied, and little is known regarding its natural foraging and feeding behaviors. Here, we present the first documented case of C. sculpturatus feeding on the Sonoran Desert centipede (Scolopendra polymorpha Wood) in the wild.


Los Alacranes de Corteza de Arizona (Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing), por lo general, se encuentran en todo el Desierto de Sonora, en el sudoeste de Norteamérica, y ...


Evaluating Survival Of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks In Strawberry Valley, Utah, By Use Of Microtransmitters: Does Handling Time Negatively Influence Survival Rates?, Jared J. Baxter, Jordan P. Hennefer, Rick J. Baxter, Randy T. Larsen, Jerran T. Flinders Dec 2013

Evaluating Survival Of Greater Sage-Grouse Chicks In Strawberry Valley, Utah, By Use Of Microtransmitters: Does Handling Time Negatively Influence Survival Rates?, Jared J. Baxter, Jordan P. Hennefer, Rick J. Baxter, Randy T. Larsen, Jerran T. Flinders

Western North American Naturalist

Research indicates that low nest success and juvenile survival may be factors contributing to Greater Sage-Grouse population declines. Recent technological advances in microtransmitters have allowed researchers to monitor individual chicks and broods. We initiated a chick survival study in 2006 and used microtransmitters to (1) examine the viability of using microtransmitters on chicks to assess survival, including the effect of handling time during the suturing process; (2) estimate overall chick survival; and (3) compare chick survival in the Strawberry Valley population to other published reports. We used a known-fate model in program MARK to estimate ĉ (overdispersion), weekly survival rates ...


Seasonal Habitat Selection By Elk In North Central Utah, Jeffrey L. Beck, Kurt T. Smith, Jerran T. Flinders, Craig L. Clyde Dec 2013

Seasonal Habitat Selection By Elk In North Central Utah, Jeffrey L. Beck, Kurt T. Smith, Jerran T. Flinders, Craig L. Clyde

Western North American Naturalist

Understanding anthropogenic and environmental factors that influence seasonal habitat selection is critical in establishing conservation objectives for wildlife populations. However, many resource selection studies provide inferences only for single seasons, potentially masking factors essential to populations during other times of the year. Our objective was to model elk (Cervus elaphus) habitat selection for 4 seasons to identify factors influencing selection within and across seasons. Using aerial relocation data, we evaluated seasonal habitat selection for 46 radio-marked, migratory adult female elk in a 6123-km2 landscape in north central Utah, USA, from 1993 to 1997. We evaluated habitat use and availability ...


Impacts From Winter–Early Spring Elk Grazing In Foothills Rough Fescue Grassland, Tanya M. Thrift, Tracy K. Mosley, Jeffrey C. Mosley Dec 2013

Impacts From Winter–Early Spring Elk Grazing In Foothills Rough Fescue Grassland, Tanya M. Thrift, Tracy K. Mosley, Jeffrey C. Mosley

Western North American Naturalist

Foothills rough fescue (Festuca campestris) grasslands provide important foraging habitat for wildlife and livestock in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. Foothills rough fescue is sensitive to grazing during late spring–early summer but is believed to be more tolerant of grazing during winter–early spring. We evaluated vegetation and soil impacts from long-term winter–early spring grazing at 2 intensities (HG = heavy grazing, LG = light grazing). We studied a foothills rough fescue grassland in west central Montana, USA, that had been grazed almost exclusively by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) during winter–early spring for 58 years ...


Outstanding Natural History Paper Of 2012 Dec 2013

Outstanding Natural History Paper Of 2012

Western North American Naturalist

The winning paper is "Site-occupancy monitoring of an ecosystem indicator: linking characteristics of riparian vegetation to beaver occurrence" by Stewart W. Breck, Michael I. Goldstein, and Sanjay Pyare (WNAN 72:432–441).


Helminths Of The Speckled Rattlesnake, Crotalus Mitchellii (Squamata: Viperidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Xavier Glaudas Dec 2013

Helminths Of The Speckled Rattlesnake, Crotalus Mitchellii (Squamata: Viperidae), Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Xavier Glaudas

Western North American Naturalist

Fifty-six speckled rattlesnakes, Crotalus mitchellii, from western North America were examined for helminths. One species of Cestoda (tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp.) and 5 species of Nematoda (gravid adults of Abbreviata terrapenis, Physaloptera abjecta, Thubunaea cnemidophorus, and Travassoascaris araujoi and larvae ofPhysocephalus sp.) were found. Travassoascaris araujoi had the highest prevalence and greatest mean intensity of helminths infecting C. mitchellii. Three new host records forC. mitchellii are reported. As has been reported for other North American rattlesnakes,C. mitchellii is parasitized by “generalist” helminths.


Cincuenta y seis Viboras de Cascabel (Cascabeles Pintítas, Crotalus mitchellii) del oeste de América del ...


Table Of Contents, Michele Harmon Dec 2013

Table Of Contents, Michele Harmon

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity, Ph, Temperature, And Dissolved Oxygen On Sensitivity Of Pcr Identification Of T4 Bacteriophage, Joesph F. Cannon, Nicholas A. Thurn, Paul E. Richardson

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Bacteriophages are used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria in drinking, and wastewaters. They also show potential in limiting aquatic bacterial populations through their lytic properties. The effect of different water characteristics (salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles were analyzed to determine at what levels bacteriophage can be detected in environmental samples. Results from this preliminary study indicate that a PCR bacteriophage detection technique has potential as a relatively efficient and economical indicator of coliform contamination in multiple aquatic environments. While further evaluation is needed, the protocol appears to function in ...


Exploring The Mechanisms Of Allelopathic Interaction In The Invasive Annual Plant, Phyllanthus Urinaria, Alyssa L. Smith, Andrew R. Dyer Dec 2013

Exploring The Mechanisms Of Allelopathic Interaction In The Invasive Annual Plant, Phyllanthus Urinaria, Alyssa L. Smith, Andrew R. Dyer

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

The belowground mechanisms facilitating invasion and proliferation of non-native plant species into natural communities are of critical importance for understanding plant invasions. Research on allelopathy suggests that some exotic plant species produce compounds via root exudates that may suppress or inhibit the growth of neighboring plants, but the specific mechanisms and consequences of these plant-chemical interactions remain elusive. In an effort to understand the abiotic and biotic factors governing allelopathic activity, a two-part greenhouse experiment was designed to examine plant-soil interactions of the invasive euphorb, Phyllanthus urinaria, and the residual soil effects of these interactions on subsequent growth of a ...


Dose Dependent Effects Of Caffeine On Cognitive Performance And Neuronal Activation, Stephan Albrecht, Helen Morris, Michelle Vieyra Dec 2013

Dose Dependent Effects Of Caffeine On Cognitive Performance And Neuronal Activation, Stephan Albrecht, Helen Morris, Michelle Vieyra

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Many students assume that the more caffeine you drink, the better your cognitive performance. Over-consumption of caffeine has many negative effects, so if there are no dose related cognitive benefits to large amounts of caffeine, then college students should limit their intake. This study looked at whether ingesting a medium dose (200 mg) versus a lower dose (100 mg) of caffeine improved short term memory as measured by Flanker and n-back tests, compared to a control group. In addition, we looked at whether larger doses of caffeine produced a difference in neuronal activation during these tests as measured by functional ...


Fourier Analysis Of Phase Resetting Curves Of Neural Oscillators, Robert A. Raidt, Sorinel A. Oprisan Dec 2013

Fourier Analysis Of Phase Resetting Curves Of Neural Oscillators, Robert A. Raidt, Sorinel A. Oprisan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

We investigated the impact of changes in biologically relevant control parameters, such as the shape of an external perturbation or the conductance values of an individual model neuron, on the shape of the phase resetting curve (PRC) of that neuron. For that purpose, PRCs were generated for groups of Morris-Lecar (ML) model neurons with different conductance values but similar firing periods (within 0.005ms) using external rectangular, triangular, or trapezoidal perturbations of varying areas. These PRCs were numerically described and analyzed as a series of coefficient values using a Fourier Discrete Sine Transform (DST). We found that changes in the ...


A Review Of “An Ethical Market In Human Organs,” By Charles A. Erin And John Harris, And A Proposed Solution To The Current Organ Shortage, Rachel Rattenni Fcrh '14 Dec 2013

A Review Of “An Ethical Market In Human Organs,” By Charles A. Erin And John Harris, And A Proposed Solution To The Current Organ Shortage, Rachel Rattenni Fcrh '14

The Fordham Undergraduate Research Journal

In 2005, an Israeli man named Nick Rosen answered an ad in his local Tel Aviv newspaper searching for someone interested in selling a kidney. Through funding from the broker who placed the ad, Rosen was flown to New York and set up with a dialysis patient from Brooklyn. After Rosen and the dialysis patient passed a simple procedure for the screening of illegal organ sales by saying the two were old friends, the successful transplant surgery was performed at the esteemed Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. The Brooklyn resident walked away never again needing to go on ...


Diversity Of Cultivable Bacteria Involved In The Formation Of Macroscopic Microbial Colonies (Cave Silver) On The Walls Of A Cave In Slovenia, Blagajana Herzog Velikonja, Rok Tkavc, Lejla Pašić Dec 2013

Diversity Of Cultivable Bacteria Involved In The Formation Of Macroscopic Microbial Colonies (Cave Silver) On The Walls Of A Cave In Slovenia, Blagajana Herzog Velikonja, Rok Tkavc, Lejla Pašić

International Journal of Speleology

Karstic caves often support white, yellow, grey or pink microbial colonies that are termed ‘cave silver’ by speleologists. Using various sample pre-treatments and culture media, a wide variety of bacteria associated with these colonies were recovered from a cave in Slovenia, Pajsarjeva jama. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in viable counts, while pre-treatments had the opposite effect with the exception of microwave irradiation. While all growth media yielded viable counts, the maximal counts were observed on a low-nutrient TWA medium.

Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of OTU representatives, the majority of the 80 isolates examined ...


Community Capital And Local Economic Development Efforts, Andrew A. Zekeri Dec 2013

Community Capital And Local Economic Development Efforts, Andrew A. Zekeri

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Actions by local groups and leaders constitute an essential but poorly understood element of many rural economic development efforts. Previous studies suggest that local development efforts can influence community changes, but questions remain about why localities differ in economic development efforts. Drawing upon community capital framework and human ecological theory, the purpose of this research was to examine the effects of community capital on economic development efforts in rural communities. Hierarchical regression results indicate that social capital, cultural capital, built capital significantly predict economic development effort to develop recreation and tourism and human services. Despite that, only built capital and ...


The Impact Of Selected Socioeconomic Factors On Asset Building In Rural Communities, Nii O. Tackie, Judith N. Aboagye, Gwendolyn J. Johnson, Millicent Braxton, Latanya Hunt-Haralson, Gertrude D. Wall Dec 2013

The Impact Of Selected Socioeconomic Factors On Asset Building In Rural Communities, Nii O. Tackie, Judith N. Aboagye, Gwendolyn J. Johnson, Millicent Braxton, Latanya Hunt-Haralson, Gertrude D. Wall

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

The study examined the impact of selected socioeconomic factors on asset building. Using a questionnaire, data were obtained from a convenience sample of 204 participants from several Alabama Black Belt Counties, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and logit analysis. The results showed that a majority (64%) was willing to participate in an asset building program. Of this, an overwhelming majority (at most 70%) wanted to set up a small business; further their education, or purchase a home. In addition, one socioeconomic factor, age, had a statistically significant (p = 0.016) effect on willingness to participate in an asset building program ...


Table Of Contents Dec 2013

Table Of Contents

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

No abstract provided.


Preface Dec 2013

Preface

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

No abstract provided.


Socially Disadvantaged Farmer Issues Can Be Addressed When Diverse Frontline Agricultural Workers Proactively Work Together, Walter A. Hill, Jillian Hishaw, Tasha M. Hargrove Dec 2013

Socially Disadvantaged Farmer Issues Can Be Addressed When Diverse Frontline Agricultural Workers Proactively Work Together, Walter A. Hill, Jillian Hishaw, Tasha M. Hargrove

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

This paper focuses on socially disadvantaged farmers (SDFs) and civil rights issues as it relates to the USDA. It also deals with Diversity Initiatives in the 2008 Farm Bill, and discusses an assessment by Jackson Lewis LLC of the USDA’s efforts to deal with the diversity initiatives. Redacted USDA case studies examined at the 2010 Professional Agricultural Workers Conference at Tuskegee University are presented. The findings revealed that at that time the 2008 Farm Bill Initiatives were not effectively being implemented. It was recommended that the USDA should: keep making the effort to reform or improve its civil rights ...