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Journal

1997

Dairy Science

Keyword

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Atp Bioluminescence Can Evaluate Cleaning And Sanitizing Effectiveness In The Milking Parlor, M. J. Meyer, Karen A. Schmidt Jan 1997

Atp Bioluminescence Can Evaluate Cleaning And Sanitizing Effectiveness In The Milking Parlor, M. J. Meyer, Karen A. Schmidt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Four areas of the milking parlor were evaluated for effective cleaning and sanitation using total aerobic counts (standard plate count) and ATP bioluminescence (ATPB) techniques. Whereas the plate counts only monitor bacterial numbers, the ATPB results (reported as relative light units, RLU) also indicate residual soil or food residue on the surface. Results showed little correlation between the RLU values and the aerobic plate count data; however, the ATP bioluminescence system is a fast (<2 min) and simple method that evaluates the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation procedures employed.; Dairy Day, 1997, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1997;


Biosecurity In The Dairy, Gerald L. Stokka, Thomas R. Falkner, Patrick Bierman Jan 1997

Biosecurity In The Dairy, Gerald L. Stokka, Thomas R. Falkner, Patrick Bierman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three strategies exist to control unwanted disease in a livestock operation: 1) prevent the douintroduction of infected cattle, 2) raise the overall level of resistance and specific resistance to infectious disease, and 3) minimize herd exposure to infectious disease. In addition, if unwanted disease exists in the herd, then a plan to eliminate the disease should be implemented. Maintenance of closed herds, testing procedures, vaccination schedules, sanitation, and good husbandry practices are integral parts of biosecurity procedures. The procedures in place should produce a benefit in terms of both economics and public perception that the quality and safety of our ...


Managing The Nutrition Program For Cow Comfort, James R. Dunham Jan 1997

Managing The Nutrition Program For Cow Comfort, James R. Dunham

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Comfortable cows are contented cows. However, cows may be comfortable in their environment but also experience some discomfort because of the nutrition program. A good nutritional management program will improve desircow comfort by providing: 1) the proper balance of nutrients for efficient production; 2) buffers for high energy rations to prevent acidosis and consore feet; 3) rations in which grain cannot be consumed too rapidly; 4) rations with proper amounts of nonfiber carbohydrate; 5) highest quality forages during hot weather; 6) additional moisture in total mixed rations during hot weather; 7) a readily available water source; and 8) a bunk ...


Expeller Soybean Meal As A Source Of Rumen Undegradable Protein For Lactating Dairy Cows, John E. Shirley, D. Piehl, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Michael V. Scheffel Jan 1997

Expeller Soybean Meal As A Source Of Rumen Undegradable Protein For Lactating Dairy Cows, John E. Shirley, D. Piehl, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Michael V. Scheffel

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The loss of meat and bone meal as a source of high quality protein for lactating cows creates an increased need for nonanimal sources. Fifty six Holstein cows were used to evaluate expeller soybean meal as a source of rumen undegradable intake (by-pass) protein for high producing cows. Expeller soybean meal tended to improve 3.5% contain fat-corrected milk yield and increased milk fat percentage relative to diets containing either solvent soybean meal or a meat and bone meal:blood meal mixture. In contrast, the protein percentage in milk was depressed significantly when cows were fed expeller soybean meal compared ...


Explaining Differences In Efficiency Among Dairy Operations, P. T. Berends, Michael R. Langemeier, Allen M. Featherstone Jan 1997

Explaining Differences In Efficiency Among Dairy Operations, P. T. Berends, Michael R. Langemeier, Allen M. Featherstone

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

To remain competitive, dairy operatoins need to continue to improve production efficiency and manage costs. Kansas Farm Management Association data from 1991 to 1995 were used to measure technical, economic, and overall efficiencies for 50 dairy operations in Kansas. On average, the farms showed .87 technical, .71 economic, and .67 overall efficiency. The latter was related negatively to labor, capital, feed, and fuel and utility expenses per cow. Veterinarian expenses were related positively to overall efficiency. Overall efficiency was the most sensitive to changes in feed expenses per cow, emphasizing the importance of controlling this cost. Results also indicated that ...


The Effects Of Rbst (Posilac®) On Heat Stressed, Lactating, Dairy Cows, John F. Smith, John E. Shirley, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 1997

The Effects Of Rbst (Posilac®) On Heat Stressed, Lactating, Dairy Cows, John F. Smith, John E. Shirley, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two hundred cows located on a commercial dairy in Mesquite, NM were used to evaluate response to rbST (POSILAC®) during heat stress in the summer of 1996. Cows were paired by days in milk (average = 153 d at initiation of experiment), parity, and milk yield (average = 92 lb at start of experiment). Prior to initiation of the experiment, all cows received rbST, then rbST treatment was discontinued for one cow from each pair. Milk production was monitored for 4 months. No interactions were detected between lactation number and treatment. Cows maintained on rbST gained .09 of a score (1 to ...


Planning A Dairy Expansion, John F. Smith Jan 1997

Planning A Dairy Expansion, John F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dairy farm size is increasing in all regions of the United States. In two of the largest dairy states, California and Wisconsin, mean herd sizes have increased 950% and 250%, respectively, since 1950. Dairy herds of 500 cows are common in all areas of the United States, and herds over 1,500 cows are common in the West producand Southeast. Many dairy operations are considering expansion of existing facilities or construction of new facilities to increase efficiencyor profitability. Before adding cows or facilities, dairy producers may want to answer the following questions: 1) How can I improve the efficiency of ...


Flushing Manure Systems For Dairy Facilities, Joseph P. Harner, James P. Murphy Jan 1997

Flushing Manure Systems For Dairy Facilities, Joseph P. Harner, James P. Murphy

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Flushing systems that collect and transport manure are utilized in dairy operations. The sanitation attainable and reduced labor requirements can make flushing a desirable option. Designed flush systems utilize a flush device to effirelease the correct volume of water at the appropriate discharge rate and length of time. This achieves the designed flow velocity, contact Tatime, and depth of water in the gutter to obtain miniadequate cleaning.; Dairy Day, 1997, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 1997;


Development And Use Of Recombinant Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Vaccines To Sterilize Cattle: A Review, J. Greer, Timothy G. Rozell Jan 1997

Development And Use Of Recombinant Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Vaccines To Sterilize Cattle: A Review, J. Greer, Timothy G. Rozell

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A possible alternative to conventional castration methods is the use of vaccines that can be injected in order to sterilize animals. One promising approach involves the use of a vaccine that causes cattle to produce an immune response against one of their own reproductive hormones, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Immunization against GnRH results in a decrease in the amount of GnRH circulating within the animal's blood. Therefore, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are not stimulated to be released, and, subsequently their levels required for reproductive function. Experimentation has shown that immunization against GnRH can effectively block ...


Various Estrus-Synchronization Programs For Heifers, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 1997

Various Estrus-Synchronization Programs For Heifers, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Various programs of estrus synchronization have been tested during the last 6 years to determine the least costly and most efficacious for dairy heifer replacements. Four systems were tested: 1) a modified Ovsynch treatment (GnRH 7 days before PGF2 α followed by GnRH either at 24, 30, 33, 40, or 48 hr, with one fixed-time insemination 16 to 20 hr later); 2) a similar protocol that used GnRH 7 days before PGF 2α followed by insemination at estrus (GnRH + PGF 2α); 3) inseminations after one or two injections of PGF 2α given 14 days apart (PGF2α; heifers not detected in ...


Synchronization Of Estrus And Ovulation In Dairy Heifers Using Norgestomet, Gnrh, And Pgf2Α, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, K. E. Thompson, John F. Smith, D. E. Hawkins Jan 1997

Synchronization Of Estrus And Ovulation In Dairy Heifers Using Norgestomet, Gnrh, And Pgf2Α, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, K. E. Thompson, John F. Smith, D. E. Hawkins

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two experiments were performed using the same treatments. All heifers received two injections of PGF2α 14 days apart. Controls then were inseminated after detected estrus. Heifers assigned to the two treatments also received 6 mg of norgestomet for 8 days beginning 7 days before the second of two PGF2α injections. The heifers in the last treatment also received GnRH 48 hr after the second PGF2α injection to induce ovulation in any heifer not observed in estrus before a fixed-time insemination at 72 hr after PGF2α. In Experiment 1, any control heifer or herifer in the two treatments not detected in ...


Conception And Pregnancy Rates In Dairy Cows After Various Programmed Breeding Systems, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, K. E. Thompson, Y. Kobayashi Jan 1997

Conception And Pregnancy Rates In Dairy Cows After Various Programmed Breeding Systems, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, K. E. Thompson, Y. Kobayashi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two experiments were conducted to measure conception and pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows after various treatments followed by artificial insemination (AI) after detected estrus or at one fixed time. In Experiment 1, Holstein cows in one herd were assigned randomly to four treatments every 3 wk (27, 3-wk cluster groups): 1)Ovsynch33, 2) GnRH+PGF2α, 3) 2xPGF2α, and 4) 2xPGF2α+GnRH. In Experiment 2, Holstein cows in one herd were assigned randomly to two treatments every 3 wk (14, 3-wk cluster groups): 1) Ovsynch48 and 2) GnRH+PGF2α. In both experiments, frozen-thawed semen from multiple sires was used, one ...


Freestall Design And Management For Cow Comfort, John F. Smith, G. A. Jones, Joseph P. Harner Jan 1997

Freestall Design And Management For Cow Comfort, John F. Smith, G. A. Jones, Joseph P. Harner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The design and management of freestall 4) air or vision. facilities are critical in maintaining cow comfort and high milk production. Dairy produc- Lunge Space ers should be conscious of the factors affecting cow comfort in freestall facilities. These The first reason a freestall may fail is lack factors include: ventilation, water availability, of lunge space. A cow needs forward or side feed availability, stall design, and stall bed- lunge space to maneuver in and out of the stall ding. Dairy producers should strive to have easily. There should be no obstructions in lactating cows standing to be milked; standing ...