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Effects Of Milk, Pasteurized Milk, And Milk Replacer On Health And Productivity Of Dairy Calves, Lindsey E. Hulbert, Sophia A. Trombetta, Jere A. Noel, Sonia J. Moisa Jan 2014

Effects Of Milk, Pasteurized Milk, And Milk Replacer On Health And Productivity Of Dairy Calves, Lindsey E. Hulbert, Sophia A. Trombetta, Jere A. Noel, Sonia J. Moisa

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Our objectives were to determine the health and blood parameters before, during, and after weaning of 114 Holstein heifers fed either accelerated milk replacer (MR; 28% CP, 18% fat) or non-saleable milk (3.59 ± 0.28% true protein; 4.12 ± 0.37% fat) that was either pasteurized (PM) or raw (RM; refrigerated and fed <24 h after collection). Calves were randomly assigned to feeding treatments at birth. Colostrum (1 L) was fed less than 14 hours after birth (MR and PM = pasteurized colostrum; RM = raw colostrum). All calves were bottle-fed 1.8 ± 0.20 L, 3 times daily; all calves were provided fresh water and grain ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves began step-down weaning at age 5 weeks and completed weaning at age 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected at ages 3, 5, and 7 weeks and were analyzed for complete blood counts (CBC) using a Procyte Idexx Analyzer (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME). Fecal scores were observed twice daily, on a 1 to 3 scale (FS1 = normal, FS2 = loose, FS3 = scours). Results showed that MR-fed calves had more (P < 0.01) observations (%obs) with FS > 2 than the PM- and RM-fed calves (2.3 vs. 1.6 and 1.7 ± 0.2 %obs, respectively). In addition, there were no differences in body weight or shoulder or hip height between treatments, but a treatment x week interaction (P = 0.05) occurred for ...


Yeast Product Supplementation Influences Feeding Behavior And Measures Of Immune Function In Transition Dairy Cows, Kai Yuan, Mary Beth Muckey, Luis Mendonca, Lindsey E. Hulbert Jan 2014

Yeast Product Supplementation Influences Feeding Behavior And Measures Of Immune Function In Transition Dairy Cows, Kai Yuan, Mary Beth Muckey, Luis Mendonca, Lindsey E. Hulbert

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Yeast supplementation has been shown to increase feed intake and production in some studies with early lactation dairy cows, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production, feeding behavior, and immune function in cows during the transition to lactation. When fed for 3 weeks before calving through 6 weeks after calving, supplementation altered feeding behavior as well as responsiveness to vaccination and gut immunoglobulin secretion. Results suggest that yeast products can modulate several aspects of immune function and promote ...


Milking Time During Periods Of Heat Stress: Part Of The Solution Or Part Of The Problem?, L. Rocha, Lindsey E. Hulbert, Filippe Scortegagna, Benjamin Voelz, L. Mendonca Jan 2014

Milking Time During Periods Of Heat Stress: Part Of The Solution Or Part Of The Problem?, L. Rocha, Lindsey E. Hulbert, Filippe Scortegagna, Benjamin Voelz, L. Mendonca

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Milking time may be a stressful event for lactating dairy cows during summer. Increases in body temperatures because of crowding in the milk parlor holding pen may contribute to increased heat stress. The objective of this extension project was to evaluate the effectiveness of heat stress abatement in milking facilities from two Kansas commercial dairies. Vaginal temperatures at milking were lower than vaginal temperatures before milking in one of the dairies. The lower vaginal temperatures at milking, however, were not observed in the other dairy at all milkings, likely because of differences in efficacy of heat abatement strategies. Milking facilities ...


Luteolysis And Pregnancy Outcomes After Change In Dose Delivery Of Prostaglandin F2Α In A 5-Day Timed Artificial Insemination Program In Dairy Cows, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, Scott L. Hill Jan 2014

Luteolysis And Pregnancy Outcomes After Change In Dose Delivery Of Prostaglandin F2Α In A 5-Day Timed Artificial Insemination Program In Dairy Cows, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, Scott L. Hill

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three experiments were conducted to determine if a larger dose of prostaglandin F2α (PG) administered on day 6 of a 5-day Ovsynch timed artificial insemination (AI) program would induce regression of the corpus luteum to facilitate AI and pregnancy outcomes similar to a traditional 5-day program with two doses of PG. When applying a 5-day program, cows that ovulate in response to the first GnRH injection have a new corpus luteum (CL) that is 2 days younger when PG is administered in a 5- versus 7-day program. To regress successfully the younger CL, a second injection of PG must be ...


Preliminary Studies On In Situ Monitoring Of Lactose Crystallization Using Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement, Karthik Pandalaneni, Jayendra K. Amamcharla Jan 2014

Preliminary Studies On In Situ Monitoring Of Lactose Crystallization Using Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement, Karthik Pandalaneni, Jayendra K. Amamcharla

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Isothermal crystallization of lactose was studied at supersaturated concentrations (w/w) of 50%, 55%, and 60% at temperatures 20ºC and 30ºC using an in situ system, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), and a refractometer. The FBRM data were compared with Brix readings taken over time using a refractometer during isothermal crystallization. Chord length distribution obtained from FBRM in the ranges of <50 μm (fine crystals) and 50 to 300 μm (coarse crystals) were observed and evaluated in relation to the extent of crystallization and rate constant results deduced from the refractometer measurements. The measured fine crystal counts increased with supersaturated concentration and temperature during isothermal crystallization. On the other hand, coarse counts were observed to increase with decreasing supersaturated concentration and temperature. The total crystal counts (coarse + fine crystals) obtained from FBRM increased as the temperature increased at all concentrations. The robustness of FBRM in understanding isothermal lactose crystallization at various concentrations and temperatures was successfully evaluated in the study.; Dairy Day, 2014, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2014; Dairy Research, 2014 is known as Dairy Day, 2014


Effects Of Postpartum Treatment With Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Milk Production And Culling Risk In Dairy Cattle, Abigail J. Carpenter, Caroline M. Ylioja, Claudio F. Vargas, Laman K. Mamedova, L. Mendonca, Johann F. Coetzee, L. Hollis, R. Gehring, B. Bradford Jan 2014

Effects Of Postpartum Treatment With Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs On Milk Production And Culling Risk In Dairy Cattle, Abigail J. Carpenter, Caroline M. Ylioja, Claudio F. Vargas, Laman K. Mamedova, L. Mendonca, Johann F. Coetzee, L. Hollis, R. Gehring, B. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Inflammation during early lactation is common in dairy cattle, and a high degree of inflammation during this time has recently been associated with both lower productivity and greater risk of disease during that lactation. Early lactation treatments with two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were compared with a placebo treatment to evaluate effects on whole-lactation productivity and retention in the herd. Both meloxicam and sodium salicylate increased whole-lactation milk and milk protein yields by 6 to 9%, despite being administered for only 1 or 3 days in early lactation, respectively. In addition, meloxicam treatment tended to decrease the risk of cows leaving ...


Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone And Ovulatory Responses In Dairy Cows Before Timed Artificial Insemination, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, D. H. Keisler, Scott L. Hill, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2013

Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone And Ovulatory Responses In Dairy Cows Before Timed Artificial Insemination, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, D. H. Keisler, Scott L. Hill, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of spontaneous and gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH)-induced surges of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulatory responses in lactating dairy cows enrolled in a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. Cows (n = 70) in a single herd were assigned to one of two presynchronization protocols: Pre- 10 or PG-3-G. Cows assigned to the Pre-10 treatment received 2 injections of prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) 14 days apart (Presynch), with the second injection administered 10 days before the onset of a TAI protocol. Cows assigned to the PG-3-G treatment received an injection of prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α ...


Automated Activity Monitoring Of Estrus And Time Of Ovulation, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2013

Automated Activity Monitoring Of Estrus And Time Of Ovulation, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Detection of estrus can be facilitated by use of automated activity monitors that measure physical activity. Increased physical activity is largely correlated with estrus. Our objective was to determine when ovulation occurs relative to increased physical activity so we could recommend optimal timing of insemination to maximize conception rates in lactating dairy cows. Cows (n = 65) were fitted with pressure-sensitive rump-mounted transmitters (HeatWatch; HW) that are activated by a mounting herdmate to indicate standing estrus. The same cows also were fitted with neck-mounted activity monitors (Select Detect; SD). Additional cows (n = 68) were fitted with only the activity monitor. Beginning ...


Consumer Acceptance Of Cysteine-Enhanced Yogurt, Soumya Bala, Karen A. Schmidt Jan 2013

Consumer Acceptance Of Cysteine-Enhanced Yogurt, Soumya Bala, Karen A. Schmidt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Within cells, cysteine can be synthesized from methionine by the enzyme γ-cystathionase. Cysteine is then utilized to synthesize glutathione, which has many functions in cells that contribute to good health. Certain subpopulations, however, especially the elderly, have decreased γ-cystathionase activity. Thus, dietary cysteine may be beneficial in maintaining health. In previous reports, a yogurt with enhanced cysteine content was made by incorporating whey protein isolate (WPI) into the mix's dairy base combined with a process treatment to minimize cysteine denaturation. The gel quality of this yogurt matched or exceeded that of a yogurt that was formulated and processed to ...


Five-Day Resynch Programs In Dairy Cows Including Controlled Internal Drug Release At Two Stages Post-Artificial Insemination, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, Scott L. Hill, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2013

Five-Day Resynch Programs In Dairy Cows Including Controlled Internal Drug Release At Two Stages Post-Artificial Insemination, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, Scott L. Hill, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Two experiments were conducted to assess pregnancy outcomes after a 5-day Ovsynch-56 Resynch (RES; gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection 5 days before [GnRH-1; d 0] and 56 hours (GnRH-2) after PGF2α[PG] injections on day 5 and 6, timed artificial insemination [TAI] on day 8) with and without a progesterone-releasing intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR) 5-day insert. In Exp. 1, nonpregnant cows were enrolled on day 34 post- AI: day 34 RES-CON (n = 528) or day 34 RES-CIDR (n = 503). Blood was collected for progesterone assay. Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was diagnosed by uterine palpation per rectum at 34 and ...


Effects Of Chromium Propionate And Supplemental Amino Acids On Dairy Cattle Performance Near Peak Lactation, Francisco J. Vargas, Kai Yuan, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Laman Mamedova Jan 2013

Effects Of Chromium Propionate And Supplemental Amino Acids On Dairy Cattle Performance Near Peak Lactation, Francisco J. Vargas, Kai Yuan, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Laman Mamedova

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feeding chromium in early lactation can increase milk production, but responses during peak lactation have not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate responses to chromium propionate during this period as well as interactions with rumen-protected lysine and methionine. Chromium propionate increased feed intake and tended to increase energy-corrected milk yield, and primiparous cows showed greater responses in feed intake and milk protein yield than multiparous cows. In this study, feeding chromium propionate near peak lactation increased feed intake and tended to increase productivity, but no benefits of supplementing rumen-protected lysine and methionine were observed.; Dairy Day ...


Hot Topic: New Research Highlights The Need For Holistic Thinking About Transition Cows, Barry J. Bradford Jan 2012

Hot Topic: New Research Highlights The Need For Holistic Thinking About Transition Cows, Barry J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In the past, efforts to improve the transition to lactation have focused largely on preventing infections and maximizing energy intake in transition cows, and these issues have generally been treated independently. New models, however, are emerging to explain the development of numerous transition disorders. A combination of insults, including social stress, negative energy balance, heat stress, endotoxin exposure, and oxidative stress may promote inflammation, suppress feed intake, and impair both metabolic and immune function during the transition period. These models suggest that transition cow management must be viewed holistically, because the cow's environment, nutrition, and immune function interact in ...


Evaluation Of Yogurt With Enhanced Cysteine Content, Soumya Bala, Karen A. Schmidt Jan 2012

Evaluation Of Yogurt With Enhanced Cysteine Content, Soumya Bala, Karen A. Schmidt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and assist with metabolism in the body. In the human body, the amino acid cysteine can be synthesized from methionine by the enzyme Υ-cystathionase. Because certain human subpopulations such as those prone to cataracts have decreased Υ-cystathionase activity, dietary cysteine may be beneficial. Nutritionally, yogurt mix is one of the best dairy food sources of methionine and cysteine, but the heat treatment used in manufacturing yogurt decreases the dietary availability of cysteine. Last year, it was shown that supplementing yogurt mixes with whey protein isolate (WPI) (>90% protein) and processing ...


Sodium Salicylate During The First 7 Days Of Lactation Affects The Entire Lactation, Jaymelynn K. Farney, Laman Mamedova, J. Ernest Minton, J. F. Coetzee Jan 2012

Sodium Salicylate During The First 7 Days Of Lactation Affects The Entire Lactation, Jaymelynn K. Farney, Laman Mamedova, J. Ernest Minton, J. F. Coetzee

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to metabolic disorders in transition dairy cows. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, sodium salicylate (SS), benefits transition cows. At calving, 78 cows [primiparous (1P) n = 39; 2nd lactation (2P) n = 24; ≥3 lactations (3P) n = 15] were assigned alternately to either a control or SS treatment for 7 days and production responses were evaluated through the entire lactation. Treatment was administered via individual water bowls, delivering a mean of 123 ± 5.5 (mean ± standard deviation) grams salicylate per day during the 7 days of treatment ...


Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Dietary Sugar On Intake And Productivity Of Dairy Cattle, C. F. Vargas, Christopher D. Reinhardt, J. L. Firkins, Barry J. Bradford Jan 2012

Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Dietary Sugar On Intake And Productivity Of Dairy Cattle, C. F. Vargas, Christopher D. Reinhardt, J. L. Firkins, Barry J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A meta-analysis was performed to determine the possible effects of dietary sugar on feed intake and milk production in lactating dairy cattle. The database used in this analysis included 18 treatment comparisons frozm 10 studies reported from 1985 through 2011. Treatment comparisons were used only if: (1) either sucrose (9 comparisons) or molasses (9 comparisons) replaced corn grain without adding fat; and (2) sugar added by treatment ranged from 2 to 5% of dry matter. First, responses to sucrose and molasses were compared to assess whether these sugar sources could be considered together. Statistical analysis provided no evidence for different ...


Pregnancy Per Ai After Presynchronizing Estrous Cycles With Presynch-10 Or Pg-3-G Before Ovsynch-56 In Four Dairy Herds Of Lactating Dairy Cows, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Stephanie Leeann Pulley Jan 2012

Pregnancy Per Ai After Presynchronizing Estrous Cycles With Presynch-10 Or Pg-3-G Before Ovsynch-56 In Four Dairy Herds Of Lactating Dairy Cows, Jeffrey S. Stevenson, Stephanie Leeann Pulley

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective was to determine the effect of 2 presynchronization treatments on first-service pregnancy rate in 4 dairy herds during warm and cool seasons of the year. Cows with ear tags ending with even digits at calving were enrolled in Presynch-10 with 2, 25-mg injections of prostaglandin F2α(i.e., PG-1 and PG-2) 14 days apart. Cows with ear tags ending with odd digits were enrolled in PG-3-G comprising 1, 25-mg injection of PG (Pre-PG) 3 days before 100 μg gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Pre-GnRH), with the Pre-PG injection administered at the same time as PG-2 in the Presynch-10 treatment in the ...


Reinsemination Intervals After Timed Artificial Insemination Or Estrus-Detected Inseminations, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2012

Reinsemination Intervals After Timed Artificial Insemination Or Estrus-Detected Inseminations, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective was to quantify the reinsemination intervals of lactating dairy cows that were either inseminated at estrus or received a timed AI (TAI) at first service. Cows in Experiment 1 were enrolled in a TAI program before first AI after calving. Cows detected in estrus after 50 days in milk (DIM) were inseminated, whereas the remainder continued in the TAI program and were inseminated as scheduled. Cows in Experiment 2 also were enrolled in a TAI program and were inseminated accordingly at first service after calving. On day 7 after TAI, cows were assigned randomly to receive either saline ...


Effects Of Monensin On Metabolic Profile And Feeding Behavior Of Transition Dairy Cows, C.R. Mullins, C.E. Moore, H.B. Green, K.L. Perfield Jan 2011

Effects Of Monensin On Metabolic Profile And Feeding Behavior Of Transition Dairy Cows, C.R. Mullins, C.E. Moore, H.B. Green, K.L. Perfield

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Thirty-two Holstein transition cows were used to determine the effects of monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN; 400 mg/cow daily) on metabolism and feeding behavior. Cows were assigned randomly, based on calving date, to control or monensin treatments (n = 16 per treatment) 21 days before their expected calving date, and cows remained on treatments through 21 days in milk. Feeding behavior and water intake data were collected daily. Blood samples were collected at 8 different time points during the experimental period. Monensin decreased mean and peak plasma ketone concentrations, and also decreased time between meals before and after ...


Effects Of Supplementing Methionine And Lysine In A Lactation Diet Containing High Concentrations Of Corn By-Products, C.R. Mullins, D. Weber, E. Block, John F. Smith Jan 2011

Effects Of Supplementing Methionine And Lysine In A Lactation Diet Containing High Concentrations Of Corn By-Products, C.R. Mullins, D. Weber, E. Block, John F. Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ninety-six lactating Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of using commercial supplements to supply additional lysine and methionine in diets containing large proportions of corn by-products. Cows were assigned to 1 of 8 pens. Pens were offered rations formulated to differ in metabolizable lysine and methionine supply. The study was divided into 2 periods. During period 1, cows received similar diets, but the treatment diet supplied supplemental lysine and methionine. During period 2, the treatment diet was modified to reduce dietary crude protein. Feed intake and production were monitored daily, and milk components were analyzed 3 days per ...


Effects Of Sodium Salicylate On Productivity Of Postpartum Dairy Cows, J.K. Farney, J. Ernest Minton, J.F. Coetzee, Larry C. Hollis Jan 2011

Effects Of Sodium Salicylate On Productivity Of Postpartum Dairy Cows, J.K. Farney, J. Ernest Minton, J.F. Coetzee, Larry C. Hollis

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Inflammation has been proposed as a contributor to metabolic disorders in transition dairy cows. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, sodium salicylate (SS), benefits transition cows. At calving, 78 cows (primiparous, n = 39; second lactation, n = 28; ≥3 lactations, n = 11) were assigned alternately to either a control (CON) or SS treatment for 7 days and remained on study until 21 days postpartum. Treatment was administered via individual water bowls at a concentration of 2.5 g/L, delivering a mean of 183 ± 8.5 g/day SS during the 7 days of ...


Prostaglandin F2Αand Gnrh Administration Improved Progesterone Status, Luteal Number, And Proportion Of Ovular And Anovular Dairy Cows With Corpora Lutea Before A Timed Artificial Insemination Program, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, H.I. Jr. Mellieon, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2011

Prostaglandin F2Αand Gnrh Administration Improved Progesterone Status, Luteal Number, And Proportion Of Ovular And Anovular Dairy Cows With Corpora Lutea Before A Timed Artificial Insemination Program, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, H.I. Jr. Mellieon, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this research was to increase the proportion of cows with at least 1 functional corpus luteum (CL) and elevated progesterone at the onset of the timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Postpartum Holstein cows in 1 herd were stratified by lactation number at calving (September 2009 through August 2010) and assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) Presynch-10 (n = 105): two 25-mg injections of prostaglandin F2α(PG) 14 days apart (Presynch); and (2) PG-3-G (n = 105): one 25-mg injection of PG 3 days before 100 μg gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH; Pre-GnRH), with the PG injection administered at ...


Influence Of Dairy Housing On Freshwater Usage On Commercial Dairies In Western Kansas, J.P. Potts, Michael J. Brouk Jan 2011

Influence Of Dairy Housing On Freshwater Usage On Commercial Dairies In Western Kansas, J.P. Potts, Michael J. Brouk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fresh water pumping records were obtained from 24 western Kansas dairy farms for a 10-year period from 2000 through 2009. Farms were divided by facility type: dry lot (DL), free stall (FS), or a combination (DL+FS). Of the facility types studied, DL averaged smaller (P < 0.05) demand for water at 52.6 gal/cow per day compared with FS at 61.3 gal/cow. Both DL and FS facilities had less water demand than the combination facilities of DL+FS at 71.1 gal/cow of water daily. In all cases, average freshwater pumping was less than the daily amount of 134.7 gal/cow commonly used in dairy facility design. The difference may result from water conservation efforts of the dairies and the efficiency gained from operating larger milking parlors.; Dairy Day, 2011, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2011; Dairy Research, 2011 is known as Dairy Day, 2011


Effects Of Dietary Amylase And Sucrose On Productivity Of Cows Fed Low-Starch Diets, C.F. Vargas, Barry J. Bradford Jan 2011

Effects Of Dietary Amylase And Sucrose On Productivity Of Cows Fed Low-Starch Diets, C.F. Vargas, Barry J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Exogenous amylase, sucrose, or a combination was used in diets with reduced starch content. The trial was performed in 48 lactating Holstein cows, and milk yield, milk composition, and dry matter intake were measured. Treatments did not affect production traits, but with slightly decreased feed intake and slightly greater milk production in amylase-fed cows, the calculated value of amylase in this study was $0.37/cow per day.; Dairy Day, 2011, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2011; Dairy Research, 2011 is known as Dairy Day, 2011


Evaluation Of Methionine Availability To Dairy Cows When Added To Mechanically Extracted Soybean Meal With Soy Gums, D.W. Brake, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Barry J. Bradford, C.A. Macgregor Jan 2011

Evaluation Of Methionine Availability To Dairy Cows When Added To Mechanically Extracted Soybean Meal With Soy Gums, D.W. Brake, Evan C. Titgemeyer, Barry J. Bradford, C.A. Macgregor

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twenty-five Holstein cows were fed 5 different diets to evaluate amounts of metabolizable methionine provided to dairy cows from a mechanically extracted soybean meal (meSBM) with methionine added during manufacture. The control diet was designed to be deficient in metabolizable methionine supply. Two amounts of methionine were added from either a commercially available ruminally protected product (RPMet) or from a meSBM with methionine added during manufacture (meSBM-Met). Average milk yield was 98.8 lb/day, average milk fat was 2.81%, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) averaged 8.6 mg/dL. Milk protein yield was not responsive to metabolizable methionine ...


Evaluation Of The 5- Vs. 7-Day Cidr Program In Dairy Heifers Before Timed Artificial Insemination, H.I. Jr. Mellieon, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, G.C. Lamb, J.E. Larson Jan 2011

Evaluation Of The 5- Vs. 7-Day Cidr Program In Dairy Heifers Before Timed Artificial Insemination, H.I. Jr. Mellieon, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, G.C. Lamb, J.E. Larson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Our objectives were to determine: (1) the effectiveness of an injection of PGF2αto regress the corpus luteum before initiating an timed artificial insemination (TAI) program, (2) ovulation response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and (3) pregnancy outcomes in dairy heifers inseminated with conventional and gender-biased semen. Heifers (n = 545) from 3 locations (Florida, Kansas, and Mississippi) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) 25-mg prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) injection and controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert on day −7 followed by 100 μg of GnRH administered on day −5, and a 25-mg PGF2α injection at CIDR insert removal (7D) on ...


Enhancing Cysteine Content In Yogurt, Soumya Bala, Karen A. Schmidt Jan 2011

Enhancing Cysteine Content In Yogurt, Soumya Bala, Karen A. Schmidt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cysteine is considered a conditional amino acid for certain subpopulations. For example, in elderly people, cysteine has been associated with diverse functional properties as a general antioxidant as well as a specific role linked to cataract reduction or prevention. Yogurt is an excellent source of protein, the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine in particular. Heat, however, can denature these amino acids and affect their bioavailability. A yogurt mix supplemented with whey proteins (an abundant source of cystiene) coupled with minimal pasteurization of yogurt mixes may increase the availability of cysteine in the final product. In this study, yogurt mixes ...


Effects Of Wet Corn Gluten Feed And Dietary Particle Size On Ruminal Fermentation And Milk Production, M.L. Sullivan, Barry J. Bradford Jan 2010

Effects Of Wet Corn Gluten Feed And Dietary Particle Size On Ruminal Fermentation And Milk Production, M.L. Sullivan, Barry J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) was included in 4 diets at 0, 11, 23, and 34% of diet dry matter. Alfalfa hay was used to maintain at least 10% of particles ≥0.71 inches in length (the top screen of the Penn State Particle Separator) in all diets. Ruminal probes were placed in the rumens of 7 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows to measure ruminal pH. As WCGF increased in the diet, dry matter intake and milk production increased quadratically with 23% WCGF supporting the highest feed intake and milk yield. Ruminal pH and milk fat content were similar ...


Effects Of Varying Rates Of Tallgrass Prairie Hay Andwet Corn Gluten Feed On Productivity Of Dairy Cows, D.J. Rezac, K.N. Grigsby, Barry J. Bradford Jan 2010

Effects Of Varying Rates Of Tallgrass Prairie Hay Andwet Corn Gluten Feed On Productivity Of Dairy Cows, D.J. Rezac, K.N. Grigsby, Barry J. Bradford

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Productivity of lactating dairy cows was assessed when fed diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.) as the primary energy substrate and prairie hay as the primary source of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) compared with a control diet. Treatment diets were: 1) a control diet with 18% alfalfa, 18% corn silage, 33% WCGF, and 15% forage NDF (CON); 2) a diet with 20% tallgrass prairie hay, 46% WCGF, and 13% forage NDF (TPH20); and 3) a diet with 14% tallgrass prairie hay, 56% WCGF, and 9% forage NDF (TPH14). Midway through period 2, the ...


Lysine Degradation By Ruminal Fusobacterium Necrophorum, E.A. Elwakeel, R.G. Amachawadi, A.M. Nour, M.E. Nassar Jan 2010

Lysine Degradation By Ruminal Fusobacterium Necrophorum, E.A. Elwakeel, R.G. Amachawadi, A.M. Nour, M.E. Nassar

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three experiments were conducted to characterize lysine fermentation by Fusobacterium necrophorum, a ruminal bacterium that is known to degrade amino acids. In Experiment 1, 7 strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum were inoculated into media containing lysine (50 mM), lactate (50 mM), or lysine plus lactate (50 mM each) as the major energy substrate to evaluate growth and ammonia production. All strains grew with lysine, lactate, or lactate plus lysine as the primary substrate. When grown with lysine, all strains produced ammonia as an end product, even if lactate was also present. Smaller concentrations of ammonia for medium containing lactate plus lysine ...


Ovarian Characteristics, Serum Hormone Concentrations, And Fertility In Lactating Dairy Cows In Response To Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, L.D. Wallace, H.I. Mellieon, Jeffrey S. Stevenson Jan 2010

Ovarian Characteristics, Serum Hormone Concentrations, And Fertility In Lactating Dairy Cows In Response To Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin, Stephanie Leeann Pulley, L.D. Wallace, H.I. Mellieon, Jeffrey S. Stevenson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on various characteristics associated with an effective timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol in lactating dairy cows. Cows (n = 121) in a single herd were treated with 2 injections of prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) 14 days apart (Presynch), with the second injection administered 11 days before the onset of a timed AI protocol. Cows received either saline or 400 IU eCG concurrent with the PGF2αinjection of the Ovsynch protocol (injection of gonadotropinreleasing hormone or GnRH, 7 days before and 48 to 56 hours after PGF2αwith insemination occurring ...