Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Length Of Aging Has Greater Effect Than Lactic Acid Treatment On Color Stability Of Beef Chuck Muscles, G. D. Mccoy, T. A. Houser, T. G. O'Quinn, E. A. Boyle, K. J. Phelps, J. M. Gonzalez Jan 2017

Length Of Aging Has Greater Effect Than Lactic Acid Treatment On Color Stability Of Beef Chuck Muscles, G. D. Mccoy, T. A. Houser, T. G. O'Quinn, E. A. Boyle, K. J. Phelps, J. M. Gonzalez

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Lactic acid spray washes are widely used as an antimicrobial intervention in the beef industry. Sprays are typically applied to the exterior of carcasses and subprimal cuts to reduce or eliminate potential pathogenic bacteria. While the efficacy of these washes has been proven, other questions remain about their effect on color attributes of meat when applied to subprimal cuts. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a lactic acid subprimal wash on the color stability of beef chuck rolls.


Steak Location Within The Semitendinosus Muscle Impacts Metmyoglobin Accumulation On Steaks During Retail Display, K. J. Phelps, T. G. O'Quinn, T. A. Houser, J. M. Gonzalez Jan 2017

Steak Location Within The Semitendinosus Muscle Impacts Metmyoglobin Accumulation On Steaks During Retail Display, K. J. Phelps, T. G. O'Quinn, T. A. Houser, J. M. Gonzalez

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef color is a major attribute consumers utilize to make purchasing decisions. It is estimated poor color shelf-life of beef steaks costs the meat industry more than $1 billion annually. Shelf-life color is influenced by a balance of two biochemical processes within steaks: metmyoglobin reducing ability and oxygen consumption. Steaks that exhibit a greater metmyoglobin reducing and a reduced oxygen consumption are typically characterized as more color stable. Characteristics of the muscle fiber or muscle cell are what determine the properties of a steak. Commonly, muscles with more oxidative fibers have an elevated oxygen consumption and reduced metmyoglobin reducing ability ...


Brahman Genetics Negatively Impact Protein Degradation And Tenderness Of Longissimus Lumborum Steaks, But Do Not Influence Collagen Cross-Linking, K. J. Phelps, D. D. Johnson, M. A. Elzo, C. B. Paulk, J. M. Gonzalez Jan 2017

Brahman Genetics Negatively Impact Protein Degradation And Tenderness Of Longissimus Lumborum Steaks, But Do Not Influence Collagen Cross-Linking, K. J. Phelps, D. D. Johnson, M. A. Elzo, C. B. Paulk, J. M. Gonzalez

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef tenderness is an important factor contributing to consumer eating satisfaction of beef products. Tenderness is dependent on several factors including: breed-type, postmortem age time, myofibrillar muscle protein degradation, and collagen content. During the past 30 years, numerous studies have indicated steaks from cattle with a greater percentage of Brahman genetics are tougher than steaks from Bos taurus cattle. The cause of tougher steaks is commonly attributed to Brahman cattle having a greater calpastatin activity which inhibits calpains, the enzymes responsible for myofibrillar protein degradation during the postmortem aging process. Some researchers have reported calpastatin activity was poorly correlated to ...


Tenderness, Juiciness, And Flavor Contribute To The Overall Consumer Beef Eating Experience, L. N. Drey, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2017

Tenderness, Juiciness, And Flavor Contribute To The Overall Consumer Beef Eating Experience, L. N. Drey, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Overall beef palatability can be attributed to three primary traits, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, as well as the interaction among these traits (Smith and Carpenter, 1974). Multiple authors have worked to identify which of these palatability traits contributes the most to overall eating satisfaction and have historically identified tenderness as the most important palatability trait (Savell et al., 1987; Miller et al., 1995a; Savell et al., 1999; Egan et al., 2001). Overall eating quality of beef steaks may excel at one or even two of these traits, yet fail to meet consumer eating expectations due to the unsatisfactory level of ...


Marbling Texture Does Not Affect Consumer Preference Of Beef Strip Loin Steaks, K. R. Vierck, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2017

Marbling Texture Does Not Affect Consumer Preference Of Beef Strip Loin Steaks, K. R. Vierck, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In the beef industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture quality grades and marbling levels have long been associated with beef palatability and eating experience. Marbling score and maturity are the two major components of USDA quality grade. Traditionally, marbling texture has not been considered a factor of marbling score; however, there are often discernments at both the packer and retail level, as more than 75% of branded beef programs supervised by USDA-AMS have a specification of fine or medium textured marbling (USDA, 2015). Additionally, in some cases, fine and medium textured steaks are graded higher than their coarse counterparts, which ...


Coarse Marbled Beef Is Juicier And More Flavorful Than Fine Or Medium Marbled Beef, K. R. Vierck, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2017

Coarse Marbled Beef Is Juicier And More Flavorful Than Fine Or Medium Marbled Beef, K. R. Vierck, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Beef palatability and eating experience is driven primarily by U.S. Department of Agriculture quality grade and marbling levels. Beef USDA quality grade consists of both marbling levels and maturity. Conventionally, marbling texture has not been a consideration of quality grades. Currently, only one study has assessed the effects of marbling texture on beef palatability. Despite this, preferences for fine or medium marbling exist with both packers and retailers, as approximately 75% of branded beef programs under the supervision of USDA-AMS require fine or medium textured marbling, which equates to losses of premiums for packers and producers (USDA, 2016). The ...


Angus Ground Beef Has Higher Overall Consumer Acceptability Than Grass-Fed Ground Beef, F. Najar, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn, R. Danler, S. Stroda, L. N. Drey, K. R. Vierck, G. D. Mccoy Jan 2017

Angus Ground Beef Has Higher Overall Consumer Acceptability Than Grass-Fed Ground Beef, F. Najar, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn, R. Danler, S. Stroda, L. N. Drey, K. R. Vierck, G. D. Mccoy

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ground beef is considered one of the major sources of animal protein in the U.S., accounting for approximately 40% of beef consumption per capita (USDA, 2011). Consumers’ concern about animal welfare, sustainable production, and low fat products has influenced purchasing decisions, resulting in an increased demand for grass-fed ground beef (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, 2007). Grass-fed cattle are fed natural based forages or grass-hay, thus resulting in a higher deposition of omega-3 fatty acids in meat. Meat from grain-fed cattle has a lower omega-3 content due to the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid profile found ...


How Do Alternative Pressures Affect The Accuracy Of The Pressed Juice Percentage (Pjp) At Predicting Consumer Juiciness Rating?, M. M. Kline, A. K. Wilfong, K. V. Mckillip, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2016

How Do Alternative Pressures Affect The Accuracy Of The Pressed Juice Percentage (Pjp) At Predicting Consumer Juiciness Rating?, M. M. Kline, A. K. Wilfong, K. V. Mckillip, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Texture is the most important sensory trait when evaluating meat products (Gomes et al., 2014). In beef products, tenderness and juiciness interact to form overall texture and mouthfeel. As a result, beef juiciness is one of the most important factors in creating a satisfactory beef eating experience. A recent study by Woolley (2014) developed an instrumental technique for measuring beef juiciness and predicting consumer beef juiciness satisfaction. The method utilizes a texture analyzer to compress cooked beef samples for a period of 8 seconds at 17.6 lb of force and quantifies the percentage of moisture lost as Pressed Juice ...


Freezing Strip Loin And Top Round Steaks Improves Warner-Bratzler Shear Force, R. Mcewan, J. A. Unruh, T. A. Houser, T. G. O'Quinn, N. Bloedow, Christopher Vahl, S. Stroda Jan 2016

Freezing Strip Loin And Top Round Steaks Improves Warner-Bratzler Shear Force, R. Mcewan, J. A. Unruh, T. A. Houser, T. G. O'Quinn, N. Bloedow, Christopher Vahl, S. Stroda

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Postmortem aging of steaks is a common practice used to improve tenderness of beef steaks. The impact of proteolysis and improvement in tenderness due to aging varies among muscles. When designing research protocols, samples for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) are often frozen for later analysis because of convenience and time limitations. Freezing stops postmortem aging and allows for storage until meat can be cooked for WBSF and/or sensory analysis. However freezing meat may cause damage to cell membranes resulting in lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (improved mechanical tenderness), lower water holding capacity, and greater moisture loss during cooking. Several researchers ...


Premium Choice Steaks Purchased From Grocery Outlets Are Generally More Tender Throughout The Year Than Lower Quality Grade Steaks, A. M. Collins, J. A. Unruh, T. A. Houser, S. Stroda Jan 2016

Premium Choice Steaks Purchased From Grocery Outlets Are Generally More Tender Throughout The Year Than Lower Quality Grade Steaks, A. M. Collins, J. A. Unruh, T. A. Houser, S. Stroda

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Consumers typically have the opportunity to select steaks from a variety of marketing categories that relate to quality, price, and expected tenderness. Research on quantifying characteristics of strip steaks from different marketing programs available in self-serve retail display cases and establishing benchmark data for strip steak comparisons for future years is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanical tenderness as well as physical and cooking characteristics of strip steaks purchased from self-serve display cases in grocery store outlets throughout the year.


Freezing Improves Instrumental Tenderness Of Strip Steaks Purchased At Retail Grocery Stores, A. M. Collins, J. A. Unruh, T. A. Houser, S. Stroda Jan 2016

Freezing Improves Instrumental Tenderness Of Strip Steaks Purchased At Retail Grocery Stores, A. M. Collins, J. A. Unruh, T. A. Houser, S. Stroda

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

When meat is frozen cell membranes can be damaged, which may lead to lower water holding capacity and higher cooking losses. Several researchers have indicated that freezing Longissimus muscle (strip loin) steaks may lower Warner-Bratzler shear force, a measurement to objectively measure beef tenderness, compared with steaks not previously frozen. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of freezing on beef tenderness and cooking characteristics of strip steaks purchased from grocery store outlets.


Palatability Of Ground Beef Increases When Brand Is Disclosed In Consumer Testing, A. K. Wilfong, K. V. Mckillip, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2016

Palatability Of Ground Beef Increases When Brand Is Disclosed In Consumer Testing, A. K. Wilfong, K. V. Mckillip, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Of the beef products on the market, ground beef is one of the least expensive and most universal. Ground beef represents the largest volume of protein served in the foodservice industry, at 64%, and is the most popular beef item for consumers when preparing meals in their home (NCBA, 2012). To date, little research has evaluated ground beef palatability despite representing a large sector of the beef market. All ground beef is not the same to consumers. Ground beef from branded beef programs, higher lean points, and primal-specific blends are traditionally sold at retail for higher prices. Branding is used ...


Does Knowing Brand Or Usda Grade Of Beef Strip Steaks Affect Palatability For Consumers?, A. K. Wilfong, K. V. Mckillip, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2016

Does Knowing Brand Or Usda Grade Of Beef Strip Steaks Affect Palatability For Consumers?, A. K. Wilfong, K. V. Mckillip, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In consumers’ eyes, not all beef is considered equal. In addition to USDA quality grades, close to 150 branded beef programs are approved for the segregation and marketing of beef products (USDA, 2015). This large number of product categories allows consumers to have a choice in the products they purchase. Blind sensory panel testing of beef, where consumers are not shown the brand or information about a product, has been used for many years. While important to determine palatability characteristics of beef when evaluated blind, consumers do not select, purchase, and consume beef without additional product information. Evidence suggests that ...


Enhancement Increases Consumer Acceptability Of Beef Strip Loin Steaks, K. R. Vierck, K. V. Mckillip, A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, J. A. Unruh, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2016

Enhancement Increases Consumer Acceptability Of Beef Strip Loin Steaks, K. R. Vierck, K. V. Mckillip, A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, J. A. Unruh, E. A. Boyle, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Juiciness, tenderness, and flavor have been well documented as the primary drivers for beef eating satisfaction and are large contributors to consumer purchasing decisions. Increased marbling, and therefore increased quality grade, in beef products has been the industry tool for predicting eating experience. In order to increase consumer eating satisfaction, the pork industry has implemented widespread use of enhancement technology in fresh pork products to allow products to remain juicy and tender, despite potential overcooking. Using this enhancement technology in the beef industry could allow lower quality beef (USDA Select and lower) to provide better eating experiences for consumers. A ...


The Effect Of Enhancement On Trained Panel Beef Palatability Scores Is Dependent Upon Usda Quality Grade, K. V. Mckillip, A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2016

The Effect Of Enhancement On Trained Panel Beef Palatability Scores Is Dependent Upon Usda Quality Grade, K. V. Mckillip, A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Quality grades are used to determine beef value. The U.S. Department of Agriculture grading system categorizes beef into levels of eating satisfaction with the highest being Prime and decreases until reaching the Canner quality grade. Currently the premium of Prime graded carcasses over Select is $16.73 (USDA, 2015). Traditionally, USDA Select cuts are known to have lower palatability ratings for juiciness, tenderness, and overall liking. Select steaks also fail to meet consumer eating expectations more than 33% of the time (Corbin, 2015). This failure rate represents a large cost for the industry. Product enhancement utilizing a water, salt ...


Pressed Juice Percentage Can Accurately Sort Beef Into Categories Of Predicted Juiciness, K. V. Mckillip, A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn Jan 2016

Pressed Juice Percentage Can Accurately Sort Beef Into Categories Of Predicted Juiciness, K. V. Mckillip, A. K. Wilfong, J. M. Gonzalez, T. A. Houser, E. A. Boyle, J. A. Unruh, T. G. O'Quinn

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

There are three main factors that contribute to meat palatability: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor (Bratzler, 1971). These three individual factors all play a role in the overall palatability perceived by a consumer. If a product fails for juiciness, there is a greater chance that it will fail in overall acceptability (Emerson et. al, 2013). In the past, research has established a method of segregating steaks based on tenderness acceptability. Researchers have been able to institute thresholds to be able to accurately explain at what shear force a steak will be rated tender by consumers. Similar methods have not been evaluated ...