Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Journal

Plant Sciences

2014

Institution
Keyword
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 89

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Meeting Calendar Dec 2014

Meeting Calendar

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Hairy Stalagmites, A New Biogenic Root Speleothem From Botswana, Gerhard C. Du Preez, Paolo Forti, Gerhard Jacobs, Anine Jordaan, Louwrens Tiedt Nov 2014

Hairy Stalagmites, A New Biogenic Root Speleothem From Botswana, Gerhard C. Du Preez, Paolo Forti, Gerhard Jacobs, Anine Jordaan, Louwrens Tiedt

International Journal of Speleology

Ngamiland in northwestern Botswana hosts the Gcwihaba Caves which present unique subterranean environments and host speleothems never before recorded. Cave atmospheric conditions can be extreme with temperatures as high as 28°C and relative humidity nearing 99.9%. Within Dimapo and Diviner’s Caves peculiar root speleothems that we named ‘Hairy Stalagmites’ were found. These stalagmites are closely associated with the roots of Namaqua fig (Ficus cordata) trees that enter the cave environment in search of water. Pieces of broken stalagmites were sampled from Dimapo Cave for further investigations. Stereo and electron microscopy revealed that the Hairy Stalagmites consist of ...


Demographic Monitoring And Population Viability Analysis Of Two Rare Beardtongues From The Uinta Basin, Rebecca M. Mccaffery, Rita Reisor, Kathryn Irvine, Jessi Brunson Nov 2014

Demographic Monitoring And Population Viability Analysis Of Two Rare Beardtongues From The Uinta Basin, Rebecca M. Mccaffery, Rita Reisor, Kathryn Irvine, Jessi Brunson

Western North American Naturalist

Energy development, in combination with other environmental stressors, poses a persistent threat to rare species endemic to the energy-producing regions of the Western United States. Demographic analyses of monitored populations can provide key information on the natural dynamics of threatened plant and animal populations, and how they might be affected by ongoing and future development. In the Uinta Basin in Utah and Colorado, Graham’s beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis) are two rare endemic wildflowers that persist on oil shale habitats heavily impacted by current energy exploration and development, and slated for expanded traditional ...


The Plecoptera And Trichoptera Of The Arctic North Slope Of Alaska, Michael R. Kendrick, Alexander D. Huryn Nov 2014

The Plecoptera And Trichoptera Of The Arctic North Slope Of Alaska, Michael R. Kendrick, Alexander D. Huryn

Western North American Naturalist

The Arctic is currently experiencing changes in climate more rapid than any other biome. This warming trend has resulted in significant abiotic changes to the seasonal patterns of freshwater ecosystems. Thorough inventories of freshwater insect communities are required to provide benchmarks allowing for the detection of range shifts in response to a warming climate. While statewide studies have been conducted for Trichoptera and Plecoptera, species accounts for these orders in Arctic Alaska have received relatively little attention. We surveyed Plecoptera and Trichoptera of Alaska’s Arctic North Slope at a variety of habitat types over an 11 year period. We ...


Influence Of Nonnative And Native Ungulate Biomass And Seasonal Precipitation On The Vegetation Production In A Great Basin Ecosystem, Linda C. Zeigenfuss, Kathryn A. Schoenecker, Jason I. Ransom, Drew A. Ignizio, Tracy Mask Nov 2014

Influence Of Nonnative And Native Ungulate Biomass And Seasonal Precipitation On The Vegetation Production In A Great Basin Ecosystem, Linda C. Zeigenfuss, Kathryn A. Schoenecker, Jason I. Ransom, Drew A. Ignizio, Tracy Mask

Western North American Naturalist

The negative effects of equid grazers in semi-arid ecosystems of the American West has been considered to be disproportionate to the influence of native ungulates in these systems because of their large body size, hoof shape, and short history on the landscape relative to native grazers. Tools which can model the degree of influence of various grazers in an ecosystem and separate these effects from those caused by other variables (climate, anthropomorphic disturbances) can be useful to managers in determining location of non-native grazer impacts and assessing the effect of management actions targeted at different grazer populations. We used remotely ...


Estimating The Ages Of Mountain Sucker Catostomus Platyrhynchus From The Black Hills: Precision, Maturation, And Growth, Jason J. Breeggemann, Cari-Ann Hayer, Jacob Krause, Luke D. Schultz, Katie N. Bertrand, Brian D. S. Graeb Nov 2014

Estimating The Ages Of Mountain Sucker Catostomus Platyrhynchus From The Black Hills: Precision, Maturation, And Growth, Jason J. Breeggemann, Cari-Ann Hayer, Jacob Krause, Luke D. Schultz, Katie N. Bertrand, Brian D. S. Graeb

Western North American Naturalist

Mountain Sucker Catostomus platyrhynchus is considered secure across its range, it has been declining in parts of its range, and is listed as a species of greatest conservation need in South Dakota. To our knowledge, no research has identified which calcified structure yields the most precise age estimates for Mountain Sucker and little is known about Mountain Sucker population dynamics. We compared scales, sectioned fin rays, whole otoliths, and polished otoliths to identify which structure provided the most precise age estimates for Mountain Sucker in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Additionally, we quantified recruitment, growth, age and size at ...


Reproduction And Pollination Of The Endangered Dwarf Bear-Poppy Arctomecon Humilis (Papaveraceae) Across A Quarter Century: Unraveling Of A Pollination Web?, Vincent J. Tepedino, John Mull, Terry L. Griswold, Gerald Bryant Nov 2014

Reproduction And Pollination Of The Endangered Dwarf Bear-Poppy Arctomecon Humilis (Papaveraceae) Across A Quarter Century: Unraveling Of A Pollination Web?, Vincent J. Tepedino, John Mull, Terry L. Griswold, Gerald Bryant

Western North American Naturalist

Arctomecon humilis, a rare gypsophile of the extreme northeastern Mojave Desert, is restricted to a few isolated populations (occurrences) in Washington Co, Utah (USA). At several points in the past quarter century, we have studied the breeding system and reproductive success of this endangered species, recorded its pollinators and tested the feasibility of human-assisted gene flow by conducting reciprocal crosses between two isolated occurrences approximately 4 km apart. We found A. humilis to possess a mixed breeding system in the occurrence studied (Beehive Dome in 1988); some plants exhibited self-compatibility but fruit/flowers and seeds/fruit were significantly lower in ...


Population Genetic Structure Of The Baird's Pocket Gopher, Geomys Breviceps, In Eastern Texas, Sarah R. Welborn, Jessica E. Light Nov 2014

Population Genetic Structure Of The Baird's Pocket Gopher, Geomys Breviceps, In Eastern Texas, Sarah R. Welborn, Jessica E. Light

Western North American Naturalist

The Baird’s pocket gopher (Geomys breviceps) is a solitary, fossorial rodent found throughout areas of Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana. These rodents are highly modified morphologically for an underground lifestyle, often resulting in limited vagility and isolated populations. Despite these unique characteristics, little is known about the population genetics of pocket gophers. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite data and performed a series of population genetic analyses to better understand the population structure and gene flow among a series of G. brevicepslocalities. Population genetic analyses supported high levels of gene flow among nearby localities (within 2 km of each ...


Plant Community Changes Following Closure Of Artesian Wells In Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado, Sarah J. Garza, Gillian Bowser, Kenneth R. Wilson Nov 2014

Plant Community Changes Following Closure Of Artesian Wells In Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado, Sarah J. Garza, Gillian Bowser, Kenneth R. Wilson

Western North American Naturalist

Artificial artesian wells have existed in the San Luis Valley of south central Colorado for over 100 years and are an important source of water for livestock and wildlife. When Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GRSA) expanded its boundaries in 2000, 10 of these wells were within the new park boundary. In 2010, the National Park Service capped these wells to restore the surrounding habitat to a more natural state, which was severely disturbed from cattle and wildlife trampling. To study changes after well capping, we compared the plant communities in 2011 and 2012 and measured plant cover ...


Home-Range Size And Subadult Dispersal Of Black Bears In The Cascade Range Of Western Oregon, Dave Immell, Dewaine H. Jackson, Margaret C. Boulay Nov 2014

Home-Range Size And Subadult Dispersal Of Black Bears In The Cascade Range Of Western Oregon, Dave Immell, Dewaine H. Jackson, Margaret C. Boulay

Western North American Naturalist

Knowledge of home range size and subadult dispersal activity of North American black bears is essential for understanding the complexity of how bears interact within populations and the environment. During 1993-98, we monitored 96 radiocollared black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Cascade Range of western Oregon to estimate home range and dispersal movements. Composite fixed-kernel home ranges were calculated for 37 bears. Mean home range size differed between sexes (189.7 km2 for males and 33.6 km2 for females); however, there was no difference between subadult and adult male or subadult and adult female mean home range ...


Rediscovered Populations Of The Idaho Point-Headed Grasshopper, Acrolophitus Pulchellus (Bruner), 1890 (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Beth A. Waterbury Nov 2014

Rediscovered Populations Of The Idaho Point-Headed Grasshopper, Acrolophitus Pulchellus (Bruner), 1890 (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Beth A. Waterbury

Western North American Naturalist

The Idaho point-headed grasshopper, Acrolophitus pulchellus, is a rare endemic of the Sinks Drainages of east-central Idaho. Past collections were infrequent and found few specimens. Searches in 1993 failed to find specimens, leading to speculaton that A. pulchellus was extinct. I report rediscovered populations of A. pulchellus based on 55 capture records (10 collected); describe distribution, habitat, morphological, and life history information; and present the first photos of live adult specimens.


First Record Of Leucism In The Genus Peromyscus (Mammalia: Rodentia), Issac Camargo, Evelyn Rios, Cristian Cornejo-Latorre, Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda Nov 2014

First Record Of Leucism In The Genus Peromyscus (Mammalia: Rodentia), Issac Camargo, Evelyn Rios, Cristian Cornejo-Latorre, Sergio Ticul Álvarez-Castañeda

Western North American Naturalist

Leucism is a partial hypopigmentary congenital disorder previously recorded in several species of mammals. This abnormal coloration is unusual in the wild. In August 2013, in the Baja California State, México, we collected two Peromyscus fraterculus (one female and one male) exhibiting leucism. Leucism has not been reported before ingenus Peromyscus, therefore, we documented the first known record. Leucism is a reflex of low levels of genetic diversity in natural populations. It may increase selective pressure on individuals.


Front Matter, Vol. 74 No. 3 Nov 2014

Front Matter, Vol. 74 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 74 No. 3 Nov 2014

End Matter, Vol. 74 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


New Flea (Siphonaptera) Record For Heermann's Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Heermanni), San Luis Obispo County, California, Howard O. Clark Jr., Helen K. Pigage Nov 2014

New Flea (Siphonaptera) Record For Heermann's Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Heermanni), San Luis Obispo County, California, Howard O. Clark Jr., Helen K. Pigage

Western North American Naturalist

Three Heermann’s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys heermanni), from San Luis Obispo County, California, were examined for ectoparasites. Two species of flea were found,Meringis californicus and Hoplopsyllus anomalus. Occurrence of these two species onDipodomys heermanni has not been reported before and represents new host records.


Meeting Calendar Oct 2014

Meeting Calendar

Journal of Medicinally Active Plants

No abstract provided.


Leonard O. Marrow Oct 2014

Leonard O. Marrow

Virginia Journal of Science

Obituary for Leonard O. Marrow who died August 24, 2014


Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons Sep 2014

Status Of The Endangered Scotts Valley Spineflower (Polygonaceae) In Coastal Central California, Christopher P. Kofron, Kathleen Lyons

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Chorizanthe robusta var. hartwegii (Scotts Valley spineflower, Polygonaceae) is a narrow endemic plant restricted to a specialized microhabitat (exposed bedrock in California prairie) in Santa Cruz County, California. This taxon and the nominate variety were listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Three occurrences of C. robusta hartwegii exist on four properties in a recently urbanized area at the northern edge of the city of Scotts Valley. Ten of 80 known colonies are now likely extirpated. In 2014 the primary threats are habitat alteration due to adjacent land uses and developments, and invasive plant species ...


Effects Of Ocean Acidification On Chlorophyll Content, C. Del Fierro, R. Lloyd, H. El-Askary Sep 2014

Effects Of Ocean Acidification On Chlorophyll Content, C. Del Fierro, R. Lloyd, H. El-Askary

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Airborne pollutants contribute to ocean acidification and hence to the associated chlorophyll content level. Previous work showed that falling aerosols causing ocean acidification would in turn result in bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Chlorophyll content has been used as a measure of the concentration of the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a (the most common "green" chlorophyll) in the ocean. In our work we have monitored the change in chlorophyll content obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board Terra/Aqua satellites from 2000-2009 over selected pilot areas. Moreover, we have used the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol ...


The Effect Of A Small Ruminant Farm Operation And Sustainable Farm Practices: Soil Quality And Run-Off At The University Hickory Hill Farm, Delaware, Gulnihal Ozbay Dr., Akida J. Ferguson, Raju Khatiwada, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta Sep 2014

The Effect Of A Small Ruminant Farm Operation And Sustainable Farm Practices: Soil Quality And Run-Off At The University Hickory Hill Farm, Delaware, Gulnihal Ozbay Dr., Akida J. Ferguson, Raju Khatiwada, Lathadevi K. Chintapenta

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

This project was designed to evaluate the effect of ruminant grazing practices at Hickory Hill Farm on the surrounding environment by measuring soil nutrients and runoff chemistry. Three pastures on the farm (Goat, Cattle and Control) were selected for soil sampling and nutrient analyses were recorded. Physical water quality parameters were conducted on the runoff collected from the farm after Hurricane Sandy. The sites with animal activity had higher levels of sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, Mehlich 3 phosphorus and conductivity when compared to control site. However, the control site had slightly higher pH and chloride levels. Nitrogen and phosphorous levels were ...


Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona Sep 2014

Diatom Flora In Subterranean Ecosystems: A Review, Elisa Falasco, Luc Ector, Marco Isaia, Carlos E. Wetzel, Lucien Hoffmann, Francesca Bona

International Journal of Speleology

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges ...


Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson Aug 2014

Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

New plant species develop when diploid plants (having two sets of chromosomes) spontaneously double their chromosomes and the resulting tetraploids (having four sets of chromosomes) are no longer able to back cross to diploid members of the population. The North American plant species Packera paupercula (balsam-leafed ragwort), is widespread and morphologically diverse. An isolated group of populations from the chalky soils of west-central Alabama was recently named Packera paupercula variety gypsophila (the chalk-loving balsam ragwort). The variety’s large diameter pollen grains suggest it may be tetraploid. This project attempts the first chromosome count for the variety by examining cells ...


Pygmy Rabbit (Brachylagus Idahoensis) Habitat Selection: Does Sagebrush (Artemisia Sp.) Age Influence Selection?, Robert J. Edgel, Janet L. Pierce, Randy T. Larsen Aug 2014

Pygmy Rabbit (Brachylagus Idahoensis) Habitat Selection: Does Sagebrush (Artemisia Sp.) Age Influence Selection?, Robert J. Edgel, Janet L. Pierce, Randy T. Larsen

Western North American Naturalist

The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) obligate that depends on sagebrush habitats for food and cover throughout its life cycle. Invasive species, frequent fires, overgrazing, conversion of land to agriculture, energy development, and many other factors have contributed to recent declines in both quantity and quality of sagebrush habitats required by pygmy rabbits. Given declining availability of sagebrush, there is a need to identify characteristics of suitable pygmy rabbit habitat. Although habitat selection information exists from several western states, data is limited for pygmy rabbits in Utah at the extent of their range. We sampled 77 ...


Regional Branching Relationships In Carnegiea Gigantea, A Keystone Cactus, Taly Dawn Drezner Aug 2014

Regional Branching Relationships In Carnegiea Gigantea, A Keystone Cactus, Taly Dawn Drezner

Western North American Naturalist

The large columnar cactus Carnegiea gigantea branches to increase reproductive output. The branches of this keystone species also provide shelter to a large portion of the Sonoran Desert’s fauna. In this study, branch length was used to reconstruct branch establishment at 2 populations to determine branching patterns over time and the relationship across populations. Branches showed high establishment but relatively low survival. Either more branches establish than eventually survive or growth is slow when branches are smaller, thereby biasing the distribution of lengths due to the differences in growth rate. Also, the distribution of branch lengths (i.e., branch ...


Pinyon Pine Mortality Alters Communities Of Ground-Dwelling Arthropods, Robert J. Delph, Michael J. Clifford, Neil S. Cobb, Paulette L. Ford, Sandra L. Brantley Aug 2014

Pinyon Pine Mortality Alters Communities Of Ground-Dwelling Arthropods, Robert J. Delph, Michael J. Clifford, Neil S. Cobb, Paulette L. Ford, Sandra L. Brantley

Western North American Naturalist

We documented the effect of drought-induced mortality of pinyon pine (Pinus edulisEngelm.) on communities of ground-dwelling arthropods. Tree mortality alters microhabitats utilized by ground-dwelling arthropods by increasing solar radiation, dead woody debris, and understory vegetation. Our major objectives were to determine (1) whether there were changes in community composition, species richness, and abundance of ground-dwelling arthropods associated with pinyon mortality and (2) whether specific habitat characteristics and microhabitats accounted for these changes. We predicted shifts in community composition and increases in arthropod diversity and abundance due to the presumed increased complexity of microhabitats from both standing dead and fallen ...


Habitat Suitability As A Limiting Factor For Establishment In A Narrow Endemic: Abronia Alpina (Nyctaginaceae), Meredith D. Jabis, Tina J. Ayers Aug 2014

Habitat Suitability As A Limiting Factor For Establishment In A Narrow Endemic: Abronia Alpina (Nyctaginaceae), Meredith D. Jabis, Tina J. Ayers

Western North American Naturalist

Understanding the causes of narrow endemism is crucial to conservation, particularly in biodiversity hotspots like the California Floristic Province. The loss of rare species as a consequence of climate change could result in substantial reductions in biodiversity, especially in high-elevation systems. We investigated causes of range restriction by using the narrow alpine endemic Abronia alpina (Ramshaw Meadows sand verbena) as a case study. This study examined habitat suitability as a limiting factor for the establishment of Abronia alpina, an endemic native to only 2 meadow systems in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Inyo National Forest, California, USA. We tested habitat suitability ...


Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx Californianus) Home Range And Habitat Selection In West Texas, Andrea E. Montalvo, Dean Ransom Jr., Roel R. Lopez Aug 2014

Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx Californianus) Home Range And Habitat Selection In West Texas, Andrea E. Montalvo, Dean Ransom Jr., Roel R. Lopez

Western North American Naturalist

We studied Greater Roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) habitat use during spring and summer 2011 on the Rolling Plains Quail Research Ranch in the Red Rolling Plains of west Texas. We captured 9 roadrunners (1 male, 8 females) and fitted each with a 10-g backpack-style radio-transmitter. We relocated roadrunners 2–4 times per week from February to August. Roadrunners used a mean minimum convex polygon home range of 43.0 ha, a 50% core range of 11.9 ha, and 33% overlap between adjacent home ranges. Home ranges were approximately half the size of those reported in a recent study of roadrunners ...


Survey Of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) From The Kuskokwim River Watershed In Western Alaska, Barbara L. Hayford, Robert L. Newell, Zach J. Crete Aug 2014

Survey Of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) From The Kuskokwim River Watershed In Western Alaska, Barbara L. Hayford, Robert L. Newell, Zach J. Crete

Western North American Naturalist

Rapidly declining diversity of freshwater species necessitates surveys to document and describe patterns in biodiversity. To this end, a survey of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) was conducted in a remote watershed of western Alaska. Larval chironomids were collected from 16 stream sites in the Kuskokwim River watershed in 2009 and 2010. Twenty-seven chironomid taxa were identified. Orthocladiinae was the most diverse subfamily and was numerically dominant at all sites except a glacial runoff stream where Diamesinae was numerically dominant. Two rare chironomids were collected in the study: an undescribed species of Stilocladius and a species ofOrthocladius (Mesorthocladius). The latter genus ...


Biogeography Of Ammophila (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) In The Grand Canyon Ecoregion, Southwestern Usa, Lawrence E. Stevens, Arnold S. Menke Aug 2014

Biogeography Of Ammophila (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) In The Grand Canyon Ecoregion, Southwestern Usa, Lawrence E. Stevens, Arnold S. Menke

Western North American Naturalist

We compiled distribution data on Ammophila collected in the Grand Canyon ecoregion (GCE) in northern Arizona and southern Utah. We report 35 species occurring from 350 to 2865 m elevation. Three new state records are reported for Arizona and one for Utah. A total of 73.8%–80.5% of the 41 Arizona Ammophila species occur in the GCE, and 16 species were detected in Grand Canyon National Park. Four species in Utah’s portion of the GCE are not known to occur in Arizona. Five Ammophila species were frequently captured (A. azteca, A. pruinosa complex, A. breviceps, A. acuta ...


Gastrointestinal Helminths From Eight Species Of Aspidoscelis (Squamata: Teiidae) From Mexico, Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Jeanette Arreola Aug 2014

Gastrointestinal Helminths From Eight Species Of Aspidoscelis (Squamata: Teiidae) From Mexico, Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Jeanette Arreola

Western North American Naturalist

Seventy-four representatives of 8 species of whiptail lizards (Aspidoscelis ssp.), from Mexico were examined for helminths: Aspidoscelis calidipes (n = 8), A. communis (n = 10), A. cozumelae (n = 9), A. gularis (n = 10), A. lineattissima (n = 9), A. motaguae (n = 11), A. parvisocia (n = 9), and A. sackii (n = 8). We found one species of Cestoda,Oochoristica scelopori, and 7 species of Nematoda, including Abbreviata terrapenis, Parapharyngodon alvarengai, Pharyngodon warneri, Spauligodon garciaprietoi, Spinicauda spinicauda, Thubunaea cnemidophorus, and Physaloptera sp. Mean helminth diversity per lizard species was 3.1 (SD 1.8). Spauligodon garciaprietoi was present in 6 of 8 (75%) of ...