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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of Claypan Soils In Southeastern Kansas, M. A. Mathis Ii, S. E. Tucker-Kulesza, G. F. Sassenrath Jan 2019

Characterization Of Claypan Soils In Southeastern Kansas, M. A. Mathis Ii, S. E. Tucker-Kulesza, G. F. Sassenrath

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Soil erosion reduces topsoil depth. In areas with a claypan, removal of productive topsoil reduces crop yield where the claypan layer is near the surface. The topsoil and claypan layer each have unique characteristics that impact crop production and within-field variability. To better understand these differences, the soil from an area of low crop yield and high crop yield were collected and laboratory tests were performed to determine the soil classification and undrained shear strength. Understanding the soil properties and the interaction between the topsoil and claypan layers may aid in under­standing the process by which topsoil is being ...


Changes In Soil Microbiology Under Conventional And No-Till Production During Crop Rotation, C. J. Hsiao, G. F. Sassenrath, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi, C. Rice Jan 2019

Changes In Soil Microbiology Under Conventional And No-Till Production During Crop Rotation, C. J. Hsiao, G. F. Sassenrath, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi, C. Rice

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Soil microbial activity is important for crop production. Soil microbes are involved in nutrient and water cycling within the soil, and interact with crop plants to provide the basic nutrient and water resources needed for crop production. Claypan soils have unique physical characteristics that impact soil biology. This study explored the tempo­ral changes in soil microbiology in a claypan soil under conventional and no-till produc­tion during a crop rotation of corn/winter wheat/soybean/fallow commonly planted in southeast Kansas. We found soil microbial activity changed more in the top two inches of soil than in the lower ...


Correlation Between Mehlich-3 And Ammonium Acetate Extractable Potassium In Kansas Soils, B. Rutter, D. A. Ruiz Diaz Jan 2019

Correlation Between Mehlich-3 And Ammonium Acetate Extractable Potassium In Kansas Soils, B. Rutter, D. A. Ruiz Diaz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The K-State Research and Extension Soil Testing Laboratory has been using Mehlich-3 soil test procedures for phosphorus (P) extraction, and ammonium acetate extraction for potassium (K). Previous research in other states has shown a strong correlation between these two tests for K, but data correlating the two in Kansas soils have been limited. A study was performed on soils from across the state to investigate the relationship between these two methods. A strong positive correlation was observed (r = 0.99) across the wide range of soil types, pH, and fertility conditions represented in the sample set. Linear regression suggests a ...


Correlation Of Sikora And Smith-Mclean- Pratt Soil Buffer Ph Measurements, B. Rutter, D. A. Ruiz Diaz, J. Thomas Jan 2019

Correlation Of Sikora And Smith-Mclean- Pratt Soil Buffer Ph Measurements, B. Rutter, D. A. Ruiz Diaz, J. Thomas

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Historically, the K-State Research and Extension Soil Testing Laboratory has used the Smith-McLean-Pratt (SMP) buffer solution to estimate total soil acidity and estimate lime recommendations. The SMP solution contains hazardous chemicals and poses a health risk to lab workers. The Sikora buffer solution was designed as a replacement for SMP and contains no hazardous chemicals. A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between these two buffers in Kansas soils. A strong positive correlation was observed between SMP and Sikora buffer pH measurements. However, linear regression suggests that the relationship is not 1:1 (slope = 0.88). Therefore recommendation equations ...


Electrical Resistivity Tomography Of Claypan Soils In Southeastern Kansas, M. A. Mathis Ii, S. E. Tucker-Kulesza, G. F. Sassenrath Jan 2018

Electrical Resistivity Tomography Of Claypan Soils In Southeastern Kansas, M. A. Mathis Ii, S. E. Tucker-Kulesza, G. F. Sassenrath

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Claypan soils cover approximately 10 million acres across several states in the central United States. The soils are characterized by a highly impermeable clay layer within the profile that impedes water flow and root growth. While some claypan soils can be productive, they must be carefully managed to avoid reductions to crop productivity due to root restrictions, water, and nutrient limitations. Clay soils are usually resistant to erosion but may exacerbate erosion of the silt-loam topsoil.

Soil production potential is the capacity of soil to produce at a given level (yield per acre). The productive capacity is tied to soil ...


Soil Health Profile In Claypan Soils, C. J. Hsiao, G. F. Sassenrath, C. Rice, G. Hettiarachchi, L. Zeglin Jan 2018

Soil Health Profile In Claypan Soils, C. J. Hsiao, G. F. Sassenrath, C. Rice, G. Hettiarachchi, L. Zeglin

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Healthy soil is the foundation of a sustainable agronomic production system. Microorganisms include bacteria (such as actinomycetes), fungi, and protozoa. Soil microorganisms, or microbes, exist in large numbers in soils and are critical for decomposition of organic residues and nutrient recycling. Soils with ample and diverse microbial populations can provide more essential nutrients for crop growth and development. Soil microbial properties are considered one of the major indicators of soil health.

Soil microbial properties can be measured by the activity and the composition of micro-organism populations. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) are the primary components of cell membranes, they can be ...


Exploring The Physical, Chemical And Biological Components Of Soil: Improving Soil Health For Better Productive Capacity, G. F. Sassenrath, K. Davis, A. Sassenrath-Cole, N. Riding Jan 2018

Exploring The Physical, Chemical And Biological Components Of Soil: Improving Soil Health For Better Productive Capacity, G. F. Sassenrath, K. Davis, A. Sassenrath-Cole, N. Riding

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

“Soil health” is a term that is used to describe soil quality. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service has defined soil health as “The continued capacity of soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans (NRCS 2018).” For a farmer, soil health is the productive capacity of the soil, or the capacity of the soil to produce a crop or pasture. Healthy soils produce more and with better quality.

Soil health is critical for water and nutrient cycling. Soil captures rainwater and stores it for use by plants. Soil ...


Long-Term Tillage And Nitrogen Fertilization Effects On Soil Surface Chemistry, A. Obour, J. D. Holman Jun 2017

Long-Term Tillage And Nitrogen Fertilization Effects On Soil Surface Chemistry, A. Obour, J. D. Holman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term crop management practices can affect nutrient cycling and availability to crops. This study examined the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (N rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 lb N/a) and tillage intensity (conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), and no-tillage (NT)) on soil phosphorus (P), micronutrients, and soil acidity in a dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)–fallow cropping system. Results showed soil organic matter (SOM), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were greater under NT compared to CT or RT. Similarly, NT ( 32 ppm) increased P accumulation in the upper ...


Key Components Of Healthy Soils And Their Role In Crop Production, C. J. Hsiao, Gretchen Sassenrath, Charles Rice, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi Jan 2017

Key Components Of Healthy Soils And Their Role In Crop Production, C. J. Hsiao, Gretchen Sassenrath, Charles Rice, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Soil health is a confusing term that means different things to different people. To a crop producer, healthy soils are critical for good crop growth and yield. Some soil properties include soil texture, such as the relative percentage of sand, silt and clay; the water content; nutrient levels; organic carbon content; the microbial community; and microbial activity. These properties are determinants of soil health. Our research confirmed that changes in soil management affect the composition and activity of soil microorganisms in surface soils. Greater concentrations of microbial biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) in the no-till agricultural system indicated healthier ...


Measuring Soil Electrical Conductivity To Delineate Zones Of Variability In Production Fields, Gretchen Sassenrath, S. Kulesza Jan 2017

Measuring Soil Electrical Conductivity To Delineate Zones Of Variability In Production Fields, Gretchen Sassenrath, S. Kulesza

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Production fields in southeast Kansas are highly variable. Differences in elevation and changes in soil texture contribute to unevenness in plant-available moisture and nutrients, resulting in significant inconsistencies in crop production and yield within a field. These variabilities complicate management and impact the return on investments from different areas of the field. Identification of the regions of variability is possible through several methods, including visual inspection, remote imagery, and yield maps. An additional method of assessing soil variability is by measuring the electrical conductivity of the soil. Measuring apparent electrical conductivity gives a map of the spatial distribution of soil ...


Tillage Study For Corn And Soybean: Comparing Vertical, Deep, And No-Till, E. A. Adee Jan 2015

Tillage Study For Corn And Soybean: Comparing Vertical, Deep, And No-Till, E. A. Adee

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The need for tillage in corn and soybean production in the Kansas River Valley continues to be debated. The soils of the Kansas River Valley are highly variable, with much of the soil sandy to silty loam in texture. These soils tend to be relatively low in organic matter (<2%) and susceptible to wind erosion. Although typically well drained, these soils can develop compaction layers under certain conditions. A tillage study was initiated in the fall of 2011 at the Kansas River Valley Experiment Field near Topeka to compare deep vs. shallow vs. no-till vs. deep tillage in alternate years. Corn and soybean crops are rotated annually. This is intended to be a long-term study to determine if soil characteristics and yields change in response to a history of each tillage system.


Surface Runoff Characteristics From Claypan Soil In Southeastern Kansas Receiving Different Plant Nutrient Sources And Tillage, D. W. Sweeney, Philip Barnes, Gary Pierzynski Jan 2015

Surface Runoff Characteristics From Claypan Soil In Southeastern Kansas Receiving Different Plant Nutrient Sources And Tillage, D. W. Sweeney, Philip Barnes, Gary Pierzynski

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Preliminary results show that two-year average total nitrogen (N) runoff losses and ortho-phosphorus (P) and total P runoff losses in the second year were greater with N-based turkey litter/no-till applications than P-based turkey litter or fertilizer-only applications. Incorporation of turkey litter applied based on N requirements resulted in N and P losses that did not differ from losses from P-based or fertilizer-only treatments. Chemical and statistical analyses of third-year samples will allow for final results and interpretation.