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Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

2010 is known as Cattlemen's Day

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Current Factors Affecting Feeder Cattle Pricing In Kansas And Missouri Cattle Markets, K.W. Harborth, L.L. Schulz, Kevin C. Dhuyvetter, Justin W. Waggoner Jan 2010

Current Factors Affecting Feeder Cattle Pricing In Kansas And Missouri Cattle Markets, K.W. Harborth, L.L. Schulz, Kevin C. Dhuyvetter, Justin W. Waggoner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Today's tough economic environment for cattle producers makes each decision critically important, and increased knowledge of the link between pricing and genetic, management, and marketing decisions can increase an operation's sustainability and profitability. Cow-calf producers and cattle feeders have long been interested in the impact of various physical and market characteristics on feeder cattle and calf prices. As demonstrated in many previous studies, significant relationships exist between feeder cattle prices and their physical and market characteristics. Weight, lot size, health, condition, fill, muscling, frame size, breed, time of sale, and horn status significantly affect feeder cattle auction prices ...


Capacity Of The Bovine Intestinal Mucus And Its Components To Support Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Growth, C. Aperce, J. Heidenreich, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Capacity Of The Bovine Intestinal Mucus And Its Components To Support Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Growth, C. Aperce, J. Heidenreich, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of human food products is a major concern for the beef industry. The pathogens responsible for outbreaks often originate from cattle, and E. coli O157:H7 can thrive in healthy cattle. To control contamination in the food chain, it is essential to understand how this pathogen is able to grow and compete with other bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle. Previous studies have shown that bovine intestinal mucus supports bacterial colonization and can selectively influence makeup of the bacterial population. Intestinal mucus is made of mucins, which are gel-forming glycoproteins. Mucin molecules contain sialic ...


Beta Acid Extracts Of Hops Have A Modest Effect On Ruminal Metabolism And Apparent Total Tract Digestibility By Steers Fed High- Concentrate Diets, S. Uwituze, J.M. Heidenreich, James J. Higgins, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Beta Acid Extracts Of Hops Have A Modest Effect On Ruminal Metabolism And Apparent Total Tract Digestibility By Steers Fed High- Concentrate Diets, S. Uwituze, J.M. Heidenreich, James J. Higgins, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Hops have been used for centuries to control bacterial contamination in beer production. Today, α acids are extracted from hops for use in flavoring beer, leaving residues that are rich in beta acids. Beta acid fractions of hops can selectively inhibit specific ruminal Gram-positive bacteria that are responsible for major digestive disturbances, such as acidosis and bloat, and have a chemical structure similar to that of ionophores used in feedlot production. Use of ionophores improves efficiency of feed utilization and decreases the incidence of digestive disturbances that are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cattle feeding operations. The ...


Long-Term Cidr Program For Synchronization Of Estrus In Beef Heifers Produces Acceptable Ai Pregnancy Rates, Sandra K. Johnson, J.W. Bolte, John R. Jaeger Jan 2010

Long-Term Cidr Program For Synchronization Of Estrus In Beef Heifers Produces Acceptable Ai Pregnancy Rates, Sandra K. Johnson, J.W. Bolte, John R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Routinely achieving pregnancy rates greater than 50% with fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) in heifers has been difficult. The Beef Reproduction Task Force recently added the intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR)-Select to its list of recommended fixed-time AI protocols. Research and field trials in Missouri have achieved AI pregnancy rates in the range of 55% to 60%. Another relatively new protocol is the 5-day CO-Synch, a timed AI protocol + CIDR that has produced pregnancy rates similar to or higher than those obtained with the standard 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. It is not known whether these two systems differ in terms of ...


Precutting Round Alfalfa And Cornstalk Bales Decreases Time And Fuel Required For Bale Breakup In A Vertical Mixer, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, R.M. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner Jan 2010

Precutting Round Alfalfa And Cornstalk Bales Decreases Time And Fuel Required For Bale Breakup In A Vertical Mixer, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, R.M. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Properly mixing and distributing nutrients throughout a ration can be equally as important as including them in the formulation. Many factors, including forage type, particle length, and mixer type, affect the homogeneity of total mixed rations. Particle size plays an important role in digestion and animal performance and, therefore, is an important consideration from harvest through feeding. An increase in particle size results in a less uniform distribution of nutrients throughout the total mixed ration. Typically, diets with a high proportion of forages have the lowest uniformity of nutrients in individual batches of complete feed.


Supplementing Feedlot Steers And Heifers With Zilmax Increases Proportions Of Strip Loin, Chuck Clod, And Top Sirloin Steaks Exceeding Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Thresholds, Whereas Aging Moderates This Effect, H.C. Claus, J.C. Brooks, J. Shook, G.G. Hilton, T.E. Lawrence, J.M. Mehaffey, B.J. Johnson, Dell M. Allen, M.N. Streeter, W.T. Nichols, C. Melvin, J. Killefer, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 2010

Supplementing Feedlot Steers And Heifers With Zilmax Increases Proportions Of Strip Loin, Chuck Clod, And Top Sirloin Steaks Exceeding Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Thresholds, Whereas Aging Moderates This Effect, H.C. Claus, J.C. Brooks, J. Shook, G.G. Hilton, T.E. Lawrence, J.M. Mehaffey, B.J. Johnson, Dell M. Allen, M.N. Streeter, W.T. Nichols, C. Melvin, J. Killefer, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ractopamine hydrochloride (Elanco, Greenfield, IN) and Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride; Intervet/Schering-Plough, Millsboro, DE) are β-adrenergic agonists approved in the United States and several other countries to increase growth rate, improve efficiency of feed utilization, and increase carcass meat yield. Zilmax has been shown to improve feed efficiency by 26% and increase hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and meat yield. However, a few studies have shown that Zilmax significantly increased Warner-Bratzler shear force values (decreased tenderness). The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of supplementing feedlot diets of steers and heifers with Zilmax for 0, 20, 30 ...


Supplementing Fructose-Based Block Supplements To Forage-Fed Cattle Increases Capacity For Lactic Acid Metabolism, K.A. Miller, M.J. Quinn, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Supplementing Fructose-Based Block Supplements To Forage-Fed Cattle Increases Capacity For Lactic Acid Metabolism, K.A. Miller, M.J. Quinn, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Acidosis is one of the more important maladies afflicting cattle fed significant amounts of grain and has enormous economic impact for feedlots, dairies, and producers of seed stock. The highest incidence of acidosis occurs when animals are being transitioned from high-roughage diets to diets containing high levels of concentrates. When grain-based diets are consumed in excess, consumed too quickly, or fed without proper adaptation, digestive end products (organic acids) can accumulate within the rumen, resulting in acidosis. Lactic acid is one of the key organic compounds that accumulates under these conditions. Coupled with the animal's limited ability to metabolize ...


High Sulfur Content In Distillers Grains With Solubles May Be Deleterious To Beef Steer Performance And Carcass Quality, S. Uwituze, G.L. Parsons, C.J. Schneider, K.K. Karges, M.L. Gibson, Larry C. Hollis, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

High Sulfur Content In Distillers Grains With Solubles May Be Deleterious To Beef Steer Performance And Carcass Quality, S. Uwituze, G.L. Parsons, C.J. Schneider, K.K. Karges, M.L. Gibson, Larry C. Hollis, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Distillers grains with solubles are becoming an increasingly important staple of cattle diets because of rapid expansion of the fuel ethanol industry. Sulfuric acid often is used in ethanol production processes to clean and control the pH of fermenters. Consequently, distillers grains with solubles can occasionally contain high sulfur concentrations. Within the rumen, sulfur is converted to hydrogen sulfide gas by ruminal microbes. Hydrogen sulfide is eructated from the rumen and subsequently aspirated into the lungs; excess amounts of hydrogen sulfide can cause polioencephalomalacia (brainers). Polioencephalomalacia is characterized by increased respiration, decreased feed intake, listlessness, muscular incoordination, progressive blindness, and ...


Cornstalk Round Bale Processing Method Does Not Influence Feeding Characteristics Or Feed Refusals, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner Jan 2010

Cornstalk Round Bale Processing Method Does Not Influence Feeding Characteristics Or Feed Refusals, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Nutritionists and producers often assume that ingredients in a total mixed ration are uniformly mixed. However, many factors can affect ration homogeneity, including particle size, particle shape, differences in density of feed ingredients, and relative point at which the mixture is discharged from a mixer batch. Forages often are ground prior to mixing in a total mixed ration to reduce variation in forage particle length. Preprocessing forages during baling may facilitate particle length reduction, eliminating the need to grind forages prior to mixing. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of forage processing on (1) uniformity of ...


Effects Of Morinda Citrifolia On Growth Performance And Health Of High-Risk Calves, L.R. Hibbard, R.G. Godbee, M.P. Epp, Brandon E. Oleen, Dale A. Blasi, K. C. Olson Jan 2010

Effects Of Morinda Citrifolia On Growth Performance And Health Of High-Risk Calves, L.R. Hibbard, R.G. Godbee, M.P. Epp, Brandon E. Oleen, Dale A. Blasi, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine respiratory disease continues to be the most costly disease affecting productivity and profitability in the stocker segment. Long-acting injectable antimicrobials are presently used to reduce the incidence and severity of bovine respiratory disease. However, future use of antimicrobial treatment may be significantly curtailed in light of an increasing negative perception of antibiotic usage in food animals by consumers and governmental agencies. Consequently, preconditioning and enhanced nutrition programs that may include nutraceuticals could become more prevalent. MorindaMax (Morinda International, Provo, UT) is a natural product manufactured from the Morinda citrifolia fruit (i.e., Noni). Published literature suggests this plant extract ...


Packaging Systems And Storage Times Serve As Post-Lethality Treatments For Listeria Monocytogenes On Whole Muscle Beef Jerky, A. Lobaton-Sulabo, T. Axman, Kelly J.K. Getty, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle, N. Harper, K. Uppal, B. Barry, James J. Higgins Jan 2010

Packaging Systems And Storage Times Serve As Post-Lethality Treatments For Listeria Monocytogenes On Whole Muscle Beef Jerky, A. Lobaton-Sulabo, T. Axman, Kelly J.K. Getty, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle, N. Harper, K. Uppal, B. Barry, James J. Higgins

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Following several outbreaks involving Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service required that processors of these products implement post-processing intervention strategies for controlling L. monocytogenes. The USDA defines a postlethality treatment as a process that reduces L. monocytogenes by at least 1 log. Research has shown that packaging can generate a 1 log L. monocytogenes reduction following 1 or more weeks of storage at room temperature. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of packaging system and storage time on reducing L. monocytogenes on shelf-stable ...


Comparison Of Medicinal Feed Additives On Health And Growth Performance Of Beef Calves Grazing Native Grass Pasture, M.P. Epp, B. Greenwood, Dale A. Blasi Jan 2010

Comparison Of Medicinal Feed Additives On Health And Growth Performance Of Beef Calves Grazing Native Grass Pasture, M.P. Epp, B. Greenwood, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Optimizing growth rate is an important contributor to overall profitability for stocker cattle grazing native Flint Hills pasture. Disease challenges from pinkeye and foot rot have traditionally been problems that compromise health and productivity of stocker cattle in this grazing region. Use of medicinal feed additives as a part of a supplementation program may prevent health problems and improve overall productivity during a spring/summer grazing season.


Implant Programs Affect Performance And Quality Grade, Christopher D. Reinhardt Jan 2010

Implant Programs Affect Performance And Quality Grade, Christopher D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Selection of dosage, timing, and number of anabolic implants continues to be a source of controversy for feed yard managers and their consultants. Although the dose-dependent effects on performance are fairly well accepted, impacts on carcass quality continue to be debated. This study was intended to summarize effects of different implant programs on performance and carcass quality on the basis of a cross section of available published research.


Feed-Based Metaphylaxis Programs Did Not Affect Health Or Performance Of High-Risk Calves Mass Medicated With Draxxin On Arrival, M.P. Epp, R. Derstein, Dale A. Blasi Jan 2010

Feed-Based Metaphylaxis Programs Did Not Affect Health Or Performance Of High-Risk Calves Mass Medicated With Draxxin On Arrival, M.P. Epp, R. Derstein, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine respiratory disease continues to be the most costly disease affecting productivity and profitability in the stocker segment. Despite their high cost, longer-acting, injectable therapeutic antimicrobials such as Draxxin (Tulathromycin; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) can extend the window of treatment duration, thereby reducing the incidence and severity of bovine respiratory disease. Use of feed-based metaphylaxis programs, such as therapeutic administration of multiple 5-day pulses of Aureomycin (αrma, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ), in conjunction with an injectable metaphylaxis program may be a cost-effective way to improve bovine respiratory disease therapy without having to physically handle and stress cattle.


Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Affects Heifer Growth But Does Not Influence Wastage Or Eating Preference, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner Jan 2010

Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Affects Heifer Growth But Does Not Influence Wastage Or Eating Preference, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Many factors affect forage quality, including moisture level at baling, compaction, bulk density, and maturity at harvest. Losses of dry matter and nutrient value occur during field curing. Hay baled at or above 18% moisture should have less nutrient loss in the field. However, hay baled at these moisture levels has the potential to heat during storage, causing dry matter loss and nutrient degradation. Also, as particle length of forage decreases, packing ability of forage and bulk density of bales increase. Although particle length is reduced by grinding baled forage, this can result in nutrient losses. Also, when cattle are ...


Dried Distillers Grains Supplemented At Different Frequencies To Stocker Heifers Grazing Late-Season Flint Hills Native Pastures, M.P. Epp, W.L. Metzen, Brandon E. Oleen, Dale A. Blasi Jan 2010

Dried Distillers Grains Supplemented At Different Frequencies To Stocker Heifers Grazing Late-Season Flint Hills Native Pastures, M.P. Epp, W.L. Metzen, Brandon E. Oleen, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Wetter-than-normal summer grazing seasons can produce excessive forage beyond what the typical Flint Hills double-stock harvest rate can remove. These late-summer native grasses do not contain adequate protein to sustain economical gains for stocker cattle, but producers can extend the grazing season by using a protein-based supplement to generate economically feasible rates of gain. Use of dried distillers grains as a supplementation program can help promote overall productivity during the fall grazing season. However, the drawback is the potential high labor input for supplement delivery. Delivering supplements at reduced frequencies per week may be able to sustain daily gains of ...


Wheat Gluten Films Prepared At High Temperature And Low Ph Decrease Degradation By Rumen Microorganisms, K. Blaine, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Wheat Gluten Films Prepared At High Temperature And Low Ph Decrease Degradation By Rumen Microorganisms, K. Blaine, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Encapsulated amino acids, vitamins, and other nutrients are gaining popularity in the ruminant feed industry. The purpose of encapsulation is to provide protection from premature digestion in the rumen, making it possible to increase bioavailability of the core ingredient in the small intestine. Encapsulated products are more effective at delivering a targeted amount of a limiting nutrient than the traditional methods of heat or chemically treating protein, which result in an excess supply of other nutrients. The main limitation of feeding encapsulated products is cost. These products are expensive because of the cost of the film forming/encapsulating materials used ...


Effects Of Smartlic Hi-Pro 40 Block Supplements On Ruminal Microbes In Cattle Fed Low-Quality Forages, K.D. Derstein, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Effects Of Smartlic Hi-Pro 40 Block Supplements On Ruminal Microbes In Cattle Fed Low-Quality Forages, K.D. Derstein, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dormant pastures and native grass hays often are deficient in protein and other nutrients needed to support optimum performance of beef cattle. These nutrients are essential for maintaining viable populations of symbiotic rumen microorganisms that digest the fiber in forages. When nutrient deficiencies occur, microbial populations in the rumen decrease, thereby limiting digestion of low-quality forages. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in rumen microbial populations and digestive activity when cattle consuming low-protein native grass hay are given access to high-protein, free-choice block supplements.


High Sulfur Content In Distillers Grains Alters Ruminal Fermentation And Diet Digestibility In Beef Steers, S. Uwituze, G.L. Parsons, K.K. Karges, M.L. Gibson, Larry C. Hollis, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

High Sulfur Content In Distillers Grains Alters Ruminal Fermentation And Diet Digestibility In Beef Steers, S. Uwituze, G.L. Parsons, K.K. Karges, M.L. Gibson, Larry C. Hollis, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Requirements for elemental sulfur in feedlot diets have been established to be approximately 0.15% with a maximum upper threshold of 0.40% of diet dry matter. Feeding ethanol fermentation by-products, such as distillers grains with solubles, that are high in sulfur can result in dietary sulfur levels that exceed the recommended maximum. Previous studies indicated that dietary sulfur influenced the site and extent of fiber and protein digestion. The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility when 30% (dry matter basis) dried distillers grains with solubles with various levels of sulfur was incorporated ...


Effects Of Extended Zilpaterol-Hcl Withdrawal On Performance And Carcass Traits Of Finishing Beef Heifers, G.L. Parsons, Brandon E. Depenbusch, Christopher D. Reinhardt, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Effects Of Extended Zilpaterol-Hcl Withdrawal On Performance And Carcass Traits Of Finishing Beef Heifers, G.L. Parsons, Brandon E. Depenbusch, Christopher D. Reinhardt, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro; DE) is an orally active β2-adrenergic agonist that is approved for use in feedlot cattle at the rate of 7.56 g/ton of diet dry matter for the final 20 to 40 days on feed. The minimum withdrawal time for Zilmax is 3 days. Zilmax increases hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, primarily as a result of increasing lean muscle mass and decreasing body fat. Zilmax also decreases marbling and increases shear-force values (i.e., less tender) of steaks. This study was conducted to determine whether the benefits of Zilmax would be ...


Urea Recycling In Beef Cattle Fed Prairie Hay- Based Diets, E.A. Bailey, D.W. Brake, David E. Anderson, M.L. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer, K. C. Olson Jan 2010

Urea Recycling In Beef Cattle Fed Prairie Hay- Based Diets, E.A. Bailey, D.W. Brake, David E. Anderson, M.L. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Maximizing utilization of native rangeland is an important aspect of the cow/calf phase of beef production. Native rangeland is often of poor quality (less than 7% crude protein). Protein content of the rangeland is important because nitrogen is a key growth factor used by ruminal microbes. Without adequate nitrogen, the ruminal ecosystem will not operate at peak efficiency, which subsequently reduces the supply of nutrients to the animal. Historically, producers have provided supplemental nutrients to their cattle to achieve maximum performance. Both supplemental protein and energy have been provided to cattle consuming low-quality forage with varying levels of success ...


Effects Of Crude Glycerin On Ruminal Metabolism And Diet Digestibility Of Flaked-Corn Finishing Diets, G.L. Parsons, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Effects Of Crude Glycerin On Ruminal Metabolism And Diet Digestibility Of Flaked-Corn Finishing Diets, G.L. Parsons, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased supplies of crude glycerin available for livestock feeding. Catalyzed reactions between methanol and triglycerides from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, yield biodiesel and a coproduct, crude glycerin. Approximately 10% of the weight of soybean oil used to produce biodiesel becomes glycerin. Limited work has been conducted to understand metabolism of glycerin in ruminant livestock. In previous studies at Kansas State University, feeding crude glycerin at 8% or less of the diet improved cattle performance. Subsequent laboratory experiments indicated that low levels of glycerin may improve ruminal fermentation. This study was conducted to ...


Effect Of Nitrogen Supplementation On Urea Recycling In Steers Consuming Corn-Based Diets, D.W. Drake, M.L. Jones, David E. Anderson, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 2010

Effect Of Nitrogen Supplementation On Urea Recycling In Steers Consuming Corn-Based Diets, D.W. Drake, M.L. Jones, David E. Anderson, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Nitrogen absorbed in the small intestine of cattle can be recycled to the rumen and incorporated into microbially synthesized amino acids. This is an advantage when dietary protein is low or when ruminally available nitrogen is limited by poor ruminal protein degradation. In a survey, consulting feedlot nutritionists reported that 83% of their clients used ethanol coproducts in finishing diets. Ruminal availability of nitrogen in dried distillers grains with solubles is low (i.e., 25% of total nitrogen). Thus, urea recycling may be of greater relative importance when distillers grains are used to supplement protein to cattle. The goals of ...


Effects Of Supplemental Protein And Energy On Digestion And Urea Kinetics In Beef Cattle, E.A. Bailey, D.W. Brake, David E. Anderson, M.L. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer, K. C. Olson Jan 2010

Effects Of Supplemental Protein And Energy On Digestion And Urea Kinetics In Beef Cattle, E.A. Bailey, D.W. Brake, David E. Anderson, M.L. Jones, Evan C. Titgemeyer, K. C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Previous research at Kansas State University has shown that providing supplemental energy when protein is deficient will cause a decrease in digestion of low-quality forage. Our project examined the effects of supplemental glucose on low-quality forage intake and digestion. Urea recycling is a mechanism by which cattle preserve nitrogen when faced with a deficiency. Young, growing cattle receiving sufficient protein recycle large amounts of nitrogen to the rumen. Our goal was to explore the effects of providing supplemental energy and protein to cattle that are on the downward side of their growth curve. Specifically, we measured intake, digestion, and urea ...


Flaxlic Supplementation Improves Growth Performance Of Angus Bulls, A.C. Pesta, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Flaxlic Supplementation Improves Growth Performance Of Angus Bulls, A.C. Pesta, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Nutrition can affect bull fertility. Omega-3 fatty acids such as α linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids can affect motility and morphology of sperm. Flaxseed is an excellent source of α linolenic acid and has been shown to increase tissue concentrations of both α linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, which are involved in synthesis of important reproductive hormones. Flax can be difficult to transport, process, and store, but the FlaxLic block (New Generation Feeds, Belle Fourche, SD) is stable and easy to handle, contains high levels of omega-3 fatty acids, and may be a useful supplement for developing beef bulls. In ...


Effects Of Feeding Low Levels Of Crude Glycerin With Or Without Other By-Products On Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Feedlot Heifers, C.J. Schneider, G.L. Parsons, K.A. Miller, L.K. Thompson, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Effects Of Feeding Low Levels Of Crude Glycerin With Or Without Other By-Products On Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Feedlot Heifers, C.J. Schneider, G.L. Parsons, K.A. Miller, L.K. Thompson, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Expansion of the renewable fuels industries has increased availability of by-products that are well suited for use as cattle feed. Glycerin is among the principal by-products of biodiesel production, comprising approximately 10% (by weight) of the soybean oil that is used to manufacture soy-based diesel fuel. Our previous research evaluated effects of including between 0% and 16% glycerin in flaked-corn finishing diets and revealed that optimal growth performance was achieved with 2% glycerin addition. Our laboratory experiments have suggested that even lower levels of glycerin may be effective at stimulating digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate ...


Packaging Systems And Storage Times Serve As Post-Lethality Treatments For Listeria Monocytogenes On Kippered Beef Steaks, A. Lobaton-Sulabo, K. Uppal, Kelly J.K. Getty, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle, N. Harper, B. Barry, James J. Higgins Jan 2010

Packaging Systems And Storage Times Serve As Post-Lethality Treatments For Listeria Monocytogenes On Kippered Beef Steaks, A. Lobaton-Sulabo, K. Uppal, Kelly J.K. Getty, Elizabeth A.E. Boyle, N. Harper, B. Barry, James J. Higgins

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Following several outbreaks involving Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service required that processors of these products implement post-processing intervention strategies for controlling L. monocytogenes. The USDA defines a postlethality treatment as a process that reduces L. monocytogenes by at least 1 log. Research has shown that packaging can generate a 1 log L. monocytogenes reduction following 1 or more weeks of storage at room temperature. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of packaging system and storage time on reducing L. monocytogenes in shelf-stable ...


Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Does Not Influence Feeding Or Mixing Characteristics In A Total Mixed Ration, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner Jan 2010

Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Does Not Influence Feeding Or Mixing Characteristics In A Total Mixed Ration, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Nutritionists and producers often assume that ingredients in a total mixed ration are uniformly mixed. However, many factors may affect ration homogeneity, including particle size, shape, and density and mixer discharge location. Forages are often ground prior to mixing in a total mixed ration to reduce variation in forage particle length. However, preprocessing forages while baling may facilitate particle length reduction and eliminate the need to grind forages prior to mixing. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of forage processing method on uniformity and particle length of the total mixed ration at different discharge locations throughout mixing.


Increased Concentrations Of Bovine Intestinal Mucus Encourage Growth Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, J. Heidenreich, C. Aperce, James S. Drouillard Jan 2010

Increased Concentrations Of Bovine Intestinal Mucus Encourage Growth Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, J. Heidenreich, C. Aperce, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Cattle have been implicated as carriers of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Contamination of the beef supply by E. coli O157 can occur during harvest and processing, causing costly recalls or human illness. Many interventions have been applied in attempts to prevent contamination of carcasses in processing plants, such as development of HACCP procedures, carcass washes, and steam pasteurization, but contaminations still occur. Mechanisms that allow E. coli O157:H7 to thrive in cattle at sporadic times and in such large numbers are poorly understood. Understanding factors that stimulate E. coli O157 growth in cattle will aid in ...


Length Of Weaning Period But Not Timing Of Vaccination Affects Feedlot Receiving Performance And Health Of Fall-Weaned, Ranch-Direct Beef Calves, M.J. Macek, J.W. Iliff, Todd W. Schmidt, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Daniel U. Thomson Jan 2010

Length Of Weaning Period But Not Timing Of Vaccination Affects Feedlot Receiving Performance And Health Of Fall-Weaned, Ranch-Direct Beef Calves, M.J. Macek, J.W. Iliff, Todd W. Schmidt, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Daniel U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Weaning and preconditioning programs are thought to be crucial to calf health and performance during the finishing period. The stress of maternal separation, changes in diet, environmental changes, and exposure to unfamiliar pathogens increase susceptibility of recently weaned calves to bovine respiratory disease. Vaccination programs are implemented near weaning to decrease the incidence of respiratory disease. Many vaccination strategies are practiced by cow-calf producers in the United States. The most cautious strategy involves vaccination against respiratory disease pathogens 2 to 4 weeks before maternal separation followed by a booster at weaning. This strategy is used in instances in which time ...